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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 3 (March 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial We Need Studies of the Mortality Effect of Vitamin A Supplementation, Not Surveys of Vitamin A Deficiency
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 280; doi:10.3390/nu9030280
Received: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract
It is usually acknowledged that high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) provides no sustained improvement in vitamin A status, and that the effect of VAS on mortality is more likely linked to its immunomodulating effects. Nonetheless, it is widely assumed that we can deduce
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It is usually acknowledged that high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) provides no sustained improvement in vitamin A status, and that the effect of VAS on mortality is more likely linked to its immunomodulating effects. Nonetheless, it is widely assumed that we can deduce something about the need for continuing or stopping VAS programs based on studies of the biochemical prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). This is no longer a tenable assumption. The justification for using VAS is to reduce child mortality, but there is now doubt that VAS has any effect on overall child mortality. What we need now are not surveys of VAD, but proper randomized trials to evaluate whether VAS has beneficial effects on overall child survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update 2016)
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Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 182; doi:10.3390/nu9030182
Received: 11 May 2016 / Revised: 20 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin
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Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM%) was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin (p = 0.001) and pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001; adj. R2 = 0.19) were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dietary Protein in Older Adults: Adequate Daily Intake but Potential for Improved Distribution
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 184; doi:10.3390/nu9030184
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 18 January 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
Daily distribution of dietary protein may be important in protecting against sarcopenia, specifically in terms of per meal amounts relative to a proposed threshold for maximal response. The aims of this study were to determine total and per meal protein intake in older
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Daily distribution of dietary protein may be important in protecting against sarcopenia, specifically in terms of per meal amounts relative to a proposed threshold for maximal response. The aims of this study were to determine total and per meal protein intake in older adults, as well as identifying associations with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Three-day food diaries recorded protein intake in 38 participants. Protein distribution, coefficient of variation (CV), and per meal amounts were calculated. Accelerometry was used to collect physical activity data as well as volume and patterns of sedentary time. Average intake was 1.14 g·kg−1·day−1. Distribution was uneven (CV = 0.67), and 79% of participants reported <0.4 g·kg−1 protein content in at least 2/3 daily meals. Protein intake was significantly correlated with step count (r = 0.439, p = 0.007) and negatively correlated with sedentary time (r = −0.456, p = 0.005) and Gini index G, which describes the pattern of accumulation of sedentary time (r = −0.421, p = 0.011). Total daily protein intake was sufficient; however, distribution did not align with the current literature; increasing protein intake may help to facilitate optimization of distribution. Associations between protein and other risk factors for sarcopenia may also inform protective strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Poor Vitamin C Status Late in Pregnancy Is Associated with Increased Risk of Complications in Type 1 Diabetic Women: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 186; doi:10.3390/nu9030186
Received: 22 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin C (vitC) is essential for normal pregnancy and fetal development and poor vitC status has been related to complications of pregnancy. We have previously shown lower vitC status in diabetic women throughout pregnancy compared to that of non-diabetic controls. Here, we evaluate
[...] Read more.
Vitamin C (vitC) is essential for normal pregnancy and fetal development and poor vitC status has been related to complications of pregnancy. We have previously shown lower vitC status in diabetic women throughout pregnancy compared to that of non-diabetic controls. Here, we evaluate the relationship between vitC status late in diabetic pregnancy in relation to fetal outcome, complications of pregnancy, diabetic characteristics, and glycemic control based on data of 47 women from the same cohort. We found a significant relationship between the maternal vitC level > or ≤ the 50% percentile of 26.6 μmol/L, respectively, and the umbilical cord blood vitC level (mean (SD)): 101.0 μmol/L (16.6) versus 78.5 μmol/L (27.8), p = 0.02; n = 12/16), while no relation to birth weight or Apgar score was observed. Diabetic women with complications of pregnancy had significantly lower vitC levels compared to the women without complications (mean (SD): 24.2 μmol/L (10.6) vs. 34.6 μmol/L (14.4), p = 0.01; n = 19 and 28, respectively) and the subgroup of women (about 28%) characterized by hypovitaminosis C (<23 μmol/L) had an increased relative risk of complications of pregnancy that was 2.4 fold higher than the one found in the group of women with a vitC status above this level (p = 0.02, 95% confidence interval 1.2–4.4). No correlation between diabetic characteristics of the pregnant women and vitC status was observed, while a negative association of maternal vitC with HbA1c at delivery was found at regression analysis (r = −0.39, p < 0.01, n = 46). In conclusion, our results may suggest that hypovitaminosis C in diabetic women is associated with increased risk of complications of pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Anemia among Chinese Rural Residents
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 192; doi:10.3390/nu9030192
Received: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of the level of blood hemoglobin and the rates of anemia in Chinese rural residents in the 2010–2012 National Nutrition and Health Survey, and the change in its prevalence in rural residents during the last ten years. Our
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This paper presents an analysis of the level of blood hemoglobin and the rates of anemia in Chinese rural residents in the 2010–2012 National Nutrition and Health Survey, and the change in its prevalence in rural residents during the last ten years. Our methodology included data from the Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010–2012, where samples were selected through the method of probability proportion to size. The study objects were from 150 sites in provinces, autonomous regions, or municipalities in China. The concentration of blood hemoglobin was determined using the cyanmethemoglobin method. Anemia was judged by the anemia standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), combined with elevation correction standard. The level of blood hemoglobin, the prevalence of anemia, and the 95% CI (Confidence interval) value were analyzed using complex sampling weighted processing, combined with the population figures released by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2009. Our results indicate that the level of blood hemoglobin of the Chinese rural area population was 145.92 ± 0.83 g/L, with the prevalence of anemia in the Chinese rural population at 9.7% (95% CI: 9.4%-10.0%). The prevalence of anemia in children 6-11 years old was 5.5% (95% CI: 5.0%-6.0%), 8.1% (95% CI: 7.5%–8.7%) for 12–17‐year‐old teenagers, 10.0% (95% CI: 9.4%-10.6%) for 18-44‐year‐old adults, 9.6% (95% CI: 9.0%–10.1%) for 45–59‐year‐old adults, and 12.6% (95% CI: 11.9%-13.3%) for the elderly above 60 years old. Our conclusion shows that the prevalence of anemia in the Chinese rural population in 2010–2012 had obviously decreased compared to the last decade; however, women of reproductive age and the elderly still had a high prevalence of anemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chinese National Nutrition Survey 2012)
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Open AccessArticle Influences on Dietary Choices during Day versus Night Shift in Shift Workers: A Mixed Methods Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 193; doi:10.3390/nu9030193
Received: 12 December 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
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Abstract
Shift work is associated with diet-related chronic conditions such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to explore factors influencing food choice and dietary intake in shift workers. A fixed mixed method study design was undertaken on a convenience sample of firefighters
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Shift work is associated with diet-related chronic conditions such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to explore factors influencing food choice and dietary intake in shift workers. A fixed mixed method study design was undertaken on a convenience sample of firefighters who continually work a rotating roster. Six focus groups (n = 41) were conducted to establish factors affecting dietary intake whilst at work. Dietary intake was assessed using repeated 24 h dietary recalls (n = 19). Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and interpreted using thematic analysis. Dietary data were entered into FoodWorks and analysed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thematic analysis highlighted four key themes influencing dietary intake: shift schedule; attitudes and decisions of co-workers; time and accessibility; and knowledge of the relationship between food and health. Participants reported consuming more discretionary foods and limited availability of healthy food choices on night shift. Energy intakes (kJ/day) did not differ between days that included a day or night shift but greater energy density (EDenergy, kJ/g/day) of the diet was observed on night shift compared with day shift. This study has identified a number of dietary-specific shift-related factors that may contribute to an increase in unhealthy behaviours in a shift-working population. Given the increased risk of developing chronic diseases, organisational change to support workers in this environment is warranted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Absorption Profile of (Poly)Phenolic Compounds after Consumption of Three Food Supplements Containing 36 Different Fruits, Vegetables, and Berries
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 194; doi:10.3390/nu9030194
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
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Abstract
The market of plant-based nutraceuticals and food supplements is continuously growing due to the increased consumer demand. The introduction of new products with relevant nutritional characteristics represents a new way of providing bioactive compounds and (poly)phenols to consumers, becoming a strategy to ideally
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The market of plant-based nutraceuticals and food supplements is continuously growing due to the increased consumer demand. The introduction of new products with relevant nutritional characteristics represents a new way of providing bioactive compounds and (poly)phenols to consumers, becoming a strategy to ideally guarantee the health benefits attributed to plant foodstuffs and allowing the increase of daily bioactive compound intake. A paramount step in the study of nutraceuticals is the evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism of their putatively active components. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the absorption profile of the (poly)phenolic compounds contained in three different plant-based food supplements, made of 36 different plant matrices, which were consumed by 20 subjects in an open one-arm study design. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 2, 5, and 10 h after capsule intake. Twenty quantifiable metabolites deriving from different (poly)phenolic compounds were identified. Results showed that the consumption of the three capsules allowed the effective absorption of several (poly)phenolic compounds and metabolites appearing at different times in plasma, thereby indicating different absorption profiles. The capsules thus ensured potential health-promoting molecules to be potentially available to target tissues and organs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 Simultaneously Enhances Systemic and Mucosal Humoral Immunity in Low Birth Weight Infants: A Non-Randomized Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 195; doi:10.3390/nu9030195
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
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Abstract
Probiotic supplementation has been part of the discussion on methods to enhance humoral immunity. Administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 (OLB6378) reduced the incidence of late-onset sepsis in infants. In this non-randomized study, we aimed to determine the effect of administration of live OLB6378
[...] Read more.
Probiotic supplementation has been part of the discussion on methods to enhance humoral immunity. Administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 (OLB6378) reduced the incidence of late-onset sepsis in infants. In this non-randomized study, we aimed to determine the effect of administration of live OLB6378 on infants’ humoral immunity. Secondly, we tried to elucidate whether similar effects would be observed with administration of non-live OLB6378. Low birth weight (LBW) infants weighing 1500–2500 g were divided into three groups: Group N (no intervention), Group L (administered live OLB6378 concentrate), and Group H (administered non-live OLB6378 concentrate). The interventions were started within 48 h after birth and continued until six months of age. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels (IgG at one month/IgG at birth) were significantly higher in Group L than in Group N (p < 0.01). Group H exhibited significantly higher serum IgG levels (p < 0.01) at one month of age and significantly higher intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels (p < 0.05) at one and two months of age than Group N. No difference was observed in the mortality or morbidity between groups. Thus, OLB6378 administration in LBW infants enhanced humoral immunity, and non-live OLB6378, which is more useful as a food ingredient, showed a more marked effect than the viable bacteria. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Maternal Prebiotic Ingestion Increased the Number of Fecal Bifidobacteria in Pregnant Women but Not in Their Neonates Aged One Month
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 196; doi:10.3390/nu9030196
Received: 19 October 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
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Abstract
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) can selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of maternal FOS ingestion on maternal and neonatal gut bifidobacteria. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we administered 8 g/day of FOS or sucrose to 84 women from the
[...] Read more.
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) can selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of maternal FOS ingestion on maternal and neonatal gut bifidobacteria. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we administered 8 g/day of FOS or sucrose to 84 women from the 26th week of gestation to one month after delivery. The bifidobacteria count was detected using quantitative PCR in maternal (26 and 36 weeks of gestation) and neonatal (one month after delivery) stools. Maternal stool frequency was recorded from 24 to 36 weeks of gestation. The number of fecal Bifidobacterium spp. and Bifidobacterium longum in the FOS group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group at 36 weeks of gestation (2.7 × 1010/g vs. 1.1 × 1010/g and 2.3 × 1010/g vs. 9.7 × 109/g). In their neonates, these numbers did not differ between the groups. Also, stool frequency in the FOS group was slightly higher than that in the placebo group two weeks after the intervention (1.0 vs. 0.8 times/day), suggesting a potential constipation alleviation effect. In conclusion, the maternal FOS ingestion showed a bifidogenic effect in pregnant women but not in their neonates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake of Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in the United States: Potential for Deficiency?
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 197; doi:10.3390/nu9030197
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
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Abstract
Omega-3 fatty acids play critical roles during fetal growth and development with increased intakes associated with improved maternal-fetal outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acid intake in Western diets is low, and the impact of socioeconomic factors on omega-3 fatty acid intake in pregnant women and
[...] Read more.
Omega-3 fatty acids play critical roles during fetal growth and development with increased intakes associated with improved maternal-fetal outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acid intake in Western diets is low, and the impact of socioeconomic factors on omega-3 fatty acid intake in pregnant women and women of childbearing age has not been reported. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2003–2012 to assess the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Out of 7266 eligible participants, 6478 were women of childbearing age, while 788 were identified as pregnant at the time of the survey. Mean EPA+DHA intake of the population was 89.0 mg with no significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women. By univariate and multivariate analyses adjusting for confounders, omega-3 fatty acid intake was significantly associated with poverty-to-income ratio, race, and educational attainment. Our results demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acid intake is a concern in pregnant women and women of childbearing age in the United States, and that socioeconomically disadvantaged populations are more susceptible to potential deficiencies. Strategies to increase omega-3 fatty acid intake in these populations could have the potential to improve maternal and infant health outcomes. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Combination of Blueberry Juice and Probiotics Ameliorate Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) by Affecting SREBP-1c/PNPLA-3 Pathway via PPAR-α
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 198; doi:10.3390/nu9030198
Received: 17 December 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is liver inflammation and a major threat to public health. Several pharmaceutical agents have been used for NASH therapy but their high-rate side effects limit the use. Blueberry juice and probiotics (BP) have anti-inflammation and antibacterial properties, and may be
[...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is liver inflammation and a major threat to public health. Several pharmaceutical agents have been used for NASH therapy but their high-rate side effects limit the use. Blueberry juice and probiotics (BP) have anti-inflammation and antibacterial properties, and may be potential candidates for NASH therapy. To understand the molecular mechanism, Sprague Dawley rats were used to create NASH models and received different treatments. Liver tissues were examined using HE (hematoxylin and eosin) and ORO (Oil Red O) stain, and serum biochemical indices were measured. The levels of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA-3), inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis biomarkers in liver tissues were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot. HE and ORO analysis indicated that the hepatocytes were seriously damaged with more and larger lipid droplets in NASH models while BP reduced the number and size of lipid droplets (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, BP increased the levels of SOD (superoxide dismutase), GSH (reduced glutathione) and HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and reduced the levels of AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), TG (triglycerides), LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and MDA (malondialdehyde) in NASH models (p < 0.05). BP increased the level of PPAR-α (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α), and reduced the levels of SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c) and PNPLA-3 (Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3) (p < 0.05). BP reduced hepatic inflammation and apoptosis by affecting IL-6 (interleukin 6), TNF-α (Tumor necrosis factor α), caspase-3 and Bcl-2 in NASH models. Furthermore, PPAR-α inhibitor increased the level of SREBP-1c and PNPLA-3. Therefore, BP prevents NASH progression by affecting SREBP-1c/PNPLA-3 pathway via PPAR-α. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing the Validity and Reproducibility of an Iron Dietary Intake Questionnaire Conducted in a Group of Young Polish Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 199; doi:10.3390/nu9030199
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 4 February 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
The aim of the study was to analyse a designed brief iron dietary intake questionnaire based on a food frequency assessment (IRONIC-FFQ—IRON Intake Calculation-Food Frequency Questionnaire), including the assessment of validity and reproducibility in a group of 75 Polish women aged 20–30 years.
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The aim of the study was to analyse a designed brief iron dietary intake questionnaire based on a food frequency assessment (IRONIC-FFQ—IRON Intake Calculation-Food Frequency Questionnaire), including the assessment of validity and reproducibility in a group of 75 Polish women aged 20–30 years. Participants conducted 3-day dietary records and filled in the IRONIC-FFQ twice (FFQ1—directly after the dietary record and FFQ2—6 weeks later). The analysis included an assessment of validity (comparison with the results of the 3-day dietary record) and of reproducibility (comparison of the results obtained twice—FFQ1 and FFQ2). In the analysis of validity, the share of individuals correctly classified into tertiles was over 50% (weighted κ of 0.36), while analysis of correlation revealed correlation coefficients of almost 0.5. In the assessment of reproducibility, almost 80% of individuals were correctly classified and less than 3% were misclassified (weighted κ of 0.73), while a correlation coefficient higher than 0.85 was obtained. Both in the assessment of validity and of reproducibility, a Bland–Altman index of 6.7% was recorded (93.3% of compared pairs of results were in the acceptable range, attributed to differences within ± 2SD limit). Validation of the IRONIC-FFQ revealed a satisfactory level of validity and positively validated reproducibility. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 200; doi:10.3390/nu9030200
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 3 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records) from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement
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The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records) from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9) or a weighed food record (wFR) (n = 9), recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR) (p > 0.05). Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR) with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR) and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle Proteins in Soy Might Have a Higher Role in Cancer Prevention than Previously Expected: Soybean Protein Fractions Are More Effective MMP-9 Inhibitors Than Non-Protein Fractions, Even in Cooked Seeds
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 201; doi:10.3390/nu9030201
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
The search for anticancer MMP-9 inhibitors (MMPIs) in food products has become a major goal for research. MMPIs in soy have been related only to saponins and isoflavones, but recently, low specific protein fractions in soybeans were shown to reduce MMP-9 activity as
[...] Read more.
The search for anticancer MMP-9 inhibitors (MMPIs) in food products has become a major goal for research. MMPIs in soy have been related only to saponins and isoflavones, but recently, low specific protein fractions in soybeans were shown to reduce MMP-9 activity as well. The present work aimed at comparing the MMPI potential of protein fractions (P) and non-protein fractions (NP) isolated from soybean seeds, before and after soaking and cooking, mimicking dietary exposures. Reverse and substrate zymography, as well as a fluoregenic DQ gelatin assay were used to evaluate MMP-9 activities. Colon cancer cell migration and proliferation was also tested in HT29 cells. Regarding MMP-9 inhibition, proteins in soy presented IC50 values 100 times lower than non-protein extracts, and remained active after cooking, suggesting that proteins may be more effective MMP-9 inhibitors than non-protein compounds. Using the determined IC50 concentrations, NP fractions were able to induce higher inhibitions of HT29 cell migration and proliferation, but not through MMP-9 inhibition, whilst protein fractions were shown to specifically inhibit MMP-9 activity. Overall, our results show that protein fractions in soybeans might have a higher role in soy-related cancer prevention as MMPIs than previously expected. Being nontoxic and active at lower concentrations, the discovery of these heat-resistant specific MMPI proteins in soy can be of significant importance for cancer preventive diets, particularly considering the increasing use of soy proteins in food products and the controversy around isoflavones amongst consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Soybean and other Grain Legumes)
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Open AccessArticle Metabolic Effects of Replacing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages with Artificially-Sweetened Beverages in Overweight Subjects with or without Hepatic Steatosis: A Randomized Control Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 202; doi:10.3390/nu9030202
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 27 January 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
Objective: Addition of fructose to the diet of normal weight and overweight subjects can increase postprandial plasma triglyceride and uric acid concentration. We, therefore, assessed whether replacing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) with artificially-sweetened beverages (ASB) in the diet of overweight and obese subjects would
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Objective: Addition of fructose to the diet of normal weight and overweight subjects can increase postprandial plasma triglyceride and uric acid concentration. We, therefore, assessed whether replacing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) with artificially-sweetened beverages (ASB) in the diet of overweight and obese subjects would decrease these parameters. Methods: Twenty-six participants of the REDUCS study, which assessed the effects of replacing SSB by ASB over 12 weeks on intra-hepatocellular lipid concentration, were included in this sub-analysis. All were studied after a four-week run-in period during which they consumed their usual diet and SSBs, and after a 12-week intervention in which they were randomly assigned to replace their SSBs with ASBs (ASB arm) or to continue their usual diet and SSBs (control arm, CTRL). At the end of run-in (week 4) and again at the end of intervention (week 16), they took part in an 8.5 h metabolic investigation during which their plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, lactate, triglyceride (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and uric acid concentrations were measured over a 30 min fasting period (−30–0 min), then every 2 h over 480 min. with ingestion of standard breakfast at time 0 min and a standard lunch at time 240 min. Breakfast and lunch were consumed together with a 3.3 dL SSB at week 4 and with either an ASB (ASB arm) or a SSB (CTRL arm) at week 16. After analyzing the whole group, a secondary analysis was performed on 14 subjects with hepatic steatosis (seven randomized to ASB, seven to CTRL) and 12 subjects without hepatic steatosis (six randomized to ASB and six to CTRL). Results: Ingestion of meals increased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, lactate, and TG concentrations and decreased NEFA concentrations, but with no significant difference of integrated postprandial responses between week 4 and week 16 in both ASB and CTRL, except for a slightly decreased glucagon response in ASB. There was, however, no significant postprandial increase in uric acid concentration in both arms. In the secondary analysis, replacing SSBs with ASBs did not significantly change postprandial TG and uric acid concentrations irrespective of the presence or not of hepatic steatosis, Conclusions: In overweight, high SSB consumers, replacing SSBs with ASBs during 12 weeks did not significantly alter post-prandial TG and uric acid concentration, in spite of the lower energy and fructose content of the meals. These effects were globally the same in subjects without and with hepatic steatosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Iron Intake and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 203; doi:10.3390/nu9030203
Received: 8 January 2017 / Revised: 18 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
Background: Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world. It is frequent in both developed and developing countries and mainly affects women of childbearing age and children. Methods: Results were derived from the ANIBES cross-sectional study using a
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Background: Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world. It is frequent in both developed and developing countries and mainly affects women of childbearing age and children. Methods: Results were derived from the ANIBES cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years, n = 2009). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. Results: Total median dietary iron intake was 9.8 mg/day for women and 11.3 mg/day for men. Highest intakes were observed among plausible adolescent reporters (13.3 mg/day), followed by adults (13.0 mg/day), elderly (12.7 mg/day), and children (12.2 mg/day). Prevalence of adequacy for iron intakes as assessed by EFSA criteria was higher than for the Spanish Recommended Iron Intake values in all age groups. Females had lower adequacy than males for both criteria, 27.3% and 17.0% vs. 77.2% and 57.0% respectively. Cereals or grains (26.7%–27.4%), meats and derivatives (19.8%–22.7%), and vegetables (10.3%–12.4%) were the major iron contributors. Conclusion: Higher iron intakes were observed in adolescents and were highest for non-heme iron. The prevalence of adequate iron intake according to EFSA criteria was higher than compared to national recommendations, and women had the lowest intakes. Therefore, there is a need to define standard dietary reference intake to determine inadequate iron intakes in the Spanish population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Low Carbohydrate Diets on Fertility Hormones and Outcomes in Overweight and Obese Women: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 204; doi:10.3390/nu9030204
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: Medical interventions including assisted reproductive technologies have improved fertility outcomes for many sub-fertile couples. Increasing research interest has investigated the effect of low carbohydrate diets, with or without energy restriction. We aimed to systematically review the published literature to determine the
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(1) Background: Medical interventions including assisted reproductive technologies have improved fertility outcomes for many sub-fertile couples. Increasing research interest has investigated the effect of low carbohydrate diets, with or without energy restriction. We aimed to systematically review the published literature to determine the extent to which low carbohydrate diets can affect fertility outcomes; (2) Methods: The review protocol was registered prospectively with Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (registration number CRD42016042669) and followed Preferred Reporting Items For Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Infertile women were the population of interest, the intervention was low carbohydrate diets (less than 45% total energy from carbohydrates), compared to usual diet (with or without co-treatments). Four databases were searched from date of commencement until April 2016; a supplementary Google scholar search was also undertaken. Title and abstract, then full text review, were undertaken independently and in duplicate. Reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews were checked to ensure that all relevant studies were identified for inclusion. Quality assessment was undertaken independently by both authors using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research. Outcome measures were improved fertility outcomes defined by an improvement in reproductive hormones, ovulation rates and/or pregnancy rates; (3) Results: Seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the evidence synthesis. Interventions were diverse and included a combination of low carbohydrate diets with energy deficit or other co-treatments. Study quality was rated as positive for six studies, suggesting a low risk of bias, with one study rated as neutral. Of the six studies which reported changes in reproductive hormones, five reported significant improvements post intervention; (4) Conclusion: The findings of these studies suggest that low carbohydrate diets warrant further research to determine their effect. These randomised controlled trials should consider the effect of carbohydrates (with or without energy deficit) on hormonal and fertility outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Carbohydrate Diet for Weight Loss: Is There a Benefit?)
