Next Article in Journal
Proteomic Characterization of the Venom of Five Bombus (Thoracobombus) Species
Previous Article in Journal
Exolysin Shapes the Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clonal Outliers
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Toxins 2017, 9(11), 365; doi:10.3390/toxins9110365

Botulinum Toxin in Management of Limb Tremor

Department of Neuromuscular Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, NY 10029, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Siro Luvisetto
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [214 KB, uploaded 10 November 2017]

Abstract

Essential tremor is characterized by persistent, usually bilateral and symmetric, postural or kinetic activation of agonist and antagonist muscles involving either the distal or proximal upper extremity. Quality of life is often affected and one’s ability to perform daily tasks becomes impaired. Oral therapies, including propranolol and primidone, can be effective in the management of essential tremor, although adverse effects can limit their use and about 50% of individuals lack response to oral pharmacotherapy. Locally administered botulinum toxin injection has become increasingly useful in the management of essential tremor. Targeting of select muscles with botulinum toxin is an area of active research, and muscle selection has important implications for toxin dosing and functional outcomes. The use of anatomical landmarks with palpation, EMG guidance, electrical stimulation, and ultrasound has been studied as a technique for muscle localization in toxin injection. Earlier studies implemented a standard protocol for the injection of (predominantly) wrist flexors and extensors using palpation and EMG guidance. Targeting of muscles by selection of specific activators of tremor (tailored to each patient) using kinematic analysis might allow for improvement in efficacy, including functional outcomes. It is this individualized muscle selection and toxin dosing (requiring injection within various sites of a single muscle) that has allowed for success in the management of tremors. View Full-Text
Keywords: botulinum toxin; limb tremors; muscle selection botulinum toxin; limb tremors; muscle selection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zakin, E.; Simpson, D. Botulinum Toxin in Management of Limb Tremor. Toxins 2017, 9, 365.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top