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Open AccessArticle Maternal Low-Protein Diet Modulates Glucose Metabolism and Hepatic MicroRNAs Expression in the Early Life of Offspring †
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 205; doi:10.3390/nu9030205
Received: 28 December 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
Emerging studies revealed that maternal protein restriction was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. However, the mechanisms of its effects on offspring, especially during early life of offspring, are poorly understood. Here, it is hypothesized that impaired metabolic
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Emerging studies revealed that maternal protein restriction was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. However, the mechanisms of its effects on offspring, especially during early life of offspring, are poorly understood. Here, it is hypothesized that impaired metabolic health in offspring from maternal low-protein diet (LPD) is associated with perturbed miRNAs expression in offspring as early as the weaning age. We examined the metabolic effects on the C57BL/6J mice male offspring at weaning from dams fed with LPD or normal chow diet (NCD) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Maternal LPD feeding impaired metabolic health in offspring. Microarray profiling indicated that mmu-miR-615, mmu-miR-124, mmu-miR-376b, and mmu-let-7e were significantly downregulated, while, mmu-miR-708 and mmu-miR-879 were upregulated in LPD offspring. Bioinformatic analysis showed target genes were mapped to inflammatory-related pathways. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were higher and interleukin 6 (IL-6) had a tendency to be elevated in the LPD group. Finally, both mRNA and protein levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increased in the LPD group. Our findings provide novel evidence that maternal LPD can regulate miRNAs expression, which may be associated with chronic inflammation status and metabolic health in offspring as early as the weaning age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle The Risk of Being Obese According to Short Sleep Duration Is Modulated after Menopause in Korean Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 206; doi:10.3390/nu9030206
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 3 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of
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We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods in relation to menopausal status. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration had significantly greater body weight (p = 0.007), body mass index (p = 0.003), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.028 and p = 0.024, respectively), prevalence of obesity (p < 0.016), and consumption of more carbohydrate-rich foods such as staple foods (p = 0.026) and simple sugar-rich foods (p = 0.044) than those with adequate sleep duration after adjustment for covariates. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration were more obese by 1.171 times compared to subjects adequate sleep duration (95% confidence interval = 1.030–1.330). However, obesity-related variables, dietary consumption, and odds of being obese did not differ according to sleep duration for postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that the increased risk for obesity and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods with short sleep duration appeared to disappear after menopause in Korean women. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Equol, a Dietary Daidzein Gut Metabolite Attenuates Microglial Activation and Potentiates Neuroprotection In Vitro
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 207; doi:10.3390/nu9030207
Received: 6 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
Estrogen deficiency has been well characterized in inflammatory disorders including neuroinflammation. Daidzein, a dietary alternative phytoestrogen found in soy (Glycine max) as primary isoflavones, possess anti‐inflammatory activity, but the effect of its active metabolite Equol (7‐hydroxy‐3‐(4′‐hydroxyphenyl)‐chroman) has not been well established. In this
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Estrogen deficiency has been well characterized in inflammatory disorders including neuroinflammation. Daidzein, a dietary alternative phytoestrogen found in soy (Glycine max) as primary isoflavones, possess anti‐inflammatory activity, but the effect of its active metabolite Equol (7‐hydroxy‐3‐(4′‐hydroxyphenyl)‐chroman) has not been well established. In this study, we investigated the anti‐neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective effect of Equol in vitro. To evaluate the potential effects of Equol, three major types of central nervous system (CNS) cells, including microglia (BV‐2), astrocytes (C6), and neurons (N2a), were used. Effects of Equol on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX‐2), Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling proteins, and apoptosis‐related proteins were measured by western blot analysis. Equol inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced TLR4 activation, MAPK activation, NF‐kB‐mediated transcription of inflammatory mediators, production of nitric oxide (NO), release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE‐2), secretion of tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α) and interleukin 6 (IL‐6), in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐activated murine microglia cells. Additionally, Equol protects neurons from neuroinflammatory injury mediated by LPS‐activated microglia through downregulation of neuronal apoptosis, increased neurite outgrowth in N2a cell and neurotrophins like nerve growth factor (NGF) production through astrocytes further supporting its neuroprotective potential. These findings provide novel insight into the anti‐neuroinflammatory effects of Equol on microglial cells, which may have clinical significance in cases of neurodegeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Soybean and other Grain Legumes)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Dietary Share of Ultra-Processed Foods and Urinary Concentrations of Phytoestrogens in the US
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 209; doi:10.3390/nu9030209
Received: 9 December 2016 / Revised: 22 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods and urinary phytoestrogen concentrations in the US. Participants from cross-sectional 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey aged 6+ years, selected to measure urinary phytoestrogens and with
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The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods and urinary phytoestrogen concentrations in the US. Participants from cross-sectional 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey aged 6+ years, selected to measure urinary phytoestrogens and with one 24-h dietary recall were evaluated (2692 participants). Food items were classified according to NOVA (a name, not an acronym), a four-group food classification based on the extent and purpose of industrial food processing. Ultra-processed foods are formulations manufactured using several ingredients and a series of processes (hence “ultra-processed”). Most of their ingredients are lower-cost industrial sources of dietary energy and nutrients, with additives used for the purpose of imitating sensorial qualities of minimally processed foods or of culinary preparations of these foods. Studied phytoestrogens included lignans (enterolactone and enterodiol) and isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin and equol). Gaussian regression was used to compare average urinary phytoestrogen concentrations (normalized by creatinine) across quintiles of energy share of ultra-processed foods. Models incorporated survey sample weights and were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income, and education, among other factors. Adjusted enterodiol geometric means decreased monotonically from 60.6 in the lowest quintile to 35.1 µg/g creatinine in the highest, while adjusted enterolactone geometric means dropped from 281.1 to 200.1 across the same quintiles, respectively. No significant linear trend was observed in the association between these quintiles and isoflavone concentrations. This finding reinforces the existing evidence regarding the negative impact of ultra-processed food consumption on the overall quality of the diet and expands it to include non-nutrients such as lignans. Full article
Open AccessArticle Lifestyle and Dietary Determinants of Serum Apolipoprotein A1 and Apolipoprotein B Concentrations: Cross-Sectional Analyses within a Swedish Cohort of 24,984 Individuals
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 211; doi:10.3390/nu9030211
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Low serum apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 concentrations and high serum ApoB concentrations may be better markers of the risk of cardiovascular disease than high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). However, the associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and Apo concentrations have not been investigated
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Low serum apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 concentrations and high serum ApoB concentrations may be better markers of the risk of cardiovascular disease than high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). However, the associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and Apo concentrations have not been investigated in detail. Therefore, this study investigated the associations between Apo concentrations and education, lifestyle factors and dietary intake (macronutrients and 34 food groups). These cross-sectional associations were examined among 24,984 individuals in a Swedish population-based cohort. Baseline examinations of the cohort were conducted between 1991 and 1996. Dietary intake was assessed using a modified diet history method. The main determinants of high ApoA1 concentrations (r between 0.05 and 0.25) were high alcohol consumption, high physical activity, non-smoking, and a low body mass index (BMI), and the main determinants of high ApoB concentrations were smoking and a high BMI. The intake of sucrose and food products containing added sugar (such as pastries, sweets, chocolate, jam/sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages) was negatively correlated with ApoA1 concentrations and positively correlated with ApoB concentrations and the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, whereas the intake of fermented dairy products, such as fermented milk and cheese, was positively correlated with ApoA1 concentrations and negatively correlated with the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio. These results indicate that smoking, obesity, low physical activity, low alcohol consumption and a diet high in sugar and low in fermented dairy products are correlated with an unfavorable Apo profile. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti‐Endometriotic Effects of Pueraria Flower Extract  in Human Endometriotic Cells and Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 212; doi:10.3390/nu9030212
Received: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Pueraria flowers have been used as a vegetable and an ingredient for tea and jelly. In this study, we investigated the effects of Pueraria flower extract (PFE) on endometriosis, a common gynaecological disease characterised by local sterile inflammation of peritoneal cavity. PFE suppressed
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Pueraria flowers have been used as a vegetable and an ingredient for tea and jelly. In this study, we investigated the effects of Pueraria flower extract (PFE) on endometriosis, a common gynaecological disease characterised by local sterile inflammation of peritoneal cavity. PFE suppressed the adhesion of human endometriotic cells 11Z and 12Z to human mesothelial Met5A cells. In addition, PFE significantly inhibited the migration of 11Z and 12Z cells as shown by woundhealing and transwell migration assays. PFE reduced the protein and mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‐2 and MMP‐9 in endometriotic cells. Moreover, extracellular signalregulated kinase (ERK)1/2 was activated by PFE treatment, and an ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, significantly inhibited PFE‐inhibited cell migration in endometriotic cells. Furthermore, PFE significantly suppressed endometriotic lesion formation in a mouse model. These data suggest that Pueraria flower is a potential anti‐endometriotic agent for the inhibition of endometriotic cell adhesion, migration, and MMP expression. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of 25% Sodium Reduction on Sales of a Top‐Selling Bread in Remote Indigenous Australian  Community Stores: A Controlled Intervention Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 214; doi:10.3390/nu9030214
Received: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Reducing sodium in the food supply is key to achieving population salt targets, but maintaining sales is important to ensuring commercial viability and maximising clinical impact. We investigated whether 25% sodium reduction in a top‐selling bread affected sales in 26 remote Indigenous community
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Reducing sodium in the food supply is key to achieving population salt targets, but maintaining sales is important to ensuring commercial viability and maximising clinical impact. We investigated whether 25% sodium reduction in a top‐selling bread affected sales in 26 remote Indigenous community stores. After a 23‐week baseline period, 11 control stores received the regular‐salt bread (400 mg Na/100 g) and 15 intervention stores received the reduced‐salt version (300 mg Na/100 g) for 12‐weeks. Sales data were collected to examine difference between groups in change from baseline to follow‐up (effect size) in sales (primary outcome) or sodium density, analysed using a mixed model. There was no significant effect on market share (−0.31%; 95% CI −0.68, 0.07; p = 0.11) or weekly dollars ($58; −149, 266; p = 0.58). Sodium density of all purchases was not significantly reduced (−8 mg Na/MJ; −18, 2; p = 0.14), but 25% reduction across all bread could significantly reduce sodium (−12; −23, −1; p = 0.03). We found 25% salt reduction in a top‐selling bread did not affect sales in remote Indigenous community stores. If achieved across all breads, estimated salt intake in remote Indigenous Australian communities would be reduced by approximately 15% of the magnitude needed to achieve population salt targets, which could lead to significant health gains at the population‐level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Enantioselective Modulatory Effects of Naringenin  Enantiomers on the Expression Levels of miR‐17‐3p  Involved in Endogenous Antioxidant Defenses
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 215; doi:10.3390/nu9030215
Received: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Naringenin is a flavanone present in citrus fruit as a mixture of chiral isomers. The numerous biological properties attributed to this compound include antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities, even though the molecular mechanisms of these remain unknown. This study aims to evaluate the effects
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Naringenin is a flavanone present in citrus fruit as a mixture of chiral isomers. The numerous biological properties attributed to this compound include antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities, even though the molecular mechanisms of these remain unknown. This study aims to evaluate the effects of racemic and enantiomeric naringenin on the expression levels of miR‐17‐3p, miR‐25‐5p and relative mRNA targets, to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties. Caco‐2 cells, a well characterized in vitro model which mimics the intestinal barrier, were treated with subtoxic concentrations of racemate and enantiomers. The expression levels of miR‐17‐3p and miR‐25‐5p were determined by Real‐Time PCR and were found to be decreased for both miRNAs. miR‐17‐3p behavior was in agreement with the increased levels of target mRNAs coding for two antioxidant enzymes, manganese‐dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPx2), while expression levels of miR‐25‐5p were not in agreement with its target mRNAs, coding for two pro‐inflammatory cytokines, Tumor necrosis factor‐alpha (TNF‐α) and Interleukin‐6 (IL‐6). These results lead to the conclusion that naringenin could exert its antioxidant activity through epigenetic regulation operated by miRNAs, while anti‐inflammatory activity is regulated by other miRNAs and/or mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Pre-Pregnancy Fast Food Consumption Is Associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus among Tehranian Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 216; doi:10.3390/nu9030216
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 12 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Tehranian women. This study was conducted over a 17-month period, on a random sample of pregnant women (n = 1026), aged 18–45
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Tehranian women. This study was conducted over a 17-month period, on a random sample of pregnant women (n = 1026), aged 18–45 years, attending prenatal clinics in five hospitals affiliated with universities of medical sciences, located in different districts of Tehran, Iran. Dietary data were collected during gestational age ≤6 weeks, using a 168-item valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of total fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), pizza and French fries was calculated. Between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation, all pregnant women underwent a scheduled 100 g 3 h oral glucose tolerance test. GDM was defined according to the American Diabetes Association definition. The mean age and pre-pregnancy body mass index BMI of participants were 26.7 ± 4.3 years and 25.4 ± 4.5 Kg/m2, respectively. A total of 71 women developed GDM. After adjustment for confounders, the OR (95% CI) for GDM for total fast food consumption was 2.12 (1.12–5.43) and for French fries it was 2.18 (1.05–4.70). No significant association was found between hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), pizza and GDM. Fast food consumption in women of reproductive age was found to have undesirable effects in the prevalence of GDM. Full article
Open AccessArticle Association between Impulsivity and Weight Status in a General Population
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 217; doi:10.3390/nu9030217
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this study is to examine the association between impulsivity and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France, and the influence of gender on this relationship. A total of 11,929 men and 39,114 women participating
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The objective of this study is to examine the association between impulsivity and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France, and the influence of gender on this relationship. A total of 11,929 men and 39,114 women participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort were selected in this cross-sectional analysis. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) was used to assess impulsivity. Weight and height were self-reported. The association between impulsivity and BMI was estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Individuals with high impulsivity levels (BIS-11 total score >71) were more likely to be obese (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.39, 2.33 in men; OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.48 in women) compared to individuals in the average range of impulsivity. The strongest associations between impulsivity and obesity were observed in men, where highly impulsive participants were more likely to be class III obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2) (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.86, 6.85). This large sample analysis supports the existence of a relationship between impulsivity and weight status and the importance of psychological factors in the prevention of obesity. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Potential Tool for Clinicians; Evaluating a Computer-Led Dietary Assessment Method in Overweight and Obese Women during Weight Loss
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 218; doi:10.3390/nu9030218
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
Many Americans are attempting to lose weight with the help of healthcare professionals. Clinicians can improve weight loss results by using technology. Accurate dietary assessment is crucial to effective weight loss. The aim of this study was to validate a computer-led dietary assessment
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Many Americans are attempting to lose weight with the help of healthcare professionals. Clinicians can improve weight loss results by using technology. Accurate dietary assessment is crucial to effective weight loss. The aim of this study was to validate a computer-led dietary assessment method in overweight/obese women. Known dietary intake was compared to Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24) reported intake in women (n = 45), 19–50 years, with body mass index of 27–39.9 kg/m2. Participants received nutrition education and reduced body weight by 4%–10%. Participants completed one unannounced dietary recall and their responses were compared to actual intake. Accuracy of the recall and characteristics of respondent error were measured using linear and logistic regression. Energy was underreported by 5% with no difference for most nutrients except carbohydrates, vitamin B12, vitamin C, selenium, calcium and vitamin D (p = 0.002, p < 0.0001, p = 0.022, p = 0.010, p = 0.008 and p = 0.001 respectively). Overall, ASA24 is a valid dietary assessment tool in overweight/obese women participating in a weight loss program. The automated features eliminate the need for clinicians to be trained, to administer, or to analyze dietary intake. Computer-led dietary assessment tools should be considered as part of clinician-supervised weight loss programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Growth of Infants Fed Formula with Evolving  Nutrition Composition: A Single‐Arm Non‐Inferiority Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 219; doi:10.3390/nu9030219
Received: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
The nutritional composition of human milk evolves over the course of lactation, to match the changing needs of infants. This single‐arm, non‐inferiority study evaluated growth against the WHO standards in the first year of life, in infants consecutively fed four age‐based formulas with
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The nutritional composition of human milk evolves over the course of lactation, to match the changing needs of infants. This single‐arm, non‐inferiority study evaluated growth against the WHO standards in the first year of life, in infants consecutively fed four age‐based formulas with compositions tailored to infants’ nutritional needs during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd–6th, and 7th–12th months of age. Healthy full‐term formula‐fed infants (n = 32) were enrolled at ≤14 days of age and exclusively fed study formulas from enrollment, to the age of four months. Powdered study formulas were provided in single‐serving capsules that were reconstituted using a dedicated automated preparation system, to ensure precise, hygienic preparation. The primary outcome was the weight‐for‐age z‐score (WAZ) at the age of four months (vs. non‐inferiority margin of −0.5 SD). Mean (95% CI) z‐scores for the WAZ (0.12 (−0.15, 0.39)), as well as for the length‐for‐age (0.05 (−0.19, 0.30)), weight‐for‐length (0.16 (−0.16, 0.48)), BMI‐for‐age (0.11 (−0.20, 0.43)), and head circumferencefor‐age (0.41 (0.16, 0.65)) at the age of four months, were non‐inferior. Throughout the study, anthropometric z‐scores tracked closely against the WHO standards (within ±1 SD). In sum, a fourstage, age‐based infant formula system with nutritional compositions tailored to infants’ evolving needs, supports healthy growth consistent with WHO standards, for the first year of life. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Perceptions and Knowledge of Nuts amongst Health  Professionals in New Zealand
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 220; doi:10.3390/nu9030220
Received: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
Despite their nutritional value, population‐level nut consumption remains low. Studies suggest that individuals would eat more nuts on their doctor’s advice, making health professionals potentially important for promoting nut consumption. This cross‐sectional study aimed to examine the perceptions and knowledge of nuts and
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Despite their nutritional value, population‐level nut consumption remains low. Studies suggest that individuals would eat more nuts on their doctor’s advice, making health professionals potentially important for promoting nut consumption. This cross‐sectional study aimed to examine the perceptions and knowledge of nuts and the predictors of nut promotion among health professionals in New Zealand. Dietitians, general practitioners (GPs), and practice nurses were identified from the Electoral Roll and invited to complete a questionnaire (n = 318, 292, and 149 respondents respectively). Over one‐fifth of GPs and practice nurses believed that eating nuts could increase blood cholesterol concentrations and cause weight gain. The most common perceptions overall were that nuts are healthy; high in protein, fat, and calories; and are satiating. Nut consumption was recommended for reasons relating to these perceptions and because of nuts’ selenium content. Conversely, reasons for suggesting the consumption of fewer nuts included that they were high in calories and fat, would cause weight gain, and concerns regarding allergies and cost. All groups of health professionals were more likely to promote nut consumption if they perceived nuts to reduce the risk of diabetes (all p ≤ 0.034). Education could improve health professionals’ knowledge regarding the effects of nut consumption on blood cholesterol and body weight, alongside other health benefits, which should improve the advice given to patients and may thereby increase nut consumption. Full article
Open AccessArticle Maternal Dietary Nutrient Intake and Its Association  with Preterm Birth: A Case‐control Study in Beijing,  China
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 221; doi:10.3390/nu9030221
Received: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate dietary nutrient intake among Chinese pregnant women by comparison with Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and to explore the association between dietary nutrients and preterm birth. A case‐control design was conducted in Beijing with 130 preterm delivery mothers
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This study aimed to evaluate dietary nutrient intake among Chinese pregnant women by comparison with Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and to explore the association between dietary nutrients and preterm birth. A case‐control design was conducted in Beijing with 130 preterm delivery mothers in case group and 381 term delivery mothers in control group. Information on mothers’ diet was collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and nutrients and energy intakes were subsequently calculated based on DRIs. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare the differences between term and preterm groups in relation to dietary nutrients. Dietary nutrient intakes were imbalanced in both groups compared with Chinese DRIs. Preterm delivery mothers had a lower level of fat and vitamin E intake than term delivery mothers (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed lower vitamin E intake in preterm delivery mothers with a prepregnancy BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 (p < 0.05) and higher carbohydrate intake in preterm delivery mothers with prepregnancy BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 (p < 0.05). An imbalanced diet in both groups and low level of dietary intakes of fat and vitamin E in preterm group suggest health education measures should be taken to improve the dietary quality of pregnant women, especially for those with an abnormal prepregnancy BMI. Full article
Open AccessArticle Vegetable and Fruit Intakes Are Associated with hs-CRP Levels in Pre-Pubertal Girls
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 224; doi:10.3390/nu9030224
Received: 2 December 2016 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
The influence of diet on inflammation in children remains unclear. We aimed to analyze the influence of diet on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in a pre-pubertal population free of other influences that may affect hs-CRP levels. We determined hs-CRP levels in 571
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The influence of diet on inflammation in children remains unclear. We aimed to analyze the influence of diet on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in a pre-pubertal population free of other influences that may affect hs-CRP levels. We determined hs-CRP levels in 571 six- to eight-year-old children using an hs-CRP ELISA kit. Information on food and nutrient intake was obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire. Overall dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). We found that girls in the highest tertile of hs-CRP levels had a higher intake of saturated fatty acid, and lower intakes of fiber and vitamin E and a lower HEI score when compared to those in tertiles 1 and 2. We also observed a significant decrease in fruit and vegetable intakes by hs-CRP tertile. Factor analysis showed that a dietary pattern that was loaded most strongly with vegetable, fruit, fiber and vitamin A and E intakes correlated negatively (−0.132, p < 0.05) with hs-CRP. No such association was found in boys. In conclusion, our data show that girls with a poorer quality diet show higher hs-CRP levels already at a pre-pubertal age. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Micronutrient Status in 153 Patients with Anorexia Nervosa
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 225; doi:10.3390/nu9030225
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
Micronutrient status in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been poorly documented and previous data are often contradictory. We aimed to assess micronutrient status in a large population of AN patients. The relationships between micronutrient status and body composition were also determined. Anthropometric, biochemical parameters
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Micronutrient status in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been poorly documented and previous data are often contradictory. We aimed to assess micronutrient status in a large population of AN patients. The relationships between micronutrient status and body composition were also determined. Anthropometric, biochemical parameters and body composition data were collected at referral in 153 patients with AN (28.5 ± 11 years). At least one trace element deficit was observed in almost half of patients; the most frequent was selenium deficit (40% of patients). At least one vitamin deficit was observed in 45.7% of patients, mostly vitamin A and B9. Albumin, transthyretin and CRP were within normal range in most patients. No correlations were found between body composition and micronutrient status. Our study suggests that micronutrient status is often altered in AN patients, which may contribute to neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Monitoring of micronutrients and correction of deficits should be included in the routine care of AN patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders, Diet-Related Diseases, and Metabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle Micronutrient‐Fortified Milk and Academic  Performance among Chinese Middle School Students:  A Cluster‐Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 226; doi:10.3390/nu9030226
Received: 13 January 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
Many children suffer from nutritional deficiencies that may negatively affect their academic performance. This cluster‐randomized controlled trial aimed to test the effects of micronutrient‐fortified milk in Chinese students. Participants received either micronutrient‐fortified (n = 177) or unfortified (n = 183) milk for six
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Many children suffer from nutritional deficiencies that may negatively affect their academic performance. This cluster‐randomized controlled trial aimed to test the effects of micronutrient‐fortified milk in Chinese students. Participants received either micronutrient‐fortified (n = 177) or unfortified (n = 183) milk for six months. Academic performance, motivation, and learning strategies were estimated by end‐of‐term tests and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Blood samples were analyzed for micronutrients. In total, 296 students (82.2%) completed this study. Compared with the control group, students in the intervention group reported higher scores in several academic subjects (p < 0.05), including languages, mathematics, ethics, and physical performance at the end of follow‐up. Students in the intervention group showed greater self‐efficacy and use of cognitive strategies in learning, and reported less test anxiety (p < 0.001). Moreover, vitamin B2 deficiency (odds ratio (OR) = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.11~0.30) and iron deficiency (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.14~0.81) were less likely in the students of the intervention group, whereas vitamin D, vitamin B12, and selenium deficiencies were not significantly different. “Cognitive strategy” had a partial mediating effect on the test scores of English (95% CI: 1.26~3.79) and Chinese (95% CI: 0.53~2.21). Our findings suggest that micronutrient‐fortified milk may improve students’ academic performance, motivation, and learning strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Behavior in Children)
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Open AccessArticle Temporal Trends in Dietary Macronutrient Intakes among Adults in Rural China from 1991 to 2011: Findings from the CHNS
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 227; doi:10.3390/nu9030227
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 18 February 2017 / Published: 5 March 2017
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Abstract
Few studies have examined nutrition transitions among the rural population of China, even though half of the Chinese population (about 700 million) is living in rural China. To fill this research gap, we examined temporal trends in dietary macronutrient intakes in members of
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Few studies have examined nutrition transitions among the rural population of China, even though half of the Chinese population (about 700 million) is living in rural China. To fill this research gap, we examined temporal trends in dietary macronutrient intakes in members of the Chinese rural population aged 18–60 years. The analysis used data from consecutive three-day dietary recalls, collected from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS). Mixed-effect models were constructed to obtain adjusted means and to examine temporal trends after adjusting for intra-class correlation within clusters and covariates, including age, sex, geographical region, urbanicity, and income. From 1991 to 2011, a downward trend in daily energy, protein, and carbohydrate intakes was seen in all categories, with a significant reduction among all rural people (p < 0.0001). In contrast, a significant increment in daily fat intake, the proportion of energy from fat, and the proportion of rural people consuming a diet with more than 30% of energy from fat, were observed in the present study (p < 0.0001). These results suggest that adults in rural China have been undergoing a rapid nutrition transition towards a high-fat diet. Therefore, more emphasis should be placed on the quality of fat and maintaining a balanced diet during the process of nutritional education. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum Increases  Ferroportin Expression in the Colon of Anemic  Growing Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 228; doi:10.3390/nu9030228
Received: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Studies have reported a positive effect of prebiotics on the bioavailability of iron. This study evaluated the effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) on iron absorption mechanisms in anemic rats. Male Wistar rats were fed 75g American Institute of Nutrition Rodent Diets
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Studies have reported a positive effect of prebiotics on the bioavailability of iron. This study evaluated the effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) on iron absorption mechanisms in anemic rats. Male Wistar rats were fed 75g American Institute of Nutrition Rodent Diets for growth, pregnancy and lactation (AIN93‐G) without iron for three weeks in order to induce iron deficiency anemia. Then they were fed a control diet (n = 12; without fiber) or a diet with 7.5% of PHGG (n = 12), both without iron. Food intake, body growth and the feed efficiency coefficient (FEC) were measured. The animals were euthanized after two weeks of treatment. The weight of the organs, the pH of the cecal content, and the hepatic iron and ferroportin expression in the cecum, duodenum, and liver were assessed. The intake of PHGG reduced food intake without affecting body growth, and there was a difference between the groups regarding the FEC (p = 0.026), with the highest value found in the PHGG group. The weight of the cecal content increased (p ≤ 0.001) and the pH of the cecal content was significantly lower in the PHGG group. The intake of PHGG significantly increased ferroportin expression in the cecum; however, the difference was not significant in the duodenum and the liver. PHGG seems to have a positive influence on iron absorption through transporter expression, and structural and physiological changes in the colon of anemic growing animals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association of Serum Manganese Levels with  Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment:  A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 231; doi:10.3390/nu9030231
Received: 28 December 2016 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Manganese (Mn) is one of the most studied environmental heavy metals linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, it remains unclear whether serum Mn levels are associated with AD and mild cognition impairment (MCI, a prodromal stage of AD). We conducted a metaanalysis to
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Manganese (Mn) is one of the most studied environmental heavy metals linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, it remains unclear whether serum Mn levels are associated with AD and mild cognition impairment (MCI, a prodromal stage of AD). We conducted a metaanalysis to analyze the serum Mn levels in patients with AD and MCI. A systematic database search of PubMed, Web of Science, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) identified 17 studies, including 836 cases and 1254 health controls (HC). Random‐effects meta‐analysis showed that patients with AD had significantly reduced serum Mn levels compared with HC subjects (SMD = −0.39; 95% CI (−0.71, −0.08); p = 0.015). MCI individuals had a tendency toward reduced serum Mn levels compared with HC subjects (SMD = −0.31; 95% CI (−0.70, 0.08); p = 0.117). A significant decrease in serum Mn levels was found in patients with cognitive impairment (including both AD patients and MCI patients) (SMD = −0.37, 95% CI (−0.60; −0.13); p = 0.002). Finally, no significant differences were observed between AD and MCI patients in serum levels (SMD = 0.24; 95% CI (−0.23, 0.72); p = 0.310). Our findings show that the serum Mn levels are lower in AD patients, and Mn deficiency may be a risk factor for AD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Patterns and Insomnia Symptoms in Chinese Adults: The China Kadoorie Biobank
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 232; doi:10.3390/nu9030232
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 4 March 2017
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Abstract
Limited attention has been paid to the effect of dietary patterns on sleep problems. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data of 481,242 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank. A laptop-based questionnaire was administered to collect information on
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Limited attention has been paid to the effect of dietary patterns on sleep problems. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data of 481,242 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank. A laptop-based questionnaire was administered to collect information on food intakes and insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios of each insomnia symptom according to quartiles of each dietary pattern, with adjustment for potential confounders. Two major dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. The traditional northern dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of wheat and other staple food, whereas the modern dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of meat, poultry, fish, eggs, fresh fruit, and dairy products. Both dietary patterns were associated with a decreased prevalence of insomnia symptoms (p for trend < 0.001); after adjustment for potential confounders, individuals who had the highest quartile score of traditional northern dietary pattern were 12%–19% less likely to have insomnia symptoms compared to those in the lowest quartile (odds ratio: 0.81–0.88), and the corresponding values for the modern dietary pattern were 0.89–1.01. Furthermore, interactions of these two dietary patterns on insomnia symptoms were observed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between diet and insomnia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chinese National Nutrition Survey 2012)
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Open AccessArticle Integration of Traditional and Metabolomics Biomarkers Identifies Prognostic Metabolites for Predicting Responsiveness to Nutritional Intervention against Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 233; doi:10.3390/nu9030233
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 19 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 4 March 2017
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Abstract
Various statistical approaches can be applied to integrate traditional and omics biomarkers, allowing the discovery of prognostic markers to classify subjects into poor and good prognosis groups in terms of responses to nutritional interventions. Here, we performed a prototype study to identify metabolites
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Various statistical approaches can be applied to integrate traditional and omics biomarkers, allowing the discovery of prognostic markers to classify subjects into poor and good prognosis groups in terms of responses to nutritional interventions. Here, we performed a prototype study to identify metabolites that predict responses to an intervention against oxidative stress and inflammation, using a data set from a randomized controlled trial evaluating Korean black raspberry (KBR) in sedentary overweight/obese subjects. First, a linear mixed-effects model analysis with multiple testing correction showed that four-week consumption of KBR significantly changed oxidized glutathione (GSSG, q = 0.027) level, the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to GSSG (q = 0.039) in erythrocytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, q = 0.006) and interleukin-6 (q = 0.006) levels in plasma, and seventeen NMR metabolites in urine compared with those in the placebo group. A subsequent generalized linear mixed model analysis showed linear correlations between baseline urinary glycine and N-phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and changes in the GSH:GSSG ratio (p = 0.008 and 0.004) as well as between baseline urinary adenine and changes in MDA (p = 0.018). Then, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that a two-metabolite set (glycine and PAG) had the strongest prognostic relevance for future interventions against oxidative stress (the area under the curve (AUC) = 0.778). Leave-one-out cross-validation confirmed the accuracy of prediction (AUC = 0.683). The current findings suggest that a higher level of this two-metabolite set at baseline is useful for predicting responders to dietary interventions in subjects with oxidative stress and inflammation, contributing to the emergence of personalized nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Management)
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Open AccessArticle Voluntary Folic Acid Fortification Levels and Nutrient Composition of Food Products from the Spanish Market: A 2011–2015 Update
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 234; doi:10.3390/nu9030234
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 5 March 2017
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Abstract
Introduction. Folic acid (FA) is a synthetic compound commonly added for voluntary fortification of food products in many European countries. In our country, food composition databases (FCDB) lack comprehensive data on FA fortification practices and this is considered a priority research need when
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Introduction. Folic acid (FA) is a synthetic compound commonly added for voluntary fortification of food products in many European countries. In our country, food composition databases (FCDB) lack comprehensive data on FA fortification practices and this is considered a priority research need when undergoing nutritional assessment of the population. Methods. A product inventory was collected and updated by visiting retail stores in Madrid Region, conducting online supermarket searches, and by the provision of food label information by manufacturers. Euro-FIR FCDB guidelines for data compilation and harmonization were used. Results. The FCDB, compiled between 2011 and 2015, includes FA as well as macro and micronutrient data from 338 fortified foodstuffs. As compared to previous FCDB updates (May 2010), 37 products have ceased to declare added FA in their labels, mainly yogurt and fermented milk products. The main food subgroup is ‘breakfast cereals’ (n = 95, 34% of total). However, the highest average FA fortification levels per recommended serving were observed in the ‘milk, milk products, and milk substitutes’ group at ≥35% FA Nutrient Reference Values (NRV, 200 µg, EU Regulation 1169 of 2011) (60–76.3 µg FA per 200 mL). Average contribution to the FA NRV per food group and serving ranged between 16%–35%. Conclusion. Our data show a minor decrease in the number of FA fortified products, but vitamin levels added by manufacturers are stable in most food groups and subgroups. This representative product inventory comprises the main FA food source from voluntary fortification in our country. It is therefore a unique compilation tool with valuable data for the assessment of dietary intakes for the vitamin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B-Vitamins and One-Carbon Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle Interaction between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Urinary Sodium, Potassium, and Sodium-Potassium Ratio on the Risk of Hypertension in Korean Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 235; doi:10.3390/nu9030235
Received: 5 November 2016 / Revised: 23 January 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 5 March 2017
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Abstract
Hypertension is a complex disease explained with diverse factors including environmental factors and genetic factors. The objectives of this study were to determine the interaction effects between gene variants and 24 h estimated urinary sodium and potassium excretion and sodium-potassium excretion ratios on
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Hypertension is a complex disease explained with diverse factors including environmental factors and genetic factors. The objectives of this study were to determine the interaction effects between gene variants and 24 h estimated urinary sodium and potassium excretion and sodium-potassium excretion ratios on the risk of hypertension. A total of 8839 participants were included in the genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic factors associated with hypertension. Tanaka and Kawasaki formulas were applied to estimate 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion. A total of 4414 participants were included in interaction analyses to identify the interaction effects of gene variants according to 24 h estimated urinary factors on the risk of hypertension. CSK rs1378942 and CSK-MIR4513 rs3784789 were significantly modified by urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio. In addition, MKLN rs1643270 with urinary potassium excretion, LOC101929750 rs7554672 with urinary sodium and potassium excretion, and TENM4 rs10466739 with urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio showed significant interaction effects. The present study results indicated that the mutant alleles of CSK rs1378942 and CSK-MIR4513 rs3784789 had the strongest protective effects against hypertension in the middle group of 24 h estimated urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio. Further studies are needed to replicate these analyses in other populations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A High Fiber Cookie Made with Resistant Starch Type 4 Reduces Post-Prandial Glucose and Insulin Responses in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 237; doi:10.3390/nu9030237
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 5 March 2017
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Abstract
Distarch phosphate is a resistant starch type 4 (RS4) containing phosphodiester cross-links within and between starch molecules. This study examined the glycemic effects of VERSAFIBE 1490™ resistant starch, a distarch phosphate derived from potato, containing 90% total dietary fiber (TDF, AOAC 991.43 method).
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Distarch phosphate is a resistant starch type 4 (RS4) containing phosphodiester cross-links within and between starch molecules. This study examined the glycemic effects of VERSAFIBE 1490™ resistant starch, a distarch phosphate derived from potato, containing 90% total dietary fiber (TDF, AOAC 991.43 method). In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 28 healthy adults consumed a cookie containing 24 g fiber from distarch phosphate (fiber cookie) or a control cookie containing 0.5 g fiber that was matched for fat, protein, and total carbohydrate content. Intravenous blood glucose, intravenous blood insulin, and capillary glucose were measured for two hours after cookie consumption. The fiber cookie reduced the post-prandial blood glucose incremental area under the curve from 0 to 120 minutes (iAUC0-120min) by 44% (p = 0.004) and reduced the maximum glucose concentration (Cmax0-120min) by 8% (p = 0.001) versus the control cookie. Consumption of the fiber cookie resulted in a significant 46% reduction of the post-prandial serum insulin iAUC0-120min (p < 0.001) and a 23% reduction in Cmax0-120min (p = 0.007) versus the control cookie. This study shows that distarch phosphate RS4 can be incorporated into a cookie and significantly reduce post-prandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Association between Dietary Quality and Dietary Guideline Adherence with Mental Health Outcomes in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 238; doi:10.3390/nu9030238
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 5 March 2017
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Abstract
The prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes in adults is increasing. Although beneficial effects of selected micronutrients and foods on mental health have been reported, they do not reflect the impact of the habitual diet on mental health. Therefore, our objective is to
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The prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes in adults is increasing. Although beneficial effects of selected micronutrients and foods on mental health have been reported, they do not reflect the impact of the habitual diet on mental health. Therefore, our objective is to examine potential associations between dietary quality, dietary composition and compliance with food pyramid recommendations with depressive symptoms, anxiety and well-being (assessed using CES-D, HADS-A and WHO-5 screening tools) in a cross-sectional sample of 2047 middle-aged adults. Diet was assessed using a self-completed FFQ. Chi-square tests, t-tests and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between dietary components and mental health outcomes. Dietary quality, but not dietary composition or guideline adherence, was associated with well-being. Those with high dietary quality were more likely to report well-being (OR =1.67, 95% CI 1.15–2.44, p = 0.007) relative to those with low dietary quality. This remained significant among females (OR = 1.92, (95% CI 1.14–3.23, p = 0.014) and non-obese individuals (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.28–3.20, p = 0.003). No associations between any dietary measures with anxiety or depressive symptoms were observed. These novel results highlight the importance of dietary quality in maintaining optimal psychological well-being. Better understanding of the relationship between dietary quality and mental health may provide insight into potential therapeutic or intervention strategies to improve mental health and well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Mental Health)
Open AccessArticle Evaluating Changes in Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake after Receiving Personal FADS1 Genetic Information: A Randomized Nutrigenetic Intervention
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 240; doi:10.3390/nu9030240
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
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Abstract
Nutrigenetics research is anticipated to lay the foundation for personalized dietary recommendations; however, it remains unclear if providing individuals with their personal genetic information changes dietary behaviors. Our objective was to evaluate if providing information for a common variant in the fatty acid
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Nutrigenetics research is anticipated to lay the foundation for personalized dietary recommendations; however, it remains unclear if providing individuals with their personal genetic information changes dietary behaviors. Our objective was to evaluate if providing information for a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene changed omega-3 fatty acid (FA) intake and blood levels in young female adults (18–25 years). Participants were randomized into Genetic (intervention) and Non-Genetic (control) groups, with measurements taken at Baseline and Final (12 weeks). Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was assessed using an omega-3 food frequency questionnaire. Red blood cell (RBC) FA content was quantified by gas chromatography. Implications of participation in a nutrigenetics study and awareness of omega-3 FAs were assessed with online questionnaires. Upon completion of the study, EPA and DHA intake increased significantly (p = 1.0 × 10−4) in all participants. This change was reflected by small increases in RBC %EPA. Participants in the Genetic group showed increased awareness of omega-3 terminology by the end of the study, reported that the dietary recommendations were more useful, and rated cost as a barrier to omega-3 consumption less often than those in the Non-Genetic group. Providing participants FADS1 genetic information did not appear to influence omega-3 intake during the 12 weeks, but did change perceptions and behaviors related to omega-3 FAs in this timeframe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Isotonic Beverage on the Hydration Status of Healthy Chinese Adults in Air-Conditioned Environment
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 242; doi:10.3390/nu9030242
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
People living in tropical climates spend much of their time in confined air-conditioned spaces, performing normal daily activities. This study investigated the effect of distilled water (W) or isotonic beverage (IB) on the hydration status in subjects living under these conditions. In a
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People living in tropical climates spend much of their time in confined air-conditioned spaces, performing normal daily activities. This study investigated the effect of distilled water (W) or isotonic beverage (IB) on the hydration status in subjects living under these conditions. In a randomized crossover design, forty-nine healthy male subjects either consumed beverage or IB over a period of 8 h (8 h) in a controlled air-conditioned environment. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 8 h. Hydration status was assessed by body mass, urine output, blood and plasma volume, fluid retention, osmolality, electrolyte concentration and salivary flow rate. In the IB group, urine output (1862 ± 86 mL vs. 2104 ± 98 mL) was significantly lower and more fluids were retained (17% ± 3% vs. 7% ± 3%) as compared to W (p < 0.05) after 8 h. IB also resulted in body mass gain (0.14 ± 0.06 kg), while W led to body mass loss (−0.04 ± 0.05 kg) (p = 0.01). A significantly smaller drop in blood volume and lower free water clearance was observed in IB (−1.18% ± 0.43%; 0.55 ± 0.26 mL/min) compared to W (−2.11% ± 0.41%; 1.35 ± 0.24 mL/min) (p < 0.05). IB increased salivary flow rate (0.54 ± 0.05 g/min 0.62 ± 0.04 g/min). In indoor environments, performing routine activities and even without excessive sweating, isotonic beverages may be more effective at retaining fluids and maintaining hydration status by up to 10% compared to distilled water. Full article
Open AccessArticle BMI is Associated with the Willingness to Record Diet  with  a  Mobile  Food  Record  among  Adults  Participating in Dietary Interventions
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 244; doi:10.3390/nu9030244
Received: 18 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
Image‐based dietary assessment methods have the potential to address respondent burden and improve engagement in the task of recording for dietary interventions. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with the willingness of adults to take images of food and
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Image‐based dietary assessment methods have the potential to address respondent burden and improve engagement in the task of recording for dietary interventions. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with the willingness of adults to take images of food and beverages using a mobile food record (mFR) application. A combined sample of 212 young adults and 73 overweight and obese adults completed a 4‐day mobile food record on two occasions and a follow‐up usability questionnaire. About 74% of participants stated they would record using the mFR for a longer period compared with a written record (29.4 ± 69.3 vs. 16.1 ± 42.6 days respectively; p < 0.0005). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify those who were more likely to record mFR in the top tertile (≥14 days). After adjusting for age and gender, those with a BMI ≥ 25 were 1.68 times more likely (Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval: 1.02–2.77) than those with BMI < 25 to state a willingness to record with the mFR for ≥ 14 days. The greater willingness of overweight and obese individuals to record dietary intake using an mFR needs further examination to determine if this translates to more accurate estimates of energy intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels in Maternal  Erythrocytes of Japanese Women during Pregnancy  and after Childbirth
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 245; doi:10.3390/nu9030245
Received: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
Background: The transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n‐6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n‐3), to the fetus from maternal stores increases depending on the fetal requirements for PUFA during the last trimester of pregnancy. Therefore, maternal blood PUFA
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Background: The transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n‐6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n‐3), to the fetus from maternal stores increases depending on the fetal requirements for PUFA during the last trimester of pregnancy. Therefore, maternal blood PUFA changes physiologically with gestational age. However, the changes in PUFA levels in maternal blood erythrocytes during pregnancy and after childbirth have not been fully investigated in a fish‐eating population. Objective: To examine the changes of ARA and DHA levels in maternal erythrocytes with the progress of pregnancy and the relationship between maternal and umbilical cord erythrocyte PUFA levels in pregnant Japanese women who habitually eat fish and shellfish. Design: This study was performed as a part of the adjunct study of the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS). The participants were 74 pregnant women. The maternal blood samples were collected at 27, 30, and 36 weeks of pregnancy, and 2 days and 1 month after delivery, and umbilical cord blood was collected at delivery. The fatty acid levels of erythrocytes in these blood samples were determined. Results: ARA and DHA levels in maternal erythrocytes tended to decrease with the progress of pregnancy. While the DHA level decreased further after delivery, the ARA level returned to the value at 27 weeks of pregnancy within 1 month after delivery. The n‐3 and n‐6 PUFA levels in maternal erythrocytes at 27, 30, and 36 weeks of pregnancy were significantly positively correlated with the corresponding fatty acid levels in umbilical cord erythrocytes. Conclusion: The present findings showed a significant change in erythrocyte PUFA levels during pregnancy and after childbirth in a fish‐eating population. The PUFA levels of maternal blood after the second trimester may be a reliable marker for predicting PUFA levels in infants’ circulating blood. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lean Fish Consumption Is Associated with Beneficial Changes in the Metabolic Syndrome Components: A 13-Year Follow-Up Study from the Norwegian Tromsø Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 247; doi:10.3390/nu9030247
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
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Abstract
Background: Fish consumption may have beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, limited information of such associations exists. This study investigated possible associations between fish consumption and changes in MetS components during a 13-year follow-up period. Methods: The sample included participants (26–69 years)
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Background: Fish consumption may have beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, limited information of such associations exists. This study investigated possible associations between fish consumption and changes in MetS components during a 13-year follow-up period. Methods: The sample included participants (26–69 years) from the Tromsø Study 4 (1994–1995, n = 23,907) and Tromsø Study 6 (2007–2008, n = 12,981). Data were collected using questionnaires including food frequency questions, non-fasting blood samples, and physical examinations. MetS was defined using the Joint Interim Societies (JIS) definition, in which one point was given for each MetS criteria fulfilled (metabolic score). Longitudinal analyses were performed using Linear mixed models. Results: For both genders, lean fish consumption once a week or more was significantly associated with decreased future metabolic score, decreased triglycerides, and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, whereas decreased waist circumference and blood pressure was identified only for men (age adjusted models). Fatty fish consumption was significantly associated with increased waist circumference for both genders and increased HDL-cholesterol levels in men. Conclusion: The results suggest that fatty and lean fish consumption may influence MetS differently and that lean fish consumption in particular seems to be associated with beneficial changes in the MetS components. Full article
Open AccessArticle Inhibition of VEGF-Induced VEGFR-2 Activation and HUVEC Migration by Melatonin and Other Bioactive Indolic Compounds
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 249; doi:10.3390/nu9030249
Received: 25 November 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
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Abstract
Excessive concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) trigger angiogenesis, which causes complications such as the destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques and increased growth of tumors. This work focuses on the determination of the inhibitory activity of melatonin and other indolic related compounds on
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Excessive concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) trigger angiogenesis, which causes complications such as the destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques and increased growth of tumors. This work focuses on the determination of the inhibitory activity of melatonin and other indolic related compounds on VEGF-induced VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) activation and an approximation to the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibition. Quantification of phosphorylated VEGFR-2 was measured by ELISA. Migration wound-healing assay was used to determine cell migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This is the first time that melatonin, 3-indolacetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophol, and serotonin are proved to significantly inhibit VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and subsequent angiogenesis. 3-Indolacetic acid showed the highest inhibitory effect (IC50 value of 0.9704 mM), followed by 5-hydroxytryptophol (35% of inhibition at 0.1 mM), melatonin (30% of inhibition at 1 mM), and serotonin (24% of inhibition at 1 mM). An approximation to the molecular mechanism of the inhibition has been proposed, suggesting that indolic compounds might interact with the cell surface components of the endothelial membrane in a way that prevents VEGF from activating the receptor. Additionally, wound-healing assay revealed that exposure of HUVECs to melatonin and 3-indolacetic acid in the presence of VEGF significantly inhibited cell migration by 87% and 99%, respectively, after 24 h. These data demonstrate that melatonin, 3-indolacetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophol, and serotonin would be good molecules for future exploitation as anti-VEGF signaling agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Maternal Consumption of Hesperidin and Naringin  Flavanones Exerts Transient Effects to Tibia Bone  Structure in Female CD‐1 Offspring
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 250; doi:10.3390/nu9030250
Received: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
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Abstract
Hesperidin (HSP) and naringin (NAR), flavanones rich in citrus fruits, support skeletal integrity in adult and aging rodent models. This study determined whether maternal consumption of HSP and NAR favorably programs bone development, resulting in higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater structure
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Hesperidin (HSP) and naringin (NAR), flavanones rich in citrus fruits, support skeletal integrity in adult and aging rodent models. This study determined whether maternal consumption of HSP and NAR favorably programs bone development, resulting in higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater structure and biomechanical strength (i.e., peak load) in female offspring. Female CD‐1 mice were fed a control diet or a HSP + NAR diet five weeks before pregnancy and throughout pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, female offspring were fed a control diet until six months of age. The structure and BMD of the proximal tibia were measured longitudinally using in vivo microcomputed tomography at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. The trabecular bone structure at two and four months and the trabecular BMD at four months were compromised at the proximal tibia in mice exposed to HSP and NAR compared to the control diet (p < 0.001). At six months of age, these differences in trabecular structure and BMD at the proximal tibia had disappeared. At 6 months of age, the tibia midpoint peak load, BMD, structure, and the peak load of lumbar vertebrae and femurs were similar (p > 0.05) between the HSP + NAR and control groups. In conclusion, maternal consumption of HSP and NAR does not enhance bone development in female CD‐1 offspring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health)
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Open AccessArticle Does the Dietary Pattern of Shanghai Residents  Change across Seasons and Area of Residence:  Assessing Dietary Quality Using the Chinese Diet  Balance Index (DBI)
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 251; doi:10.3390/nu9030251
Received: 28 December 2016 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
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Abstract
Background: Few studies have applied the Chinese Diet Balance Index (DBI) in evaluating dietary quality across seasons. Method: The Shanghai Diet and Health Survey (SDHS) included 1680 participants from all districts of Shanghai from 2012 to 2013. Dietary data were obtained using three‐day
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Background: Few studies have applied the Chinese Diet Balance Index (DBI) in evaluating dietary quality across seasons. Method: The Shanghai Diet and Health Survey (SDHS) included 1680 participants from all districts of Shanghai from 2012 to 2013. Dietary data were obtained using three‐day 24‐h recall in spring, summer, fall, and winter. Higher bound score (HBS), lower bound score (LBS) and diet quality distance (DQD) were calculated according to compliance with the dietary guidelines and based on the recommendations for consumption within the main food groups. HBS, LBS, and DQD represent over‐intake, under‐intake, and overall imbalance of the diet, respectively. Results: 836 males and 844 females were included. The HBS indicated that 10.08%, 11.84%, 10.31%, and 12.73% people have moderate or high levels of over‐intake of food in spring, summer, fall, and winter, respectively; and 74.04%, 37.61%, 53.09%, and 42.72% people have moderate or high levels of deficit food intake for each of the four seasons. The mean HBS and LBS among the four seasons were statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). The mean (SD) DQD was 43.27 (10.21), 35.67 (9.71), 39.19 (9.36), and 36.84 (9.45) in each season. A multivariable model showed statistically significant differences in DQD according to age, gender, occupational status, education, smoking, drinking status, season, and residency (p < 0.001). Conclusion: An unbalanced diet is common among people living in Shanghai. Seasonality and area of residence were found to be two significant predictors. Strengthening the accessibility and the supply of food across seasons and regions should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chinese National Nutrition Survey 2012)
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Open AccessArticle Associations between Maternal Body Composition and Appetite Hormones and Macronutrients in Human Milk
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 252; doi:10.3390/nu9030252
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 18 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
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Abstract
Human milk (HM) appetite hormones and macronutrients may mediate satiety in breastfed infants. This study investigated associations between maternal adiposity and concentrations of HM leptin, adiponectin, protein and lactose, and whether these concentrations and the relationship between body mass index and percentage fat
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Human milk (HM) appetite hormones and macronutrients may mediate satiety in breastfed infants. This study investigated associations between maternal adiposity and concentrations of HM leptin, adiponectin, protein and lactose, and whether these concentrations and the relationship between body mass index and percentage fat mass (%FM) in a breastfeeding population change over the first year of lactation. Lactating women (n = 59) provided milk samples (n = 283) at the 2nd, 5th, 9th and/or 12th month of lactation. Concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, total protein and lactose were measured. Maternal %FM was measured using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Higher maternal %FM was associated with higher leptin concentrations in both whole (0.006 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.008) and skim HM (0.005 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.007), and protein (0.16 ± 0.07 g/L, p = 0.028) concentrations. Adiponectin and lactose concentrations were not associated with %FM (0.01 ± 0.06 ng/mL, p = 0.81; 0.08 ± 0.11 g/L, p = 0.48, respectively). Whole milk concentrations of adiponectin and leptin did not differ significantly over the first year of lactation. These findings suggest that the level of maternal adiposity during lactation may influence the early appetite programming of breastfed infants by modulating concentrations of HM components. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Accuracy of Capillary Hemoglobin Measurements for the Detection of Anemia among U.S. Low-Income Toddlers and Pregnant Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 253; doi:10.3390/nu9030253
Received: 6 October 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of capillary hemoglobin (Hb) measurements in detecting anemia among low-income toddlers (aged 12–35 months) and pregnant women. In analyses of data among toddlers from Kansas City (n = 402) and St. Louis,
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of capillary hemoglobin (Hb) measurements in detecting anemia among low-income toddlers (aged 12–35 months) and pregnant women. In analyses of data among toddlers from Kansas City (n = 402) and St. Louis, Missouri (n = 236), and pregnant women at <20 weeks gestation from Cleveland, Ohio (n = 397), we compared subjects’ anemia status based on capillary Hb concentrations in finger puncture samples as measured by the HemoCue system with their anemia status based on venous Hb concentrations as measured by the HemoCue and Coulter Counter. The sensitivity of capillary blood analyses in identifying cases of anemia was 32.8% (95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 21.0%–46.3%), among Kansas City toddlers, 59.7% (95% CI: 45.8%–72.4%) among St. Louis toddlers, and 66.7% (95% CI: 46.0%–83.5%) among pregnant women in Cleveland; the corresponding specificities were 97.7%, 86.6%, and 96.7%, respectively. The correlation between HemoCue and Coulter Counter measurements of venous Hb (0.9) was higher than that between HemoCue measurements of capillary and venous blood (0.8). The results show that Hb measurements of capillary blood with HemoCue were not optimal for determining the anemia status of toddlers and pregnant women. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Iodine and Selenium Intakes of Postmenopausal Women in New Zealand
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 254; doi:10.3390/nu9030254
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
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Abstract
Iodine and selenium are required for thyroid function. This study investigated iodine and selenium intakes in healthy, women aged 50–70 years (n = 97) from three cities in the North Island of New Zealand, after mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt.
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Iodine and selenium are required for thyroid function. This study investigated iodine and selenium intakes in healthy, women aged 50–70 years (n = 97) from three cities in the North Island of New Zealand, after mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt. Iodine and selenium concentrations were determined in 24-h urine samples; daily intakes were extrapolated from amounts in urine (90% and 55% of daily intake, respectively). Three day diet diaries (3DDD) also estimated selenium and iodine (excluding iodised salt) intake. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 57 (41, 78) µg/L, indicating mild iodine deficiency. Estimated median iodine intake based on urine was 138 (100, 172) µg/day, below Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) (150 µg/day) with 25% below Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) (100 µg/day). Estimated median selenium intake was 50 (36, 71) µg/day based on urine and 45 (36, 68) µg/day using 3DDD, below RDI (60 µg/day) with 49%–55% below EAR (50 µg/day). Median bread intakes were low at 1.8 (1.1, 2.7) serves/day; 25% consumed ≤1 serve/day. Although population iodine intakes improved following mandatory fortification, some had low intakes. Selenium intakes remain low. Further research should investigate thyroid function of low consumers of iodine fortified bread and/or selenium in New Zealand. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on  Methotrexate Chemotherapy‐Induced Bone Loss
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 255; doi:10.3390/nu9030255
Received: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
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Abstract
Intensive cancer chemotherapy is known to cause bone defects, which currently lack treatments. This study investigated the effects of polyphenol resveratrol (RES) in preventing bone defects in rats caused by methotrexate (MTX), a commonly used antimetabolite in childhood oncology. Young rats received five
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Intensive cancer chemotherapy is known to cause bone defects, which currently lack treatments. This study investigated the effects of polyphenol resveratrol (RES) in preventing bone defects in rats caused by methotrexate (MTX), a commonly used antimetabolite in childhood oncology. Young rats received five daily MTX injections at 0.75 mg/kg/day. RES was orally gavaged daily for seven days prior to, and during, five‐day MTX administration. MTX reduced growth plate thickness, primary spongiosa height, trabecular bone volume, increased marrow adipocyte density, and increased mRNA expression of the osteogenic, adipogenic, and osteoclastogenic factors in the tibial bone. RES at 10 mg/kg was found not to affect bone health in normal rats, but to aggravate the bone damage in MTX‐treated rats. However, RES supplementation at 1 mg/kg preserved the growth plate, primary spongiosa, bone volume, and lowered the adipocyte density. It maintained expression of genes involved in osteogenesis and decreased expression of adipogenic and osteoclastogenic factors. RES suppressed osteoclast formation ex vivo of bone marrow cells from the treated rats. These data suggest that MTX can enhance osteoclast and adipocyte formation and cause bone loss, and that RES supplementation at 1 mg/kg may potentially prevent these bone defects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Usefulness of the Waist Circumference-to-Height Ratio in Screening for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Children and Adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2014
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 256; doi:10.3390/nu9030256
Received: 20 January 2017 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
The aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic value of the weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) for the detection of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Korean children and adolescents, and to determine the advantages of WHtR as a population-based screening tool in
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The aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic value of the weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) for the detection of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Korean children and adolescents, and to determine the advantages of WHtR as a population-based screening tool in comparison with other obesity indicators, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 3057 children and adolescents (1625 boys, 1332 girls) aged 10–19 years who were included in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010–2012) up to the second year of the sixth KNHANES (2013–2014). Receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the optimal cutoff value and accuracy of WHtR for predicting individual obesity indicators or more than two non-WC components of MS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of the diagnostic power of a test. A perfect test will have an AUC of 1.0, and an AUC equal to 0.5 means that the test performs no better than chance. The optimal WHtR cutoff for the evaluation of general obesity and central obesity was 0.50 in boys and 0.47–0.48 in girls, and the AUC was 0.9. Regarding the assessment of each MS risk factor, the optimal WHtR cutoff was 0.43–0.50 in boys and 0.43–0.49 in girls, and these cutoffs were statistically significant only for the detection of high triglyceride and low High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. When a pairwise comparison of the AUCs was conducted between WHtR and BMI/WC percentiles to quantify the differences in power for MS screening, the WHtR AUC values (boys, 0.691; girls, 0.684) were higher than those of other indices; however, these differences were not statistically significant (boys, p = 0.467; girls, p = 0.51). The WHtR cutoff value was 0.44 (sensitivity, 67.7%; specificity, 64.6%) for boys and 0.43 (sensitivity, 66.4%; specificity, 66.9%) for girls. There was no significant difference between the diagnostic power of WHtR and that of BMI/WC when screening for MS. Although the use of WHtR was not superior, WHtR is still useful as a screening tool for metabolic problems related to obesity because of its convenience. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Short-Term Dietary Fructose Supplementation on Gastric Emptying Rate and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses in Healthy Men
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 258; doi:10.3390/nu9030258
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to examine gastric emptying rate and gastrointestinal hormone responses to fructose and glucose ingestion following 3 days of dietary fructose supplementation. Using the 13C-breath test method, gastric emptying rates of equicaloric fructose and glucose solutions were measured in 10
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This study aimed to examine gastric emptying rate and gastrointestinal hormone responses to fructose and glucose ingestion following 3 days of dietary fructose supplementation. Using the 13C-breath test method, gastric emptying rates of equicaloric fructose and glucose solutions were measured in 10 healthy men with prior fructose supplementation (fructose supplement, FS; glucose supplement, GS) and without prior fructose supplementation (fructose control, FC; glucose control, GC). In addition, circulating concentrations of acylated ghrelin (GHR), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were determined, as well as leptin, lactate, and triglycerides. Increased dietary fructose ingestion resulted in accelerated gastric emptying rate of a fructose solution but not a glucose solution. No differences in GIP, GLP-1, or insulin incremental area under curve (iAUC) were found between control and supplement trials for either fructose or glucose ingestion. However, a trend for lower ghrelin iAUC was observed for FS compared to FC. In addition, a trend of lower GHR concentration was observed at 45 min for FS compared to FC and GHR concentration for GS was greater than GC at 10 min. The accelerated gastric emptying rate of fructose following short-term supplementation with fructose may be partially explained by subtle changes in delayed postprandial ghrelin suppression. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Associations with Skin Color in Pregnant Women in the First Trimester in a Sample from Switzerland
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 260; doi:10.3390/nu9030260
Received: 29 January 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy has negative clinical consequences, such as associations with glucose intolerance, and has been shown to be distributed differently in certain ethnic groups. In some countries, a difference in the rate of vitamin D deficiency was detected in pregnant
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Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy has negative clinical consequences, such as associations with glucose intolerance, and has been shown to be distributed differently in certain ethnic groups. In some countries, a difference in the rate of vitamin D deficiency was detected in pregnant women depending on their skin color. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) in women in early pregnancy in Switzerland and evaluated the association of skin color with vitamin D deficiency. In a single-center cohort study, the validated Fitzpatrick scale and objective melanin index were used to determine skin color. Of the 204 pregnant women included, 63% were vitamin D deficient. The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 26.1 ng/mL (95% confidence interval (CI) 24.8–27.4) in vitamin D–sufficient women and 10.5 ng/mL (95% CI 9.7–11.5) in women with deficiency. In the most parsimonious model, women with dark skin color were statistically significantly more often vitamin D deficient compared to women with light skin color (OR 2.60; 95% CI 1.08–6.22; adjusted for age, season, vitamin D supplement use, body mass index, smoking, parity). This calls for more intense counseling as one policy option to improve vitamin D status during pregnancy, i.e., use of vitamin D supplements during pregnancy, in particular for women with darker skin color. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Buglossoides Arvensis Oil Increases Circulating n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in a Dose-Dependent Manner and Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Whole Blood Interleukin-10—A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 261; doi:10.3390/nu9030261
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
Buglossoides arvensis (Ahiflower) oil is a dietary oil rich in stearidonic acid (20% SDA; 18:4 n-3). The present randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigated the effects of three Ahiflower oil dosages on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of plasma and
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Buglossoides arvensis (Ahiflower) oil is a dietary oil rich in stearidonic acid (20% SDA; 18:4 n-3). The present randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigated the effects of three Ahiflower oil dosages on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of plasma and mononuclear cells (MCs) and of the highest Ahiflower dosage on stimulated cytokine production in blood. Healthy subjects (n = 88) consumed 9.7 mL per day for 28 days of 100% high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO); 30% Ahiflower oil (Ahi) + 70% HOSO; 60% Ahi + 40% HOSO; and 100% Ahi. No clinically significant changes in blood and urine chemistries, blood lipid profiles, hepatic and renal function tests nor hematology were measured. Linear mixed models (repeated measures design) probed for differences in time, and time × treatment interactions. Amongst significant changes, plasma and MC eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) levels increased from baseline at day 28 in all Ahiflower groups (p < 0.05) and the increase was greater in all Ahiflower groups compared to the HOSO control (time × treatment interactions; p < 0.05). Similar results were obtained for α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3), eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA, 20:4 n-3), and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) content; but not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3). Production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) was increased in the 100% Ahiflower oil group compared to 100% HOSO group (p < 0.05). IL-10 production was also increased in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated M2-differentiated THP-1 macrophage-like cells in the presence of 20:4 n-3 or EPA (p < 0.05). Overall; this indicates that the consumption of Ahiflower oil is associated with an anti-inflammatory phenotype in healthy subjects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Broccoli Alters Rat Cecal Microbiota to Improve Glucoraphanin Hydrolysis to Bioactive Isothiocyanates
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 262; doi:10.3390/nu9030262
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
Broccoli consumption brings many health benefits, including reducing the risk of cancer and inflammatory diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify global alterations in the cecal microbiota composition using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis and glucoraphanin (GRP) hydrolysis to isothiocyanates ex vivo
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Broccoli consumption brings many health benefits, including reducing the risk of cancer and inflammatory diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify global alterations in the cecal microbiota composition using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis and glucoraphanin (GRP) hydrolysis to isothiocyanates ex vivo by the cecal microbiota, following different broccoli diets. Rats were randomized to consume AIN93G (control) or different broccoli diets; AIN93G plus cooked broccoli, a GRP-rich powder, raw broccoli, or myrosinase-treated cooked broccoli. Feeding raw or cooked broccoli for four days or longer both changed the cecal microbiota composition and caused a greater production of isothiocyanates ex vivo. A more than two-fold increase in NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity of the host colon mucosa after feeding cooked broccoli for seven days confirmed the positive health benefits. Further studies revealed that dietary GRP was specifically responsible for the increased microbial GRP hydrolysis ex vivo, whereas changes in the cecal microbial communities were attributed to other broccoli components. Interestingly, a three-day withdrawal from a raw broccoli diet reversed the increased microbial GRP hydrolysis ex vivo. Findings suggest that enhanced conversion of GRP to bioactive isothiocyanates by the cecal microbiota requires four or more days of broccoli consumption and is reversible. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chondroprotective Effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 in  Human Osteoarthritis Chondrocytes and a Rat Model  of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 263; doi:10.3390/nu9030263
Received: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to assess whether Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) inhibits inflammatory responses in human chondrocytes and reduces articular cartilage damage in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). Gene expression and protein levels of type II collagen, aggrecan, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‐13 and cyclooxygenase‐2 (COX‐2)
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This study aimed to assess whether Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) inhibits inflammatory responses in human chondrocytes and reduces articular cartilage damage in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). Gene expression and protein levels of type II collagen, aggrecan, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‐13 and cyclooxygenase‐2 (COX‐2) were determined in vitro by quantitative real‐time‐polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) amounts in the culture medium were determined by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For in vivo assessment, a rat model of OA was generated by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). Four weeks after ACLT, Rg1 (30 or 60 mg/kg) or saline was administered by gavage once a day for eight consecutive weeks. Joint damage was analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Ginsenoside Rg1 inhibited Interleukin (IL)‐1β‐induced chondrocyte gene and protein expressions of MMP‐13, COX‐2 and PGE2, and prevented type II collagen and aggrecan degradation, in a dose‐dependent manner. Administration of Ginsenoside Rg1 to OA rats attenuated cartilage degeneration, and reduced type II collagen loss and MMP‐13 levels. These findings demonstrated that Ginsenoside Rg1 can inhibit inflammatory responses in human chondrocytes in vitro and reduce articular cartilage damage in vivo, confirming the potential therapeutic value of Ginsenoside Rg1 in OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Beverage Consumption among U.S. Children Aged 0–24 Months: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 264; doi:10.3390/nu9030264
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract
Data on beverage consumption patterns in early life are limited. The aim of this study was to describe beverage consumption by sociodemographic characteristics, along with water intake and sources of water among U.S. children aged 0–24 months. Data from 2740 children in the
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Data on beverage consumption patterns in early life are limited. The aim of this study was to describe beverage consumption by sociodemographic characteristics, along with water intake and sources of water among U.S. children aged 0–24 months. Data from 2740 children in the 2005–2012 NHANES were analysed. Food intake was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Beverages were categorised according to What We Eat In America groups. Poverty–Income ratio was used to define household income. During infancy (0–5.9 months and 6–11.9 months) infant formulas were the most commonly consumed beverage, 74.1% and 78.6% of children consuming, respectively. Comparatively fewer children, 41.6% and 24.3%, consumed breast milk. In toddlers (12–24 months), the most commonly consumed beverages were plain milk (83.6% of children consuming), water (68.6%), 100% fruit juice (51.8%) and sweetened beverages (31.2%). Non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American children were more likely to consume sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice and infant formula than Non-Hispanic white children. Children from lower income households were more likely to consume sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice and less likely to consume breast milk than children from higher income households. Total water intake increased with age and the contribution of water from food and beverage sources was ~20% and ~80% for all children, respectively. Disparities in beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and income level are apparent in early life. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prevalence and Correlates of Preschool Overweight and Obesity Amidst the Nutrition Transition: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study in Lebanon
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 266; doi:10.3390/nu9030266
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
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Abstract
There is increasing evidence linking early life adiposity to disease risk later in life. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among preschoolers in Lebanon. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 2–5 years old children (
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There is increasing evidence linking early life adiposity to disease risk later in life. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among preschoolers in Lebanon. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 2–5 years old children (n = 525). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data were obtained. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was estimated at 6.5% and 2.7%, respectively. Based on stepwise logistic regression for the prediction of overweight and obesity (combined), the variance accounted for by the first block (socioeconomic, parental characteristics) was 11.9%, with higher father’s education (OR = 5.31, 95% CI: 1.04–27.26) and the presence of household helper (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.05–4.56) being significant predictors. The second block of variables (eating habits) significantly improved the prediction of overweight/obesity to reach 21%, with eating in front of the television (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02–1.13) and satiety responsiveness (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70–0.99) being significantly associated with overweight/obesity. In the third block, fat intake remained a significant predictor of overweight/obesity (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.13–4.75). This study identified specific risk factors for preschool overweight/obesity in Lebanon and characterized children from high socioeconomic backgrounds as important target groups for preventive interventions. These findings may be of significance to other middle-income countries in similar stages of nutrition transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Behavior in Children)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Mid-Upper Arm Circumference and Weight-for-Height to Diagnose Severe Acute Malnutrition: A Study in Southern Ethiopia
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 267; doi:10.3390/nu9030267
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
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Abstract
Weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) are two independent anthropometric indicators for diagnosing and admitting children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) for treatment. While severely wasted children are at high risk of mortality, MUAC and WHZ do not always identify
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Weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) are two independent anthropometric indicators for diagnosing and admitting children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) for treatment. While severely wasted children are at high risk of mortality, MUAC and WHZ do not always identify the same population of children as having SAM. Understanding how this discrepancy relates to age and sex may provide valuable information for care programmes for children with SAM. Age and sex distribution for differences between children identified as SAM by MUAC and WHZ were examined and the degree of agreement calculated. Children (n = 4297) aged 6–59 months with validated anthropometric measures were recruited from a population-based survey conducted in rural southern Ethiopia. MUAC < 115 mm and WHZ < −3 were used to define severe wasting as per the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. The kappa coefficient (κ) was calculated. There was fair agreement between the MUAC and WHZ definitions of severe wasting in boys (κ = 0.37) and children younger than 24 months (κ = 0.32) but poor agreement in girls (κ = 0.15) and children aged 24 months and above (κ = 0.13). More research is needed on response to treatment and prediction of mortality using different anthropometric measurements in relation to ages and sex of children. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Absorption, Metabolism and Excretion of Cranberry (Poly)phenols in Humans: A Dose Response Study and Assessment of Inter-Individual Variability
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 268; doi:10.3390/nu9030268
Received: 2 February 2017 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
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Abstract
The beneficial health effects of cranberries have been attributed to their (poly)phenol content. Recent studies have investigated the absorption, metabolism and excretion of cranberry (poly)phenols; however, little is known about whether they follow a dose response in vivo at different levels of intake.
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The beneficial health effects of cranberries have been attributed to their (poly)phenol content. Recent studies have investigated the absorption, metabolism and excretion of cranberry (poly)phenols; however, little is known about whether they follow a dose response in vivo at different levels of intake. An acute double-blind randomized controlled trial in 10 healthy men with cranberry juices containing 409, 787, 1238, 1534 and 1910 mg total (poly)phenols was performed. Blood and urine were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Sixty metabolites were identified in plasma and urine including cinnamic acids, dihydrocinnamic, flavonols, benzoic acids, phenylacetic acids, benzaldehydes, valerolactones, hippuric acids, catechols, and pyrogallols. Total plasma, but not excreted urinary (poly)phenol metabolites, exhibited a linear dose response (r2 = 0.74, p < 0.05), driven by caffeic acid 4-O-ß-d-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-ß-d-glucuronide, ferulic acid 4-O-ß-d-glucuronide, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid 3-O-ß-d-glucuronide, sinapic acid, ferulic acid 4-O-sulfate, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid-4-O-sulfate, (4R)-5-(3′-hydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone-4′-O-sulfate, 4-methylgallic acid-3-O-sulfate, and isoferulic acid 3-O-sulfate (all r2 ≥ 0.89, p < 0.05). Inter-individual variability of the plasma metabolite concentration was broad and dependent on the metabolite. Herein, we show that specific plasma (poly)phenol metabolites are linearly related to the amount of (poly)phenols consumed in cranberry juice. The large inter-individual variation in metabolite profile may be due to variations in the gut microbiome. Full article
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Open AccessArticle CYP1A2 Genotype Variations Do Not Modify the Benefits and Drawbacks of Caffeine during Exercise: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 269; doi:10.3390/nu9030269
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
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Abstract
Previous investigations have determined that some individuals have minimal or even ergolytic performance effects after caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the genetic variations of the CYP1A2 gene on the performance enhancement effects of ingesting a
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Previous investigations have determined that some individuals have minimal or even ergolytic performance effects after caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the genetic variations of the CYP1A2 gene on the performance enhancement effects of ingesting a moderate dose of caffeine. In a double-blind randomized experimental design, 21 healthy active participants (29.3 ± 7.7 years) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass or a placebo in testing sessions separated by one week. Performance in the 30 s Wingate test, visual attention, and side effects were evaluated. DNA was obtained from whole blood samples and the CYP1A2 polymorphism was analyzed (rs762551). We obtained two groups: AA homozygotes (n = 5) and C-allele carriers (n = 16). Caffeine ingestion increased peak power (682 ± 140 vs. 667 ± 137 W; p = 0.008) and mean power during the Wingate test (527 ± 111 vs. 518 ± 111 W; p < 0.001) with no differences between AA homozygotes and C-allele carriers (p > 0.05). Reaction times were similar between caffeine and placebo conditions (276 ± 31 vs. 269 ± 71 milliseconds; p = 0.681) with no differences between AA homozygotes and C-allele carriers. However, 31.3% of the C-allele carriers reported increased nervousness after caffeine ingestion, while none of the AA homozygotes perceived this side effect. Genetic variations of the CYP1A2 polymorphism did not affect the ergogenic effects and drawbacks derived from the ingestion of a moderate dose of caffeine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessArticle Correlations between Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Vitamin B12 Concentrations among Mother–Infant Dyads in Vancouver, Canada and Prey Veng, Cambodia: An Exploratory Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 270; doi:10.3390/nu9030270
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 12 March 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin B12 plays an essential role in fetal and infant development. In regions where animal source food consumption is low and perinatal supplementation is uncommon, infants are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this secondary analysis, we measured total vitamin B12 concentrations
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Vitamin B12 plays an essential role in fetal and infant development. In regions where animal source food consumption is low and perinatal supplementation is uncommon, infants are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this secondary analysis, we measured total vitamin B12 concentrations in maternal and infant serum/plasma and breast milk among two samples of mother–infant dyads in Canada (assessed at 8 weeks post-partum) and in Cambodia (assessed between 3–27 weeks post-partum). Canadian mothers (n = 124) consumed a daily vitamin B12-containing multiple micronutrient supplement throughout pregnancy and lactation; Cambodian mothers (n = 69) were unsupplemented. The maternal, milk, and infant total vitamin B12 concentrations (as geometric means (95% CI) in pmol/L) were as follows: in Canada, 698 (648,747), 452 (400, 504), and 506 (459, 552); in Cambodia, 620 (552, 687), 317 (256, 378), and 357 (312, 402). The majority of participants were vitamin B12 sufficient (serum/plasma total B12 > 221 pmol/L): 99% and 97% of mothers and 94% and 84% of infants in Canada and Cambodia, respectively. Among the Canadians, maternal, milk, and infant vitamin B12 were all correlated (p < 0.05); only maternal and infant vitamin B12 were correlated among the Cambodians (p < 0.001). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B-Vitamins and One-Carbon Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle A Combination of Flaxseed Oil and Astaxanthin Improves Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Oxidative Stress in High Fat-Diet Fed Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 271; doi:10.3390/nu9030271
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract
Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are crucial pathophysiological mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, we examined the effect of a combination of flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat
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Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are crucial pathophysiological mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, we examined the effect of a combination of flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet. ASX was dissolved in flaxseed oil (1 g/kg; FO + ASX). Animals were fed diets containing 20% fat, where the source was lard, or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX, or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX, or FO + ASX, for 10 weeks. Substitution of lard with FO + ASX reduced steatosis and reduced hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol. The combination of FO and ASX significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor expression. FO + ASX significantly suppressed fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase but induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. FO + ASX also significantly elevated hepatic SOD, CAT and GPx activity and GSH, and markedly reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Thus, FO and ASX may reduce NAFLD by reversing hepatic steatosis and reducing lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioavailability of Microencapsulated Iron from Fortified Bread Assessed Using Piglet Model
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 272; doi:10.3390/nu9030272
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of oral iron supplementation, in the form of fortified breads, on the growth performance, health, iron status parameters, and fecal metabolome of anemic piglets. A study was conducted on 24 hybrid (Large White
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The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of oral iron supplementation, in the form of fortified breads, on the growth performance, health, iron status parameters, and fecal metabolome of anemic piglets. A study was conducted on 24 hybrid (Large White × Landrace × Duroc) piglets. From day 44, the post-natal 12 piglets were supplemented with 100 g of one of two experimental breads, each fortified with 21 mg of ferrous sulphate, either encapsulated or not. After one week of oral supplementation, hematological parameters (hematocrit value, hemoglobin, and red blood cells) showed statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05). Piglets fed with the fortified breads had higher iron concentrations in the heart, liver, and intestinal mucosa compared to anemic piglets fed with control bread. Gene expression of hepcidin, iron exporter ferroportin (IREG1), and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), together with concentrations of plasma ferritin, showed no significant statistical differences between groups. Both fortified breads could be used as sources of bioavailable iron. The seven-day intervention trial showed microencapsulation to have only a mild effect on the effectiveness of iron supplementation in the form of fortified bread. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Feasibility of Assessing Diet with a Mobile Food  Record for Adolescents and Young Adults with  Down Syndrome
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 273; doi:10.3390/nu9030273
Received: 2 February 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract
Technology‐based methods for assessing diet in those with disability remains largely unexplored. The aim was to assess the feasibility of assessing diet with an image‐based mobile food record application (mFR) in 51 adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (PANDs). Adherence was also
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Technology‐based methods for assessing diet in those with disability remains largely unexplored. The aim was to assess the feasibility of assessing diet with an image‐based mobile food record application (mFR) in 51 adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (PANDs). Adherence was also assessed with the instruction to include a fiducial marker object in the before and after eating images. The PANDs sample completed a four‐day mFR and results were compared with a sample of young adults from the Connecting Health and Technology study (CHAT, n = 244). Compared to the CHAT sample, PANDs participants reported more fruit (2.2 ± 1.8 versus 1.0 ± 0.9 serves respectively) and vegetables (2.4 ± 1.3 versus 1.9 ± 1.0 serves, respectively), but no differences in energy‐dense nutrient‐poor (EDNP) foods and beverages were observed. Compared to CHAT, PANDs participants captured fewer images with the mFR (4.9 ± 2.3 versus 4.0 ± 1.5 images, respectively). Adherence to the instruction to include the fiducial marker in images was lower for PANDs compared with the CHAT sample (90.3% versus 96.5%). Due to the quality of information captured in images and the high acceptability of the fiducial marker, the mFR shows great promise as a feasible method of assessing diet in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Food Insecurity, Poor Diet Quality, and Suboptimal Intakes of Folate and Iron Are Independently Associated with Perceived Mental Health in Canadian Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 274; doi:10.3390/nu9030274
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 4 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
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Abstract
Background: To address nutrition-related population mental health data gaps, we examined relationships among food insecurity, diet quality, and perceived mental health. Methods: Stratified and logistic regression analyses of respondents aged 19–70 years from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 were conducted (
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Background: To address nutrition-related population mental health data gaps, we examined relationships among food insecurity, diet quality, and perceived mental health. Methods: Stratified and logistic regression analyses of respondents aged 19–70 years from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 were conducted (n = 15,546). Measures included the Household Food Security Survey Module, diet quality (i.e., comparisons to the Dietary Reference Intakes, Healthy Eating Index), perceived mental health (poor versus good), sociodemographics, and smoking. Results: In this sample, 6.9% were food insecure and 4.5% reported poor mental health. Stratified analysis of food security and mental health status by age/gender found associations for poor diet quality, protein, fat, fibre, and several micronutrients (p-values < 0.05); those who were food insecure tended to have higher suboptimal intakes (p-values < 0.05). After adjustment for covariates, associations in relation to mental health emerged for food insecurity (OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.45–1.71), poor diet quality (1.61, 95% CI 1.34–1.81), and suboptimal intakes of folate (OR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.17–1.90) and iron (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.23–1.88). Conclusions: Population approaches that improve food security and intakes of high quality diets may protect people from poor mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Mental Health)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Intake of Individual (Free and Intrinsic) Sugars and Food Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 275; doi:10.3390/nu9030275
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
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Abstract
The consumption of total and individual sugars is controversial and little is known about consumption and dietary sources in Spain. The purpose was to examine free and intrinsic sugar intake and food and beverage sources. The ANIBES Study (Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance
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The consumption of total and individual sugars is controversial and little is known about consumption and dietary sources in Spain. The purpose was to examine free and intrinsic sugar intake and food and beverage sources. The ANIBES Study (Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain), a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old; n = 2009) carried out in 2013, was used. Food and beverage records were obtained by a three-day dietary record by using a tablet device. The median total sugar intake was 71.5 g/day (17% Total Energy, TE), the intrinsic sugar intake was 38.3 g/day (9.6% TE), and the free sugar was 28.8 g/day (7.3% TE). Total sugar intake (free and intrinsic) was higher in men than in women for all age groups, although in terms of the contribution to total energy intake, the opposite was observed. Differences were observed for free sugar consumption dependent on age and marked differences (up to two-fold) were observed when considering the percent TE, which was much higher in children and adolescents. For the intrinsic sugar, however, a higher contribution to TE was observed in the elderly. The major sources of intrinsic sugars were fruits (31.8%), milks (19.6%), juices and nectars (11.1%), vegetables (9.89%), yogurt and fermented milk (7.18%), low-alcohol-content beverages (4,94%), bread (2.91%), and sugar soft drinks (2.24%), greater than 90% from diet contribution. As for free sugars, sources were sugar soft drinks (25.5%), sugar (17.8%), bakery and pastry items (15.2%), chocolates (11.4%), yogurt and fermented milk (6.44%), other dairy products (5.99%), jams (3.58%), juices and nectars (2.91%), and breakfast cereals and cereal bars (2.78%), summing up to 90% of the contribution. The present study demonstrates that only a moderate percentage of the Spanish population adhered to the present recommendations for total sugar intake, and urgent efforts are needed to improve diet quality in the youngest populations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association between Coffee Consumption and Its Polyphenols with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Population-Based Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 276; doi:10.3390/nu9030276
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
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Abstract
Epidemiological studies have examined the effect of coffee intake on cardiovascular disease, but the benefits and risks for the cardiovascular system remain controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and its polyphenols on cardiovascular risk factors. Data came from
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Epidemiological studies have examined the effect of coffee intake on cardiovascular disease, but the benefits and risks for the cardiovascular system remain controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and its polyphenols on cardiovascular risk factors. Data came from the “Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Capital)” among 557 individuals, in São Paulo, Brazil. Diet was assessed by two 24-h dietary recalls. Coffee consumption was categorized into <1, 1–3, and ≥3 cups/day. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data with the Phenol-Explorer database. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, fasting glucose, and homocysteine) and usual coffee intake. The odds were lower among individuals who drank 1–3 cups of coffee/day to elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.45; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.26, 0.78), elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (OR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.98), and hyperhomocysteinemia (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.93). Furthermore, significant inverse associations were also observed between moderate intake of coffee polyphenols and elevated SBP (OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.87), elevated DBP (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.98), and hyperhomocysteinemia (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.78). In conclusion, coffee intake of 1–3 cups/day and its polyphenols were associated with lower odds of elevated SBP, DBP, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Thus, the moderate consumption of coffee, a polyphenol-rich beverage, could exert a protective effect against some cardiovascular risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Elevated Serum Hepcidin Levels during an Intensified Training Period in Well-Trained Female Long-Distance Runners
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 277; doi:10.3390/nu9030277
Received: 24 November 2016 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
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Abstract
Iron is essential for providing oxygen to working muscles during exercise, and iron deficiency leads to decreased exercise capacity during endurance events. However, the mechanism of iron deficiency among endurance athletes remains unclear. In this study, we compared iron status between two periods
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Iron is essential for providing oxygen to working muscles during exercise, and iron deficiency leads to decreased exercise capacity during endurance events. However, the mechanism of iron deficiency among endurance athletes remains unclear. In this study, we compared iron status between two periods involving different training regimens. Sixteen female long-distance runners participated. Over a seven-month period, fasting blood samples were collected during their regular training period (LOW; middle of February) and during an intensified training period (INT; late of August) to determine blood hematological, iron, and inflammatory parameters. Three-day food diaries were also assessed. Body weight and lean body mass did not differ significantly between LOW and INT, while body fat and body fat percentage were significantly lower in INT (p < 0.05). Blood hemoglobin, serum ferritin, total protein, and iron levels, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation did not differ significantly between the two periods. Serum hepcidin levels were significantly higher during INT than LOW (p < 0.05). Carbohydrate and iron intakes from the daily diet were significantly higher during INT than LOW (p < 0.05). In conclusion, an elevated hepcidin level was observed during an intensified training period in long-distance runners, despite an apparently adequate daily intake of iron. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Addition of Liquid Fructose to a Western-Type Diet in LDL-R−/− Mice Induces Liver Inflammation and Fibrogenesis Markers without Disrupting Insulin Receptor Signalling after an Insulin Challenge
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 278; doi:10.3390/nu9030278
Received: 2 February 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract
A high consumption of fat and simple sugars, especially fructose, has been related to the development of insulin resistance, but the mechanisms involved in the effects of these nutrients are not fully understood. This study investigates the effects of a Western-type diet and
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A high consumption of fat and simple sugars, especially fructose, has been related to the development of insulin resistance, but the mechanisms involved in the effects of these nutrients are not fully understood. This study investigates the effects of a Western-type diet and liquid fructose supplementation, alone and combined, on insulin signalling and inflammation in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient mice (LDL-R−/−). LDL-R−/− mice were fed chow or Western diet ±15% fructose solution for 12 weeks. Plasma glucose and insulin, and the expression of genes related to inflammation in the liver and visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT), were analysed. V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog-2 (Akt) activation was measured in the liver of the mice after a single injection of saline or insulin. None of the dietary interventions caused inflammation in vWAT, whereas the Western diet induced hepatic inflammation, which was further enhanced by liquid fructose, leading also to a significant increase in fibrogenesis markers. However, there was no change in plasma glucose or insulin, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. In conclusion, hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis markers induced by a Western diet supplemented with liquid fructose in LDL-R−/− mice are not associated with a significant impairment of hepatic insulin signalling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Trends in Determinants of Hypercholesterolemia among Chinese Adults between 2002 and 2012: Results from the National Nutrition Survey
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 279; doi:10.3390/nu9030279
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract
Hypercholesterolemia is a known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and affects a high proportion of the population. This study aimed to assess and compare the determinants of hypercholesterolemia among Chinese adults aged 18 years and above, from 2002 to 2012. The study used
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Hypercholesterolemia is a known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and affects a high proportion of the population. This study aimed to assess and compare the determinants of hypercholesterolemia among Chinese adults aged 18 years and above, from 2002 to 2012. The study used a stratified multistage cluster sampling method to select participants. Sociodemographic and lifestyle information was collected during face-to-face interviews. Dietary intake was calculated by 3-day, 24-h dietary records in combination with weighted edible oil and condiments. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as total cholesterol above 6.22 mmol/L (240 mg/dL) from fasting blood samples. The study included 47,701 (mean age 43.0 years) and 39,870 (mean age 51.0 years) participants in 2002 and 2010–2012 surveys respectively. The weighted prevalence of hypercholesterolemia increased from 1.6% (2.1% urban, 1.0% rural) in 2002 to 6.0% (6.4% urban, 5.1% rural) in 2012. The intake of plant-based food decreased but the intake of pork increased over the 10 years. A high intake of protein and pork, alcohol drinking and overweight/obesity were positively associated with hypercholesterolemia. Neither education nor fruit and vegetable intake were associated with hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion, the burden of hypercholesterolemia increased substantially between 2002 and 2012 in China. Unhealthy lifestyle factors and change in traditional dietary pattern were positively associated with hypercholesterolemia. Further research on the role of diet in the development and prevention of hypercholesterolemia is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chinese National Nutrition Survey 2012)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of a Diet-Based Weight-Reducing Program with Probiotic Supplementation on Satiety Efficiency, Eating Behaviour Traits, and Psychosocial Behaviours in Obese Individuals
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 284; doi:10.3390/nu9030284
Received: 14 December 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract
This study evaluated the impact of probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 (LPR)) on appetite sensations and eating behaviors in the context of a weight-reducing program. Obese men (n = 45) and women (n = 60) participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled
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This study evaluated the impact of probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 (LPR)) on appetite sensations and eating behaviors in the context of a weight-reducing program. Obese men (n = 45) and women (n = 60) participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that included a 12-week weight loss period (Phase 1) based on moderate energy restriction, followed by 12 weeks of weight maintenance (Phase 2). During the two phases of the program, each subject consumed two capsules per day of either a placebo or a LPR formulation (10 mg of LPR equivalent to 1.6 108 CFU/capsule, 210 mg of oligofructose, and 90 mg of inulin). The LPR supplementation increased weight loss in women that was associated with a greater increase in the fasting desire to eat (p = 0.03). On the other hand, satiety efficiency (satiety quotient for desire to eat) at lunch increased (p = 0.02), whereas disinhibition (p = 0.05) and hunger (p = 0.02) scores decreased more in the LPR-treated women, when compared with the female control group. Additionally, the LPR female group displayed a more pronounced decrease in food craving (p = 0.05), and a decrease in the Beck Depression Inventory score (p = 0.05) that was significantly different from the change noted in the placebo group (p = 0.02), as well as a higher score in the Body Esteem Scale questionnaire (p = 0.06). In men, significant benefits of LPR on fasting fullness and cognitive restraint were also observed. Taken together, these observations lend support to the hypothesis that the gut-brain axis may impact appetite control and related behaviors in obesity management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Differences in Dietary Preferences, Personality and Mental Health in Australian Adults with and without Food Addiction
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 285; doi:10.3390/nu9030285
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract
Increased obesity rates, an evolving food supply and the overconsumption of energy dense foods has led to an increase in research exploring addictive eating behaviours. This study aimed to investigate food addiction in a sample of Australian adults using the revised Yale Food
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Increased obesity rates, an evolving food supply and the overconsumption of energy dense foods has led to an increase in research exploring addictive eating behaviours. This study aimed to investigate food addiction in a sample of Australian adults using the revised Yale Food Addiction Survey (YFAS) 2.0 tool and how it is associated with dietary intake, personality traits and mental health issues. Australian adults were invited to complete an online survey that collected information including: demographics, dietary intake, depression, anxiety, stress and personality dimensions including impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity. A total of 1344 individuals were recruited with the samples comprising 75.7% female, mean age 39.8 ± 13.1 years (range 18–91 years) and body mass index BMI 27.7 ± 9.5. Food addiction was identified in 22.2% of participants using the YFAS 2.0 tool, which classified the severity of food addiction as “mild” in 0.7% of cases, “moderate” in 2.6% and “severe” in 18.9% of cases. Predictors of severe food addiction were female gender (odds ratio (OR) 3.65 95% CI 1.86–7.11) and higher levels of soft drink OR 1.36 (1.07–1.72), confectionary consumption and anxiety sensitivity 1.16 (1.07–1.26). Overall people with “severe” (OR 13.2, 5.8–29.8) or extremely severe depressive symptoms (OR 15.6, range 7.1–34.3) had the highest odds of having severe food addiction. The only variable that reduced the odds of having severe food addiction was vegetable intake. The current study highlights that addictive food behaviours are associated with a complex pattern of poor dietary choices and a clustering with mental health issues, particularly depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Outcomes of the NRS 2002 in Patients Hospitalized in Nephrology Wards
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 287; doi:10.3390/nu9030287
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 25 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
Introduction: Malnutrition is a common problem among hospitalized patients. In chronic kidney disease, it affects up to 50% of the population. Undernourishment has an adverse effect on prognosis and prolongs convalescence. The aim of the study was to test the effectiveness of NRS
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Introduction: Malnutrition is a common problem among hospitalized patients. In chronic kidney disease, it affects up to 50% of the population. Undernourishment has an adverse effect on prognosis and prolongs convalescence. The aim of the study was to test the effectiveness of NRS (Nutrition Risk Screening) -2002 in the assessment of risk of malnutrition for patients hospitalized in nephrology wards. The aim was to develop clinical characteristics of malnourished patients and to assess the relationship between nutritional status and patient outcome. Methods: The analysis included 292 patients, consecutively admitted to nephrology wards. NRS-2002 was assessed in comparison to subjective global assessment. Associations with patient characteristics and outcome were evaluated. Results: Out of all the respondents, 119 patients (40%) suffered from malnutrition. The NRS-2002 showed a very strong relationship with Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) (p < 0.0001). Malnourished patients were older, were characterized by a significantly lower body mass index (BMI), and had a much longer hospitalization duration. In multiple regression analysis, the presence of malnutrition proved to be an independent predictor of the duration of hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition is highly prevalent among patients hospitalized in nephrology wards, and it affects the length of hospitalization. Identification of malnourished patients and patients at serious risk of malnutrition progression allows the implementation of appropriate nutritional intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Protocatechuic Acid on TNBS-Induced Colitis in Mice Is Associated with Modulation of the SphK/S1P Signaling Pathway
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 288; doi:10.3390/nu9030288
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: The present study aimed to investigate whether beneficial effects of protocatechuic acid (PCA) are associated with inhibition of the SphK/S1P axis and related signaling pathways in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of inflammatory bowel disease; (2) Methods: Colitis was induced in
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(1) Background: The present study aimed to investigate whether beneficial effects of protocatechuic acid (PCA) are associated with inhibition of the SphK/S1P axis and related signaling pathways in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of inflammatory bowel disease; (2) Methods: Colitis was induced in male Balb/c mice by intracolonic administration of 2 mg of TNBS. PCA (30 or 60 mg/kg body wt) was given intraperitoneally daily for five days; (3) Results: Administration of PCA prevented the macroscopic and microscopic damage to the colonic mucosa, the decrease in body weight gain and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity induced by TNBS. PCA-treated mice exhibited a lower oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and Nrf2 and reduced expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Following TNBS treatment mRNA levels, protein concentration and immunohistochemical labelling for SphK1 increased significantly. S1P production and expression of S1P receptor 1 and S1P phosphatase 2 were significantly elevated. However, there was a decreased expression of S1P lyase. Furthermore, TNBS-treated mice exhibited increased phosphorylation of AKT and ERK, and a higher expression of pSTAT3 and the NF-κB p65 subunit. PCA administration significantly prevented those changes; (4) Conclusions: Data obtained suggest a contribution of the SphK/S1P system and related signaling pathways to the anti-inflammatory effect of PCA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Transglycosylated Starch Improves Insulin Response and Alters Lipid and Amino Acid Metabolome in a Growing Pig Model
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 291; doi:10.3390/nu9030291
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
Due to the functional properties and physiological effects often associated with chemically modified starches, significant interest lies in their development for incorporation in processed foods. This study investigated the effect of transglycosylated cornstarch (TGS) on blood glucose, insulin, and serum metabolome in the
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Due to the functional properties and physiological effects often associated with chemically modified starches, significant interest lies in their development for incorporation in processed foods. This study investigated the effect of transglycosylated cornstarch (TGS) on blood glucose, insulin, and serum metabolome in the pre- and postprandial phase in growing pigs. Eight jugular vein-catheterized barrows were fed two diets containing 72% purified starch (waxy cornstarch (CON) or TGS). A meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood sampling for glucose, insulin, lipids, and metabolome profiling. TGS-fed pigs had reduced postprandial insulin (p < 0.05) and glucose (p < 0.10) peaks compared to CON-fed pigs. The MTT showed increased (p < 0.05) serum urea with TGS-fed pigs compared to CON, indicative of increased protein catabolism. Metabolome profiling showed reduced (p < 0.05) amino acids such as alanine and glutamine with TGS, suggesting increased gluconeogenesis compared to CON, probably due to a reduction in available glucose. Of all metabolites affected by dietary treatment, alkyl-acyl-phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins were generally increased (p < 0.05) preprandially, whereas diacyl-phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylcholines were decreased (p < 0.05) postprandially in TGS-fed pigs compared to CON. In conclusion, TGS led to changes in postprandial insulin and glucose metabolism, which may have caused the alterations in serum amino acid and phospholipid metabolome profiles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Probiotic Mixture on Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 293; doi:10.3390/nu9030293
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
Growing evidence has indicated that supplementation with probiotics improves lipid metabolism. We aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of a probiotics mixture (PM) of three strains belonging to the species Bifidobacterium (B. longum, B. lactis, and B. breve) and
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Growing evidence has indicated that supplementation with probiotics improves lipid metabolism. We aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of a probiotics mixture (PM) of three strains belonging to the species Bifidobacterium (B. longum, B. lactis, and B. breve) and two strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus (L. reuteri and L. plantarum) on cholesterol-lowering efficacy in hypercholesterolemic rats. A hypercholesterolemic rat model was established by feeding a high-cholesterol diet for eight weeks. To test the effects of PM on hypercholesterolemia, hypercholesterolemic rats were assigned to four groups, which were treated daily with low (1.65 × 109 cfu/kg), medium (5.5 × 109 cfu/kg), or high (1.65 × 1010 cfu/kg) doses of probiotic mixture or simvastatin for eight weeks. Significant reductions of serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels, but increases of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol were observed after supplementation of PM in hypercholesterolemic rats. In PM-supplemented hypercholesterolemic rats, hepatic tissue contents of TC and TG also significantly decreased. Notably, the histological evaluation of liver tissues demonstrated that PM dramatically decreased lipid accumulation. For their underlying mechanisms, we demonstrated that PM reduced expressions of cholesterol synthesis-related proteins such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in the liver. Taken together, these findings suggest that PM has beneficial effects against hypercholesterolemia. Accordingly, our PM might be utilized as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of hypercholesterolemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessArticle Inverse Association of Plasma Chromium Levels with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 294; doi:10.3390/nu9030294
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
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Abstract
Chromium has long been known as an enhancer of insulin action. However, the role of chromium in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in humans remains controversial. The current study aimed to examine the associations of plasma chromium levels with T2DM
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Chromium has long been known as an enhancer of insulin action. However, the role of chromium in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in humans remains controversial. The current study aimed to examine the associations of plasma chromium levels with T2DM and pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM). We conducted a case-control study involving 1471 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, 682 individuals with newly diagnosed pre-DM, and 2290 individuals with normal glucose tolerance in a Chinese population from 2009 to 2014. Plasma chromium was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Plasma chromium levels were lower in the T2DM and pre-DM groups than in the control group (median: 3.68 μg/L, 3.61 μg/L, 3.97 μg/L, respectively, p < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for T2DM across increasing quartiles of plasma chromium levels were 1 (referent), 0.67 (0.55–0.83), 0.64 (0.51–0.79), and 0.58 (0.46–0.73), respectively (p for trend <0.001). The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for pre-DM were 1 (referent), 0.70 (0.54–0.91), 0.67 (0.52–0.88), and 0.58 (0.43–0.78), respectively (p for trend < 0.001). Our results indicated that plasma chromium concentrations were inversely associated with T2DM and pre-DM in Chinese adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Consumption of Fruit or Fiber-Fruit Decreases the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in a Mediterranean Young Cohort
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 295; doi:10.3390/nu9030295
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
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Abstract
Fiber and fiber-rich foods have been inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the evidence is scarce in young and Mediterranean cohorts. We used Cox regression models to assess the association between quintiles of total fiber and fiber from different sources, and the
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Fiber and fiber-rich foods have been inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the evidence is scarce in young and Mediterranean cohorts. We used Cox regression models to assess the association between quintiles of total fiber and fiber from different sources, and the risk of CVD adjusted for the principal confounding factors in a Mediterranean cohort of young adults, the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra, Follow-up) cohort. After a median follow-up of 10.3 years, we observed 112 cases of CVD among 17,007 participants (61% female, mean age 38 years). We observed an inverse association between fiber intake and CVD events (p for trend = 0.024) and also between the highest quintile of fruit consumption (hazard ratio (HR) 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27–0.95) or whole grains consumption (HR 0.43 95% CI 0.20–0.93) and CVD compared to the lowest quintile, and also a HR of 0.58 (95% CI 0.37–0.90) for the participants who ate at least 175 g/day of fruit. Only the participants in the highest quintile of fruit-derived fiber intake had a significantly lower risk of CVD (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.28–0.97). The participants who ate at least one serving per week of cruciferous vegetables had a lower risk than those who did not (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.30–0.89). In conclusion, high fruit consumption, whole grain consumption, or consumption of at least one serving/week of cruciferous vegetables may be protective against CVD in young Mediterranean populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Serum Magnesium Concentrations in the Canadian Population and Associations with Diabetes, Glycemic Regulation, and Insulin Resistance
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 296; doi:10.3390/nu9030296
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
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Abstract
Total serum magnesium (Mg) concentration (SMC) is commonly used to assess Mg status. This study reports current SMCs of Canadians and their associations with demographic factors, diabetes, and measures of glycemic control and insulin resistance using results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey
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Total serum magnesium (Mg) concentration (SMC) is commonly used to assess Mg status. This study reports current SMCs of Canadians and their associations with demographic factors, diabetes, and measures of glycemic control and insulin resistance using results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013). Associations were examined in adults aged 20–79 years using linear mixed models. Mean SMCs and percentile distributions for 11 sex-age groups between 3 and 79 years (n = 5561) are reported. SMCs were normally distributed and differences (p < 0.05) among sex and age groups were small. Between 9.5% and 16.6% of adult sex-age groups had a SMC below the lower cut-off of a population-based reference interval (0.75–0.955 mmol·L−1) established in the United States population as part of the NHANES I conducted in 1971–1974. Having diabetes was associated with 0.04 to 0.07 mmol·L−1 lower SMC compared to not having diabetes in the various models. Body mass index, glycated hemoglobin, serum glucose and insulin concentrations, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were negatively associated with SMC. This is the first study to report SMCs in a nationally representative sample of the Canadian population. A substantial proportion of Canadians are hypomagnesaemic in relation to a population-based reference interval, and SMC was negatively associated with diabetes and indices of glycemic control and insulin resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle A Multifunctional Bread Rich in Beta Glucans and Low in Starch Improves Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: A Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 297; doi:10.3390/nu9030297
Received: 28 December 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
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Abstract
Design: Functional foods may be useful for people with diabetes. The soluble fibers beta glucans can modify starch digestion and improve postprandial glucose response. We analyzed the metabolic effects of a specifically designed ‘functional’ bread, low in starch, rich in fibers (7 g/100
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Design: Functional foods may be useful for people with diabetes. The soluble fibers beta glucans can modify starch digestion and improve postprandial glucose response. We analyzed the metabolic effects of a specifically designed ‘functional’ bread, low in starch, rich in fibers (7 g/100 g), with a beta glucan/starch ratio of (7.6:100, g/g), in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Clinical and metabolic data from two groups of age-, sex- and glycated hemoglobin-matched diabetic subjects, taking either the functional bread or regular white bread, over a roughly six-month observation period, were retrieved. Results: Bread intake did not change during the trial. The functional bread reduced glycated hemoglobin by ~0.5% (absolute units) vs. pre-treatment values (p = 0.028), and by ~0.6% vs. the control group (p = 0.027). Post-prandial and mean plasma glucose was decreased in the treatment group too. Body weight, blood pressure and plasma lipids did not change. The acceptance of the functional bread was good in the majority of subjects, except for taste. Conclusions: A starch-restricted, fiber-rich functional bread, with an increased beta glucan/starch ratio, improved long term metabolic control, and may be indicated in the dietary treatment of type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemically-Induced Skin Hyperplasia in Mice by Traditional Chinese Medicinal Formula Si-Wu-Tang
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 300; doi:10.3390/nu9030300
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 12 March 2017 / Accepted: 12 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
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Abstract
Exploring traditional medicines may lead to the development of low-cost and non-toxic cancer preventive agents. Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), comprising the combination of four herbs, Rehmanniae, Angelica, Chuanxiong, and Paeoniae, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines for women’s diseases. In our previous
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Exploring traditional medicines may lead to the development of low-cost and non-toxic cancer preventive agents. Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), comprising the combination of four herbs, Rehmanniae, Angelica, Chuanxiong, and Paeoniae, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines for women’s diseases. In our previous studies, the antioxidant Nrf2 pathways were strongly induced by SWT in vitro and in vivo. Since Nrf2 activation has been associated with anticarcinogenic effects, the purpose of this study is to evaluate SWT’s activity of cancer prevention. In the Ames test, SWT demonstrated an antimutagenic activity against mutagenicity induced by the chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). In JB6 P+ cells, a non-cancerous murine epidermal model for studying tumor promotion, SWT inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced neoplastic transformation. The luciferase reporter gene assays demonstrated that SWT suppressed EGF-induced AP-1 and TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation, which are essential factors involved in skin carcinogenesis. In a DMBA-induced skin hyperplasia assay in ‘Sensitivity to Carcinogenesis’ (SENCAR) mice, both topical and oral SWT inhibited DMBA-induced epidermal hyperplasia, expression of the proliferation marker Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and H-ras mutations. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that SWT prevents tumor promoter and chemical-induced carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo, partly by inhibiting DNA damage and blocking the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Lactational Stage of Pasteurized Human Donor Milk Contributes to Nutrient Limitations for Infants
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 302; doi:10.3390/nu9030302
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
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Abstract
Background. Mother’s own milk is the first choice for feeding preterm infants, but when not available, pasteurized human donor milk (PDM) is often used. Infants fed PDM have difficulties maintaining appropriate growth velocities. To assess the most basic elements of nutrition, we tested
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Background. Mother’s own milk is the first choice for feeding preterm infants, but when not available, pasteurized human donor milk (PDM) is often used. Infants fed PDM have difficulties maintaining appropriate growth velocities. To assess the most basic elements of nutrition, we tested the hypotheses that fatty acid and amino acid composition of PDM is highly variable and standard pooling practices attenuate variability; however, total nutrients may be limiting without supplementation due to late lactational stage of the milk. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional sampling of milk was obtained from five donor milk banks located in Ohio, Michigan, Colorado, Texas-Ft Worth, and California. Milk samples were collected after Institutional Review Board (#07-0035) approval and informed consent. Fatty acid and amino acid contents were measured in milk from individual donors and donor pools (pooled per Human Milk Banking Association of North America guidelines). Statistical comparisons were performed using Kruskal–Wallis, Spearman’s, or Multivariate Regression analyses with center as the fixed factor and lactational stage as co-variate. Results. Ten of the fourteen fatty acids and seventeen of the nineteen amino acids analyzed differed across Banks in the individual milk samples. Pooling minimized these differences in amino acid and fatty acid contents. Concentrations of lysine and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were not different across Banks, but concentrations were low compared to recommended levels. Conclusions. Individual donor milk fatty acid and amino acid contents are highly variable. Standardized pooling practice reduces this variability. Lysine and DHA concentrations were consistently low across geographic regions in North America due to lactational stage of the milk, and thus not adequately addressed by pooling. Targeted supplementation is needed to optimize PDM, especially for the preterm or volume restricted infant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Specific Mixture of Nutrients Suppresses Ovarian Cancer A-2780 Tumor Incidence, Growth, and Metastasis to Lungs
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 303; doi:10.3390/nu9030303
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
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Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological malignancy in women, and fifth leading cause of death. Despite advances made in chemotherapy and surgery, the average time of clinical remission is approximately 2 years and the 5-year survival rate is 45%. Thus, there is an
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Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological malignancy in women, and fifth leading cause of death. Despite advances made in chemotherapy and surgery, the average time of clinical remission is approximately 2 years and the 5-year survival rate is 45%. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of a novel therapeutic approach to ovarian cancer treatment. We investigated the effect of a specific nutrient mixture (EPQ) containing ascorbic acid, lysine, proline, green tea extract, and quercetin on human ovarian cancer cell A-2780 in vivo and in vitro. Athymic female nude mice (n = 12) were all inoculated intraperitoneally (IP) with 2 × 106 cells in 0.1 mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and randomly divided into two groups. Upon injection, the Control group (n = 6) was fed a regular diet and the EPQ group (n = 6) a regular diet supplemented with 0.5% EPQ. Four weeks later, the mice were sacrificed and tumors that developed in the ovary were excised, weighed, and processed for histology. Lungs were inspected for metastasis. In vitro, A-2780 cells were cultured in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% FBS and antibiotics. At near confluence, cells were treated with EPQ in triplicate at concentrations between 0 and 1000 μg/mL. Cell proliferation was measured via MTT assay, MMP-9 secretion via gelatinase zymography, invasion through Matrigel and morphology via hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining. All Control mice developed large ovarian tumors, whereas 5 out of 6 mice in the EPQ group developed no tumors, and one, a small tumor. Control mice also showed lung metastasis in 6 out of 6 mice, while no lung metastasis was evident in EPQ mice. Zymography demonstrated only MMP-9 expression, which EPQ inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion, with virtual total block at 250 μg/mL concentration. EPQ significantly inhibited invasion through Matrigel with total block at 250 μg/mL concentration. MTT showed dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation with EPQ, and H & E staining showed no morphological changes below 500 μg/mL EPQ. These results suggest that EPQ has therapeutic potential in the treatment of ovarian cancer by significantly suppressing ovarian tumor incidence and growth and lung metastasis, and by inhibiting MMP-9 secretion and invasion of A-2780 ovarian cancer cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Intra Amniotic Administration of Raffinose and Stachyose Affects the Intestinal Brush Border Functionality and Alters Gut Microflora Populations
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 304; doi:10.3390/nu9030304
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 19 March 2017
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Abstract
This study investigates the effectiveness of two types of prebiotics—stachyose and raffinose—which are present in staple food crops that are widely consumed in regions where dietary Fe deficiency is a health concern. The hypothesis is that these prebiotics will improve Fe status, intestinal
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This study investigates the effectiveness of two types of prebiotics—stachyose and raffinose—which are present in staple food crops that are widely consumed in regions where dietary Fe deficiency is a health concern. The hypothesis is that these prebiotics will improve Fe status, intestinal functionality, and increase health-promoting bacterial populations in vivo (Gallus gallus). By using the intra-amniotic administration procedure, prebiotic treatment solutions were injected in ovo (day 17 of embryonic incubation) with varying concentrations of a 1.0 mL pure raffinose or stachyose in 18 MΩ H2O. Four treatment groups (50, 100 mg·mL−1 raffinose or stachyose) and two controls (18 MΩ H2O and non-injected) were utilized. At hatch the cecum, small intestine, liver, and blood were collected for assessment of the relative abundance of the gut microflora, relative expression of Fe-related genes and brush border membrane functional genes, hepatic ferritin levels, and hemoglobin levels, respectively. The prebiotic treatments increased the relative expression of brush border membrane functionality proteins (p < 0.05), decreased the relative expression of Fe-related proteins (p < 0.05), and increased villus surface area. Raffinose and stachyose increased the relative abundance of probiotics (p < 0.05), and decreased that of pathogenic bacteria. Raffinose and stachyose beneficially affected the gut microflora, Fe bioavailability, and brush border membrane functionality. Our investigations have led to a greater understanding of these prebiotics’ effects on intestinal health and mineral metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of the Mediterranean Diet before and after Weight Loss on Eating Behavioral Traits in Men with Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 305; doi:10.3390/nu9030305
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 19 March 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this fixed sequence
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The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this fixed sequence study, 19 men with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria), aged between 24 and 62 years, first consumed a five-week standardized North American control diet followed by a five-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining controlled-feeding conditions. This was followed by a 20-week caloric restriction weight loss period in free-living conditions, without specific recommendations towards adhering to the principles of the MedDiet. Participants were finally subjected to a final five-week MedDiet phase under isoenergetic controlled-feeding conditions. The MedDiet before weight loss had no impact on eating behavioral traits. Body weight reduction by caloric restriction (−10.2% of initial weight) was associated with increased cognitive restraint (p < 0.0001) and with reduced disinhibition (p = 0.02) and susceptibility to hunger (p = 0.01). Feeding the MedDiet for five weeks under isoenergetic conditions after the weight loss phase had no further impact on eating behavioral traits. Results of this controlled-feeding study suggest that consumption of the MedDiet per se has no effect on eating behavioral traits as measured by TFEQ, unless it is combined with significant weight loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders, Diet-Related Diseases, and Metabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Association between Vitamin D Deficiency and Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 307; doi:10.3390/nu9030307
Received: 22 January 2017 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
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Abstract
Emerging evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that vitamin D may play an important role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR), but individually published studies showed inconclusive results. The aim of this study was to quantitatively summarize the
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Emerging evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that vitamin D may play an important role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR), but individually published studies showed inconclusive results. The aim of this study was to quantitatively summarize the association between vitamin D and the risk of diabetic retinopathy. We conducted a systematic literature search of Pubmed, Medline, and EMBASE updated in September 2016 with the following keywords: “vitamin D” or “cholecalciferol” or “25-hydroxyvitamin D” or “25(OH)D” in combination with “diabetic retinopathy” or “DR”. Fifteen observational studies involving 17,664 subjects were included. In this meta-analysis, type 2 diabetes patients with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL) experienced a significantly increased risk of DR (odds ratio (OR) = 2.03, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.07, 3.86), and an obvious decrease of 1.7 ng/mL (95% CI: −2.72, −0.66) in serum vitamin D was demonstrated in the patients with diabetic retinopathy. Sensitivity analysis showed that exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the overall combined effect. In conclusion, the evidence from this meta-analysis indicates an association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle Oral Cyanocobalamin is Effective in the Treatment of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Crohn’s Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 308; doi:10.3390/nu9030308
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
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Abstract
Cobalamin deficiency is common in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Intramuscular cobalamin continues to be the standard therapy for the deficiency and maintenance treatment in these patients, although oral route has been demonstrated to be effective in other pathologies with impaired absorption. Our
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Cobalamin deficiency is common in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Intramuscular cobalamin continues to be the standard therapy for the deficiency and maintenance treatment in these patients, although oral route has been demonstrated to be effective in other pathologies with impaired absorption. Our aims were to evaluate the efficacy of oral therapy in the treatment of cobalamin deficiency and in long-term maintenance in patients with Crohn’s disease. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study that included 94 patients with Crohn’s disease and cobalamin deficiency. Seventy-six patients had B12 deficiency and 94.7% of them normalized their cobalamin levels with oral treatment. The most used dose was 1 mg/day, but there were no significant differences in treatment effectiveness depending on the dose used (≥1 mg/24 h vs. <1 mg/24 h). Eighty-two patients had previous documented B12 deficiency and were treated with oral B12 to maintain their correct cobalamin levels. After a mean follow-up of 3 years, the oral route was effective as maintenance treatment in 81.7% of patients. A lack of treatment adherence was admitted by 46.6% of patients in who the oral route failed. In conclusion, our study shows that oral cyanocobalamin provides effective acute and maintenance treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency caused by CD with or without ileum resection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet in IBD)
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Open AccessArticle Reference Values of 14 Serum Trace Elements for Pregnant Chinese Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in the China Nutrition and Health Survey 2010–2012
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 309; doi:10.3390/nu9030309
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
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Abstract
The development of reference values of trace elements is recognized as a fundamental prerequisite for the assessment of trace element nutritional status and health risks. In this study, a total of 1400 pregnant women aged 27.0 ± 4.5 years were randomly selected from
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The development of reference values of trace elements is recognized as a fundamental prerequisite for the assessment of trace element nutritional status and health risks. In this study, a total of 1400 pregnant women aged 27.0 ± 4.5 years were randomly selected from the China Nutrition and Health Survey 2010–2012 (CNHS 2010–2012). The concentrations of 14 serum trace elements were determined by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Reference values were calculated covering the central 95% reference intervals (P2.5–P97.5) after excluding outliers by Dixon’s test. The overall reference values of serum trace elements were 131.5 (55.8-265.0 μg/dL for iron (Fe), 195.5 (107.0–362.4) μg/dL for copper (Cu), 74.0 (51.8–111.3) μg/dL for zinc (Zn), 22.3 (14.0–62.0) μg/dL for rubidium (Rb), 72.2 (39.9–111.6) μg/L for selenium (Se), 45.9 (23.8-104.3) μg/L for strontium (Sr), 1.8 (1.2–3.6) μg/L for molybdenum (Mo), 2.4 (1.2–8.4) μg/L for manganese (Mn), 1.9 (0.6–9.0) ng/L for lead (Pb), 1.1 (0.3-5.6) ng/L for arsenic (As), 835.6 (219.8–4287.7) ng/L for chromium (Cr), 337.9 (57.0–1130.0) ng/L for cobalt (Co), 193.2 (23.6–2323.1) ng/L for vanadium (V), and 133.7 (72.1–595.1) ng/L for cadmium (Cd). Furthermore, some significant differences in serum trace element reference values were observed between different groupings of age intervals, residences, anthropometric status, and duration of pregnancy. We found that serum Fe, Zn, and Se concentrations significantly decreased, whereas serum Cu, Sr, and Co concentrations elevated progressively compared with reference values of 14 serum trace elements in pregnant Chinese women. The reference values of serum trace elements established could play a key role in the following nutritional status and health risk assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chinese National Nutrition Survey 2012)
Open AccessArticle Serum Amyloid A Production Is Triggered by Sleep Deprivation in Mice and Humans: Is That the Link between Sleep Loss and Associated Comorbidities?
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 311; doi:10.3390/nu9030311
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
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Abstract
Serum amyloid A (SAA) was recently associated with metabolic endotoxemia, obesity and insulin resistance. Concurrently, insufficient sleep adversely affects metabolic health and is an independent predisposing factor for obesity and insulin resistance. In this study we investigated whether sleep loss modulates SAA production.
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Serum amyloid A (SAA) was recently associated with metabolic endotoxemia, obesity and insulin resistance. Concurrently, insufficient sleep adversely affects metabolic health and is an independent predisposing factor for obesity and insulin resistance. In this study we investigated whether sleep loss modulates SAA production. The serum SAA concentration increased in C57BL/6 mice subjected to sleep restriction (SR) for 15 days or to paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) for 72 h. Sleep restriction also induced the upregulation of Saa1.1/Saa2.1 mRNA levels in the liver and Saa3 mRNA levels in adipose tissue. SAA levels returned to the basal range after 24 h in paradoxical sleep rebound (PSR). Metabolic endotoxemia was also a finding in SR. Increased plasma levels of SAA were also observed in healthy human volunteers subjected to two nights of total sleep deprivation (Total SD), returning to basal levels after one night of recovery. The observed increase in SAA levels may be part of the initial biochemical alterations caused by sleep deprivation, with potential to drive deleterious conditions such as metabolic endotoxemia and weight gain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reported Energy Intake Accuracy Compared to Doubly Labeled Water and Usability of the Mobile Food Record among Community Dwelling Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 312; doi:10.3390/nu9030312
Received: 24 January 2017 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
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Abstract
The mobile Food Record (mFR) is an image-based dietary assessment method for mobile devices. The study primary aim was to test the accuracy of the mFR by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) to total energy expenditure (TEE) using the doubly labeled water (DLW)
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The mobile Food Record (mFR) is an image-based dietary assessment method for mobile devices. The study primary aim was to test the accuracy of the mFR by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) to total energy expenditure (TEE) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Usability of the mFR was assessed by questionnaires before and after the study. Participants were 45 community dwelling men and women, 21–65 years. They were provided pack-out meals and snacks and encouraged to supplement with usual foods and beverages not provided. After being dosed with DLW, participants were instructed to record all eating occasions over a 7.5 days period using the mFR. Three trained analysts estimated rEI from the images sent to a secure server. rEI and TEE correlated significantly (Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.58, p < 0.0001). The mean percentage of underreporting below the lower 95% confidence interval of the ratio of rEI to TEE was 12% for men (standard deviation (SD) ± 11%) and 10% for women (SD ± 10%). The results demonstrate the accuracy of the mFR is comparable to traditional dietary records and other image-based methods. No systematic biases could be found. The mFR was received well by the participants and usability was rated as easy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle Prevalence and Determinants of Suboptimal Vitamin D Levels in a Multiethnic Asian Population
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 313; doi:10.3390/nu9030313
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
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Abstract
This population-based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of suboptimal vitamin D levels (assessed using circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D)) in a multi-ethnic sample of Asian adults. Plasma 25(OH)D concentration of 1139 Chinese, Malay and Indians (40–80 years) were stratified into normal (≥30
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This population-based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of suboptimal vitamin D levels (assessed using circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D)) in a multi-ethnic sample of Asian adults. Plasma 25(OH)D concentration of 1139 Chinese, Malay and Indians (40–80 years) were stratified into normal (≥30 ng/mL), and suboptimal (including insufficiency and deficiency, <30 ng/mL) based on the 2011 Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of demographic, lifestyle and clinical risk factors with the outcome. Of the 1139 participants, 25(OH)D concentration was suboptimal in 76.1%. In multivariable models, age ≤65 years (compared to age >65 years), Malay and Indian ethnicities (compared to Chinese ethnicity), and higher body mass index, HbA1c, education and income levels were associated with suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration (p < 0.05). In a population-based sample of Asian adults, approximately 75% had suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration. Targeted interventions and stricter reinforcements of existing guidelines for vitamin D supplementation are needed for groups at risk of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D: Current Issues and New Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle Beetroot Juice Supplementation Improves High-Intensity Intermittent Type Exercise Performance in Trained Soccer Players
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 314; doi:10.3390/nu9030314
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 18 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
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Abstract
It has been shown that nitrate supplementation can enhance endurance exercise performance. Recent work suggests that nitrate ingestion can also increase intermittent type exercise performance in recreational athletes. We hypothesized that six days of nitrate supplementation can improve high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance
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It has been shown that nitrate supplementation can enhance endurance exercise performance. Recent work suggests that nitrate ingestion can also increase intermittent type exercise performance in recreational athletes. We hypothesized that six days of nitrate supplementation can improve high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Thirty-two male soccer players (age: 23 ± 1 years, height: 181 ± 1 m, weight: 77 ± 1 kg, playing experience: 15.2 ± 0.5 years, playing in the first team of a 2nd or 3rd Dutch amateur league club) participated in this randomized, double-blind cross-over study. All subjects participated in two test days in which high-intensity intermittent running performance was assessed using the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Subjects ingested nitrate-rich (140 mL; ~800 mg nitrate/day; BR) or a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PLA) for six subsequent days, with at least eight days of wash-out between trials. The distance covered during the Yo-Yo IR1 was the primary outcome measure, while heart rate (HR) was measured continuously throughout the test, and a single blood and saliva sample were collected just prior to the test. Six days of BR ingestion increased plasma and salivary nitrate and nitrite concentrations in comparison to PLA (p < 0.001), and enhanced Yo-Yo IR1 test performance by 3.4 ± 1.3% (from 1574 ± 47 to 1623 ± 48 m; p = 0.027). Mean HR was lower in the BR (172 ± 2) vs. PLA trial (175 ± 2; p = 0.014). Six days of BR ingestion effectively improves high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessReview Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency in Pancreatic Cancer
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 183; doi:10.3390/nu9030183
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 27 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
Abstract: Cancer patients experience weight loss for a variety of reasons, commencing with the tumor’s metabolism (Warburg effect) and proceeding via cachexia to loss of appetite. In pancreatic cancer, several other factors are involved, including a loss of appetite with a particular
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Abstract: Cancer patients experience weight loss for a variety of reasons, commencing with the tumor’s metabolism (Warburg effect) and proceeding via cachexia to loss of appetite. In pancreatic cancer, several other factors are involved, including a loss of appetite with a particular aversion to meat and the incapacity of the pancreatic gland to function normally when a tumor is present in the pancreatic head. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is characterized by a deficiency of the enzymes secreted from the pancreas due to the obstructive tumor, resulting in maldigestion. This, in turn, contributes to malnutrition, specifically a lack of fat-soluble vitamins, antioxidants, and other micronutrients. Patients with pancreatic cancer and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency have, overall, an extremely poor prognosis with regard to surgical outcome and overall survival. Therefore, it is crucial to be aware of the mechanisms involved in the disease, to be able to diagnose pancreatic exocrine insufficiency early on, and to treat malnutrition appropriately, for example, with pancreatic enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Pancreatic Health)
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Open AccessReview Modulation of Ras/ERK and Phosphoinositide Signaling by Long-Chain n-3 PUFA in Breast Cancer and Their Potential Complementary Role in Combination with Targeted Drugs
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 185; doi:10.3390/nu9030185
Received: 24 January 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 19 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
A potential complementary role of the dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA) in combination with innovative mono-targeted therapies has recently been proposed. These compounds are thought to act pleiotropically to prevent the development and progression of a variety of cancers, including
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A potential complementary role of the dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA) in combination with innovative mono-targeted therapies has recently been proposed. These compounds are thought to act pleiotropically to prevent the development and progression of a variety of cancers, including breast cancer. We hereinafter critically analyze the reports investigating the ability of LCn-3 PUFA to modulate the Ras/ERK and the phosphoinositide survival signaling pathways often aberrantly activated in breast cancer and representing the main targets of innovative therapies. The in vitro or in vivo animal and human interventional studies published up to January 2017 investigating the effects of LCn-3 PUFA on these pathways in normal and cancerous breast cells or tissues were identified through a systematic search of literature in the PubMed database. We found that, in most cases, both the in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated the ability of LCn-3 PUFA to inhibit the activation of these pro-survival pathways. Altogether, the analyzed results strongly suggest a potential role of LCn-3 PUFA as complementary agents in combination with mono-targeted therapies. Moreover, the results indicate the need for further in vitro and human interventional studies designed to unequivocally prove the potential adjuvant role of these fatty acids. Full article
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Open AccessReview Early Nutritional Interventions for Brain and Cognitive Development in Preterm Infants: A Review of the Literature
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 187; doi:10.3390/nu9030187
Received: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
Adequate nutrition is important for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm‐born infants. In this review, we aim to summarize the current knowledge on nutritional interventions initiated during the hospital stay targeting brain and cognitive development benefits in preterm human infants. Studies can broadly be split
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Adequate nutrition is important for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm‐born infants. In this review, we aim to summarize the current knowledge on nutritional interventions initiated during the hospital stay targeting brain and cognitive development benefits in preterm human infants. Studies can broadly be split in general dietary intervention studies and studies investigating specific nutrients or nutritional supplements. In general, mother’s breast milk was reported to be better for preterm infants’ neurodevelopment compared to infant formula. The differences in methodologies make it difficult to conclude any effects of interventions with individual nutrients. Only protein and iron level studies showed some consistent findings regarding optimal doses; however, confirmatory studies are needed. This review does not support some widely accepted associations, such as that between long‐chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and visual development. Clear nutritional recommendations cannot be made based on this review. However, the type of infant nutrition (i.e., breast milk versus formula or donor milk), the timing of the nutritional intervention, and the dose of the nutrient/supplement have been found to be relevant factors in determining the success of nutritional intervention studies in preterm infants. Full article
Open AccessReview Prevalence and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents from Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Families in the United States—A Systematic Review and Qualitative Assessment
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 188; doi:10.3390/nu9030188
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
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Abstract
Overweight and obesity (OW/OB) is a pressing health concern among migrant and seasonal farmworker (MSFW) families in the US. The limited number of previously reported research on MSFW families suggests that their unique sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle predispose them to poor health outcomes
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Overweight and obesity (OW/OB) is a pressing health concern among migrant and seasonal farmworker (MSFW) families in the US. The limited number of previously reported research on MSFW families suggests that their unique sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle predispose them to poor health outcomes including OW/OB. We aimed to synthesize and assess available data on the prevalence and modifiable health determinants of OW/OB in MSFW children and adolescents. Literature search, study selection, data extraction and synthesis, and qualitative assessment of selected studies were performed independently by two authors. Ten cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria: articles or dissertations investigating prevalence and association between health determinants and OW/OB in MSFW children and adolescents (<20 years) in the US. The prevalence of OW, OB, and OW/OB ranged from 10%–33%, 15%–37%, and 31%–73%, respectively. Children’s education, household food insecurity, parents’ weight status, parents’ distorted perception of their children’s weight status, and parents’ participation in the federal nutrition assistance program were significantly associated with the children’s and adolescents’ risk of OW/OB. Promotion of culturally relevant public health programs and implementation of a systematic health surveillance plan for MSFWs and their children should be emphasized to combat OW/OB among MSFW children and adolescents. Full article
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Open AccessReview Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) and the Glutathione Peroxidase System; a Link between One-Carbon Metabolism and Antioxidation
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 189; doi:10.3390/nu9030189
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin B6 (B6) has a central role in the metabolism of amino acids, which includes important interactions with endogenous redox reactions through its effects on the glutathione peroxidase (GPX) system. In fact, B6-dependent enzymes catalyse most reactions of
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Vitamin B6 (B6) has a central role in the metabolism of amino acids, which includes important interactions with endogenous redox reactions through its effects on the glutathione peroxidase (GPX) system. In fact, B6-dependent enzymes catalyse most reactions of the transsulfuration pathway, driving homocysteine to cysteine and further into GPX proteins. Considering that mammals metabolize sulfur- and seleno-amino acids similarly, B6 plays an important role in the fate of sulfur-homocysteine and its seleno counterpart between transsulfuration and one-carbon metabolism, especially under oxidative stress conditions. This is particularly important in reproduction because ovarian metabolism may generate an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the peri-estrus period, which may impair ovulatory functions and early embryo development. Later in gestation, placentation raises embryo oxygen tension and may induce a higher expression of ROS markers and eventually embryo losses. Interestingly, the metabolic accumulation of ROS up-regulates the flow of one-carbon units to transsulfuration and down-regulates remethylation. However, in embryos, the transsulfuration pathway is not functional, making the understanding of the interplay between these two pathways particularly crucial. In this review, the importance of the maternal metabolic status of B6 for the flow of one-carbon units towards both maternal and embryonic GPX systems is discussed. Additionally, B6 effects on GPX activity and gene expression in dams, as well as embryo development, are presented in a pig model under different oxidative stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B-Vitamins and One-Carbon Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview Vitamin A Supplementation Programs and Country-Level Evidence of Vitamin A Deficiency
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 190; doi:10.3390/nu9030190
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) programs targeted at children aged 6–59 months are implemented in many countries. By improving immune function, vitamin A (VA) reduces mortality associated with measles, diarrhea, and other illnesses. There is currently a debate regarding the relevance of VAS, but
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Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) programs targeted at children aged 6–59 months are implemented in many countries. By improving immune function, vitamin A (VA) reduces mortality associated with measles, diarrhea, and other illnesses. There is currently a debate regarding the relevance of VAS, but amidst the debate, researchers acknowledge that the majority of nationally-representative data on VA status is outdated. To address this data gap and contribute to the debate, we examined data from 82 countries implementing VAS programs, identified other VA programs, and assessed the recentness of national VA deficiency (VAD) data. We found that two-thirds of the countries explored either have no VAD data or data that were >10 years old (i.e., measured before 2006), which included twenty countries with VAS coverage ≥70%. Fifty-one VAS programs were implemented in parallel with at least one other VA intervention, and of these, 27 countries either had no VAD data or data collected in 2005 or earlier. To fill these gaps in VAD data, countries implementing VAS and other VA interventions should measure VA status in children at least every 10 years. At the same time, the coverage of VA interventions can also be measured. We identified three countries that have scaled down VAS, but given the lack of VA deficiency data, this would be a premature undertaking in most countries without appropriate status assessment. While the global debate about VAS is important, more attention should be directed towards individual countries where programmatic decisions are made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update 2016)
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Open AccessReview The Effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis HN019 on Cellular Immune Function in Healthy Elderly Subjects: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 191; doi:10.3390/nu9030191
Received: 8 February 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
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Elderly people have increased susceptibility to infections and cancer that are associated with decline in cellular immune function. The objective of this work was to determine the efficacy of Bifidobacterium (B.) animalis ssp. lactis HN019 (HN019) supplementation on cellular immune activity
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Elderly people have increased susceptibility to infections and cancer that are associated with decline in cellular immune function. The objective of this work was to determine the efficacy of Bifidobacterium (B.) animalis ssp. lactis HN019 (HN019) supplementation on cellular immune activity in healthy elderly subjects. We conducted a systematic review of Medline and Embase for controlled trials that reported polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell phagocytic capacity or natural killer (NK) cell tumoricidal activity following B. lactis HN019 consumption in the elderly. A random effects meta-analysis was performed with standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval between probiotic and control groups for each outcome. A total of four clinical trials were included in this analysis. B. lactis HN019 supplementation was highly efficacious in increasing PMN phagocytic capacity with an SMD of 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.38 to 1.11, p < 0.001) and moderately efficacious in increasing NK cell tumoricidal activity with an SMD of 0.43 (95% confidence interval: 0.08 to 0.78, p = 0.02). The main limitations of this research were the small number of included studies, short-term follow-up, and assessment of a single probiotic strain. In conclusion, daily consumption of B. lactis HN019 enhances NK cell and PMN function in healthy elderly adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessReview Protein Nutrition and Malnutrition in CKD and ESRD
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 208; doi:10.3390/nu9030208
Received: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
Elevated protein catabolism and protein malnutrition are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end‐stage renal disease (ESRD). The underlying etiology includes, but is not limited to, metabolic acidosis intestinal dysbiosis; systemic inflammation with activation of complements, endothelin‐1 and renin‐angiotensin‐aldosterone (RAAS)
[...] Read more.
Elevated protein catabolism and protein malnutrition are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end‐stage renal disease (ESRD). The underlying etiology includes, but is not limited to, metabolic acidosis intestinal dysbiosis; systemic inflammation with activation of complements, endothelin‐1 and renin‐angiotensin‐aldosterone (RAAS) axis; anabolic hormone resistance; energy expenditure elevation; and uremic toxin accumulation. All of these derangements can further worsen kidney function, leading to poor patient outcomes. Many of these CKD‐related derangements can be prevented and substantially reversed, representing an area of great potential to improve CKD and ESRD care. This review integrates known information and recent advances in the area of protein nutrition and malnutrition in CKD and ESRD. Management recommendations are summarized. Thorough understanding the pathogenesis and etiology of protein malnutrition in CKD and ESRD patients will undoubtedly facilitate the design and development of more effective strategies to optimize protein nutrition and improve outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessReview Evolutionary Developments in Interpreting the  Gluten‐Induced Mucosal Celiac Lesion: An  Archimedian Heuristic
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 213; doi:10.3390/nu9030213
Received: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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The evolving history of the small intestinal biopsy and its interpretation—and misinterpretations—are described in this paper. Certain interpretative errors in the technical approaches to histological assessment are highlighted—even though we may never be rid of them. For example, mucosal “flattening” does not reduce
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The evolving history of the small intestinal biopsy and its interpretation—and misinterpretations—are described in this paper. Certain interpretative errors in the technical approaches to histological assessment are highlighted—even though we may never be rid of them. For example, mucosal “flattening” does not reduce individual villi to their cores, as still seems to be widely believed. Neither is the mucosa undergoing an atrophic process—since it can recover structurally. Rather, the intestinal mucosa manifests a vast hypertrophic response resulting in the formation of large plateaus formed from partially reduced villi and their amalgamation with the now increased height and width of the inter‐villous ridges: this is associated with considerable increases in crypt volumes. Sections through mosaic plateaus gives an erroneous impression of the presence of stunted, flat‐topped villi which continues to encourage both the continued use of irrelevant “atrophy” terminologies and a marked failure to perceive what random sections through mosaic plateaus actually look like. While reviewing the extensive 40+ year literature on mucosal analysis, we extracted data on intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) counts from 607 biopsies, and applied receiver‐operating characteristic (ROC)‐curve analysis. From that perspective, it appears that counting IEL/100 enterocyte nuclei in routine haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) sections provides the most useful discriminator of celiac mucosae at histological level, with an effective cut‐off of 27 IEL, and offering a very high sensitivity with few false negatives. ROC‐curve analysis also revealed the somewhat lesser accuracies of either CD3+ or γδ+ IEL counts. Current official guidelines seem to be somewhat inadequate in clearly defining the spectrum of gluten‐induced mucosal pathologies and how they could be optimally interpreted, as well as in promoting the ideal manner for physicians and pathologists to interact in interpreting intestinal mucosae submitted for analysis. Future trends should incorporate 3‐D printing and computerised modelling in order to exemplify the subtle micro‐anatomical features associated with the crypt‐villus interzone. The latter needs precise delineation with use of mRNA in‐section assays for brush border enzymes such as alkaline phosphate and esterase. Other additional approaches are needed to facilitate recognition and interpretation of the features of this important inter‐zone, such as wells, basins and hypertrophic alterations in the size of inter‐villous ridges. The 3‐D computerised models could considerably expand our understandings of the microvasculature and its changes—in relation both to crypt hypertrophy, in addition to the partial attrition and subsequent regrowth of villi from the inter‐villous ridges during the flattening and recovery processes, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessReview Matching Meals to Body Clocks—Impact on Weight and Glucose Metabolism
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 222; doi:10.3390/nu9030222
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to rise worldwide and is reaching pandemic proportions. The notion that this is due to obesity, resulting from excessive energy consumption and reduced physical activity, is overly simplistic. Circadian de-synchrony, which occurs when physiological processes are
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The prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to rise worldwide and is reaching pandemic proportions. The notion that this is due to obesity, resulting from excessive energy consumption and reduced physical activity, is overly simplistic. Circadian de-synchrony, which occurs when physiological processes are at odds with timing imposed by internal clocks, also promotes obesity and impairs glucose tolerance in mouse models, and is a feature of modern human lifestyles. The purpose of this review is to highlight what is known about glucose metabolism in animal and human models of circadian de-synchrony and examine the evidence as to whether shifts in meal timing contribute to impairments in glucose metabolism, gut hormone secretion and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Lastly, we examine whether restricting food intake to discrete time periods, will prevent or reverse abnormalities in glucose metabolism with the view to improving metabolic health in shift workers and in those more generally at risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Full article
Open AccessReview Antioxidants for Healthy Skin: The Emerging Role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptors and Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor-2
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 223; doi:10.3390/nu9030223
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Skin is the outermost part of the body and is, thus, inevitably exposed to UV rays and environmental pollutants. Oxidative stress by these hazardous factors accelerates skin aging and induces skin inflammation and carcinogenesis. Aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHRs) are chemical sensors that are
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Skin is the outermost part of the body and is, thus, inevitably exposed to UV rays and environmental pollutants. Oxidative stress by these hazardous factors accelerates skin aging and induces skin inflammation and carcinogenesis. Aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHRs) are chemical sensors that are abundantly expressed in epidermal keratinocytes and mediate the production of reactive oxygen species. To neutralize or minimize oxidative stress, the keratinocytes also express nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (NRF2), which is a master switch for antioxidant signaling. Notably, there is fine-tuned crosstalk between AHR and NRF2, which mutually increase or decrease their activation states. Many NRF2-mediated antioxidant phytochemicals are capable of up- and downmodulating AHR signaling. The precise mechanisms by which these phytochemicals differentially affect the AHR and NRF2 system remain largely unknown and warrant future investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview The Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies and  Inadequacies in the Middle East and Approaches to  Interventions
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 229; doi:10.3390/nu9030229
Received: 29 December 2016 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies constitute a global health issue, particularly among countries in the Middle East. The objective of this review is to identify micronutrient deficits in the Middle East and to consider current and new approaches to address this problem. Based on
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Micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies constitute a global health issue, particularly among countries in the Middle East. The objective of this review is to identify micronutrient deficits in the Middle East and to consider current and new approaches to address this problem. Based on the availability of more recent data, this review is primarily focused on countries that are in advanced nutrition transition. Prominent deficits in folate, iron, and vitamin D are noted among children/adolescents, women of childbearing age, pregnant women, and the elderly. Reports indicate that food fortification in the region is sporadic and ineffective, and the use of dietary supplements is low. Nutrition monitoring in the region is limited, and gaps in relevant information present challenges for implementing new policies and approaches to address the problem. Government‐sponsored initiatives are necessary to assess current dietary intakes/patterns, support nutrition education, and to reduce food insecurity, especially among vulnerable population groups. Public–private partnerships should be considered in targeting micronutrient fortification programs and supplementation recommendations as approaches to help alleviate the burden of micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies in the Middle East. Full article
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Open AccessReview Fructose and NAFLD: The Multifaceted Aspects of  Fructose Metabolism
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 230; doi:10.3390/nu9030230
Received: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Among various factors, such as an unhealthy diet or a sedentarity lifestyle, excessive fructose consumption is known to favor nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as fructose is both a substrate and an inducer of hepatic de novo lipogenesis. The present review presents some
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Among various factors, such as an unhealthy diet or a sedentarity lifestyle, excessive fructose consumption is known to favor nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as fructose is both a substrate and an inducer of hepatic de novo lipogenesis. The present review presents some well‐established mechanisms and new clues to better understand the pathophysiology of fructose‐induced NAFLD. Beyond its lipogenic effect, fructose intake is also at the onset of hepatic inflammation and cellular stress, such as oxidative and endoplasmic stress, that are key factors contributing to the progression of simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Beyond its hepatic effects, this carbohydrate may exert direct and indirect effects at the peripheral level. Excessive fructose consumption is associated, for example, with the release by the liver of several key mediators leading to alterations in the communication between the liver and the gut, muscles, and adipose tissue and to disease aggravation. These multifaceted aspects of fructose properties are in part specific to fructose, but are also shared in part with sucrose and glucose present in energy– dense beverages and foods. All these aspects must be taken into account in the development of new therapeutic strategies and thereby to better prevent NAFLD. Full article
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Open AccessReview Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Type 2 Diabetes: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 236; doi:10.3390/nu9030236
Received: 11 February 2017 / Revised: 11 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 5 March 2017
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Abstract
Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies suggest that inadequate nutrition in early life can contribute to risk of developing metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adult life. In human populations, most findings supporting a causative relationship between early-life malnutrition
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Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies suggest that inadequate nutrition in early life can contribute to risk of developing metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adult life. In human populations, most findings supporting a causative relationship between early-life malnutrition and subsequent risk of T2D were obtained from quasi-experimental studies (‘natural experiments’). Prenatal and/or early postnatal exposures to famine were demonstrated to be associated with higher risk of T2D in many cohorts around the world. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of epigenetic regulation of gene expression as a possible major contributor to the link between the early-life famine exposure and T2D in adulthood. Findings from these studies suggest that prenatal exposure to the famine may result in induction of persistent epigenetic changes that have adaptive significance in postnatal development but can predispose to metabolic disorders including T2D at the late stages of life. In this review, quasi-experimental data on the developmental programming of T2D are summarized and recent research findings on changes in DNA methylation that mediate these effects are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessReview Serum Parathyroid Hormone Responses to Vitamin D Supplementation in Overweight/Obese Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 241; doi:10.3390/nu9030241
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
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Abstract
Obesity is often associated with vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Vitamin D supplementation typically leads to the reductions in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, as shown in normal weight individuals. Meanwhile, the dose of vitamin D supplementation for the suppression of PTH
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Obesity is often associated with vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Vitamin D supplementation typically leads to the reductions in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, as shown in normal weight individuals. Meanwhile, the dose of vitamin D supplementation for the suppression of PTH may differ in overweight and obese adults. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine the dose of vitamin D supplementation required to suppress PTH levels in overweight/obese individuals. We identified 18 studies that examined overweight or obese healthy adults who were supplemented with varying doses of vitamin D3. The primary outcomes examined were changes in PTH and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels from baseline to post-treatment. The results of the meta-analysis showed that there was a significant treatment effect of vitamin D supplementation on PTH, total standardized mean difference (SMD) (random effects) = −0.38 (95% CI = −0.56 to −0.20), t = −4.08, p < 0.001. A significant treatment effect of vitamin D supplementation was also found on 25OHD, total SMD (random effects) = 2.27 (95% CI = 1.48 to 3.06) t = 5.62, p < 0.001. Data from available clinical trials that supplemented adults with D3 ranging from 400 IU to 5714 IU, showed that 1000 IU of vitamin D supplementation best suppressed serum PTH levels, total SMD = −0.58, while vitamin D supplementation with 4000 IU showed the greatest increase in serum 25OH levels. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation of 700 IU and 500 mg, respectively, also showed a significant treatment effect on the suppression of PTH with a total SMD = −5.30 (95% CI = −9.72 to −0.88). In conclusion, the meta analysis of available clinical trials indicates that 1000 IU vitamin D supplementation can suppress serum PTH levels, while 4000 IU of vitamin D was associated with the largest increase in serum 25OHD levels in the overweight and obese population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D: Current Issues and New Perspectives)
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Open AccessReview Nutritional and Metabolic Derangements in Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Resection
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 243; doi:10.3390/nu9030243
Received: 28 December 2016 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The disease and its treatment can cause significant nutritional impairments that often adversely impact patient quality of life (QOL). The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions and, in the setting of cancer,
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Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The disease and its treatment can cause significant nutritional impairments that often adversely impact patient quality of life (QOL). The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions and, in the setting of cancer, both systems may be affected. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) manifests as weight loss and steatorrhea, while endocrine insufficiency may result in diabetes mellitus. Surgical resection, a central component of pancreatic cancer treatment, may induce or exacerbate these dysfunctions. Nutritional and metabolic dysfunctions in patients with pancreatic cancer lack characterization, and few guidelines exist for nutritional support in patients after surgical resection. We reviewed publications from the past two decades (1995–2016) addressing the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with pancreatic cancer, grouping them into status at the time of diagnosis, status at the time of resection, and status of nutritional support throughout the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Here, we summarize the results of these investigations and evaluate the effectiveness of various types of nutritional support in patients after pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We outline the following conservative perioperative strategies to optimize patient outcomes and guide the care of these patients: (1) patients with albumin < 2.5 mg/dL or weight loss > 10% should postpone surgery and begin aggressive nutrition supplementation; (2) patients with albumin < 3 mg/dL or weight loss between 5% and 10% should have nutrition supplementation prior to surgery; (3) enteral nutrition (EN) should be preferred as a nutritional intervention over total parenteral nutrition (TPN) postoperatively; and, (4) a multidisciplinary approach should be used to allow for early detection of symptoms of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency alongside implementation of appropriate treatment to improve the patient’s quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Pancreatic Health)
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Open AccessReview Genetic Variations Associated with Vitamin A Status and Vitamin A Bioavailability
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 246; doi:10.3390/nu9030246
Received: 24 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
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Abstract
Blood concentration of vitamin A (VA), which is present as different molecules, i.e., mainly retinol and provitamin A carotenoids, plus retinyl esters in the postprandial period after a VA-containing meal, is affected by numerous factors: dietary VA intake, VA absorption efficiency, efficiency of
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Blood concentration of vitamin A (VA), which is present as different molecules, i.e., mainly retinol and provitamin A carotenoids, plus retinyl esters in the postprandial period after a VA-containing meal, is affected by numerous factors: dietary VA intake, VA absorption efficiency, efficiency of provitamin A carotenoid conversion to VA, VA tissue uptake, etc. Most of these factors are in turn modulated by genetic variations in genes encoding proteins involved in VA metabolism. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with blood concentrations of retinol and β-carotene, as well as with β-carotene bioavailability. These genetic variations likely explain, at least in part, interindividual variability in VA status and in VA bioavailability. However, much work remains to be done to identify all of the SNPs involved in VA status and bioavailability and to assess the possible involvement of other kinds of genetic variations, e.g., copy number variants and insertions/deletions, in these phenotypes. Yet, the potential usefulness of this area of research is exciting regarding the proposition of more personalized dietary recommendations in VA, particularly in populations at risk of VA deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessReview The Impact of Shiftwork on Skeletal Muscle Health
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 248; doi:10.3390/nu9030248
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 26 February 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: About one in four workers undertake shift rosters that fall outside the traditional 7 a.m.–6 p.m. scheduling. Shiftwork alters workers’ exposure to natural and artificial light, sleep patterns, and feeding patterns. When compared to the rest of the working population, shiftworkers
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(1) Background: About one in four workers undertake shift rosters that fall outside the traditional 7 a.m.–6 p.m. scheduling. Shiftwork alters workers’ exposure to natural and artificial light, sleep patterns, and feeding patterns. When compared to the rest of the working population, shiftworkers are at a greater risk of developing metabolic impairments over time. One fundamental component of metabolic health is skeletal muscle, the largest organ in the body. However, cause-and-effect relationships between shiftwork and skeletal muscle health have not been established; (2) Methods: A critical review of the literature was completed using online databases and reference lists; (3) Results: We propose a conceptual model drawing relationships between typical shiftwork consequences; altered light exposure, sleep patterns, and food and beverage consumption, and drivers of skeletal muscle health—protein intake, resistance training, and hormone release. At present, there is no study investigating the direct effect of shiftwork on skeletal muscle health. Instead, research findings showing that acute consequences of shiftwork negatively influence skeletal muscle homeostasis support the validity of our model; (4) Conclusion: Further research is required to test the potential relationships identified in our review, particularly in shiftwork populations. Part of this testing could include skeletal muscle specific interventions such as targeted protein intake and/or resistance-training. Full article
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Open AccessReview Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 257; doi:10.3390/nu9030257
Received: 8 February 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide
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There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenteral Nutrition 2016)
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Open AccessReview An Examination of Diet for the Maintenance of Remission in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 259; doi:10.3390/nu9030259
Received: 20 January 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
Diet has been speculated to be a factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and may be an important factor in managing disease symptoms. Patients manipulate their diet in attempt to control symptoms, often leading to the adoption of inappropriately restrictive diets,
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Diet has been speculated to be a factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and may be an important factor in managing disease symptoms. Patients manipulate their diet in attempt to control symptoms, often leading to the adoption of inappropriately restrictive diets, which places them at risk for nutritional complications. Health professionals struggle to provide evidence-based nutrition guidance to patients due to an overall lack of uniformity or clarity amongst research studies. Well-designed diet studies are urgently needed to create an enhanced understanding of the role diet plays in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the current data available on dietary management of inflammatory bowel disease and to demonstrate that dietary modulation may be an important consideration in managing disease. By addressing the relevance of diet in inflammatory bowel disease, health professionals are able to better support patients and collaborate with dietitians to improve nutrition therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet in IBD)
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Open AccessReview Stirring the Pot: Can Dietary Modification Alleviate the Burden of CKD?
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 265; doi:10.3390/nu9030265
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
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Abstract
Diet is one of the largest modifiable risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related death and disability. CKD is largely a progressive disease; however, it is increasingly appreciated that hallmarks of chronic kidney disease such as albuminuria can regress over time. The factors
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Diet is one of the largest modifiable risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related death and disability. CKD is largely a progressive disease; however, it is increasingly appreciated that hallmarks of chronic kidney disease such as albuminuria can regress over time. The factors driving albuminuria resolution remain elusive. Since albuminuria is a strong risk factor for GFR loss, modifiable lifestyle factors that lead to an improvement in albuminuria would likely reduce the burden of CKD in high-risk individuals, such as patients with diabetes. Dietary therapy such as protein and sodium restriction has historically been used in the management of CKD. Evidence is emerging to indicate that other nutrients may influence kidney health, either through metabolic or haemodynamic pathways or via the modification of gut homeostasis. This review focuses on the role of diet in the pathogenesis and progression of CKD and discusses the latest findings related to the mechanisms of diet-induced kidney disease. It is possible that optimizing diet quality or restricting dietary intake could be harnessed as an adjunct therapy for CKD prevention or progression in susceptible individuals, thereby reducing the burden of CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessReview Vitamins and Microelement Bioavailability in Different Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 282; doi:10.3390/nu9030282
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) predisposes one to either deficiency or toxic excess of different micronutrients. The knowledge on micronutrients—specifically water-soluble vitamins and trace elements—in CKD is very limited. Consequently, current guidelines and recommendations are mostly based on expert opinions or poor-quality evidence. Abnormalities
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) predisposes one to either deficiency or toxic excess of different micronutrients. The knowledge on micronutrients—specifically water-soluble vitamins and trace elements—in CKD is very limited. Consequently, current guidelines and recommendations are mostly based on expert opinions or poor-quality evidence. Abnormalities of micronutrient resources in CKD develop for several reasons. Dietary restrictions and anorexia lead to an insufficient micronutrient intake, while diuretics use and renal replacement therapy lead to their excessive losses. Absorption is unpredictable, and metabolism impaired. Better understanding of the micronutrient needs of CKD patients could have an impact on many complications linked to vitamin and trace element disorders, including high mortality, increased risk of atherosclerosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, anemia, polyneuropathy, encephalopathy, weakness and fragility, muscle cramps, bone disease, depression, or insomnia. Here, we summarize the up-to-date knowledge on micronutrient resources in different stages of CKD, and share our experience with the assessment of micronutrient status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
Open AccessReview Nutrients and the Pancreas: An Epigenetic Perspective
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 283; doi:10.3390/nu9030283
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths with a dismal average five-year survival rate of six percent. Substitutional progress has been made in understanding how pancreatic cancer develops and progresses. Evidence is mounting which demonstrates that diet and nutrition
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Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths with a dismal average five-year survival rate of six percent. Substitutional progress has been made in understanding how pancreatic cancer develops and progresses. Evidence is mounting which demonstrates that diet and nutrition are key factors in carcinogenesis. In particular, diets low in folate and high in fruits, vegetables, red/processed meat, and saturated fat have been identified as pancreatic cancer risk factors with a proposed mechanism involving epigenetic modifications or gene regulation. We review the current literature assessing the correlation between diet, epigenetics, and pancreatic cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Pancreatic Health)
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Open AccessReview Potential Impact of Diet on Treatment Effect from Anti-TNF Drugs in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 286; doi:10.3390/nu9030286
Received: 8 February 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract
We wanted to investigate the current knowledge on the impact of diet on anti-TNF response in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), to identify dietary factors that warrant further investigations in relation to anti-TNF treatment response, and, finally, to discuss potential strategies for such investigations.
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We wanted to investigate the current knowledge on the impact of diet on anti-TNF response in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), to identify dietary factors that warrant further investigations in relation to anti-TNF treatment response, and, finally, to discuss potential strategies for such investigations. PubMed was searched using specified search terms. One small prospective study on diet and anti-TNF treatment in 56 patients with CD found similar remission rates after 56 weeks among 32 patients with good compliance that received concomitant enteral nutrition and 24 with poor compliance that had no dietary restrictions (78% versus 67%, p = 0.51). A meta-analysis of 295 patients found higher odds of achieving clinical remission and remaining in clinical remission among patients on combination therapy with specialised enteral nutrition and Infliximab (IFX) compared with IFX monotherapy (OR 2.73; 95% CI: 1.73–4.31, p < 0.01, OR 2.93; 95% CI: 1.66–5.17, p < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, evidence-based knowledge on impact of diet on anti-TNF treatment response for clinical use is scarce. Here we propose a mechanism by which Western style diet high in meat and low in fibre may promote colonic inflammation and potentially impact treatment response to anti-TNF drugs. Further studies using hypothesis-driven and data-driven strategies in prospective observational, animal and interventional studies are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet in IBD)
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Open AccessReview Methylsulfonylmethane: Applications and Safety of a Novel Dietary Supplement
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 290; doi:10.3390/nu9030290
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has become a popular dietary supplement used for a variety of purposes, including its most common use as an anti-inflammatory agent. It has been well-investigated in animal models, as well as in human clinical trials and experiments. A variety of health-specific
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Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has become a popular dietary supplement used for a variety of purposes, including its most common use as an anti-inflammatory agent. It has been well-investigated in animal models, as well as in human clinical trials and experiments. A variety of health-specific outcome measures are improved with MSM supplementation, including inflammation, joint/muscle pain, oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity. Initial evidence is available regarding the dose of MSM needed to provide benefit, although additional work is underway to determine the precise dose and time course of treatment needed to provide optimal benefits. As a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) approved substance, MSM is well-tolerated by most individuals at dosages of up to four grams daily, with few known and mild side effects. This review provides an overview of MSM, with details regarding its common uses and applications as a dietary supplement, as well as its safety for consumption. Full article
Open AccessReview The Low FODMAP Diet: Many Question Marks for a Catchy Acronym
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 292; doi:10.3390/nu9030292
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
FODMAP, “Fermentable Oligo-, Di- and Mono-saccharides And Polyols”, is a heterogeneous group of highly fermentable but poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates and polyols. Dietary FODMAPs might exacerbate intestinal symptoms by increasing small intestinal water volume, colonic gas production, and intestinal motility. In recent years
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FODMAP, “Fermentable Oligo-, Di- and Mono-saccharides And Polyols”, is a heterogeneous group of highly fermentable but poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates and polyols. Dietary FODMAPs might exacerbate intestinal symptoms by increasing small intestinal water volume, colonic gas production, and intestinal motility. In recent years the low-FODMAP diet for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has gained increasing popularity. In the present review we aim to summarize the physiological, clinical, and nutritional issues, suggesting caution in the prolonged use of this dietary treatment on the basis of the existing literature. The criteria for inclusion in the FODMAPs list are not fully defined. Although the low-FODMAP diet can have a positive impact on the symptoms of IBS, particularly bloating and diarrhea, the quality of the evidence is lower than optimal, due to frequent methodological flaws, particularly lack of a proper control group and/or lack of blinding. In particular, it remains to be proven whether this regimen is superior to conventional IBS diets. The drastic reduction of FODMAP intake has physiological consequences, e.g., on the intestinal microbiome and colonocyte metabolism, which are still poorly understood. A low-FODMAP diet imposes an important restriction of dietary choices due to the elimination of some staple foods, such as wheat derivatives, lactose-containing dairy products, many vegetables and pulses, and several types of fruits. For this reason, patients may be at risk of reduced intake of fiber, calcium, iron, zinc, folate, B and D vitamins, and natural antioxidants. The nutritional risk of the low-FODMAP diet may be higher in persons with limited access to the expensive, alternative dietary items included in the low-FODMAP diet. Full article
Open AccessReview The Relationship between Fatty Acids and Different Depression-Related Brain Regions, and Their Potential Role as Biomarkers of Response to Antidepressants
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 298; doi:10.3390/nu9030298
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017