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Water 2017, 9(3), 209; doi:10.3390/w9030209

Climate Variability Structures Plant Community Dynamics in Mediterranean Restored and Reference Tidal Wetlands

1
Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, 137 Mulford Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
2
765 Miller Ave, Mill Valley, CA 94941, USA
3
Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Matt Kondolf and Arjen Y. Hoekstra
Received: 11 November 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract

In Mediterranean regions and other areas with variable climates, interannual weather variability may impact ecosystem dynamics, and by extension ecological restoration projects. Conditions at reference sites, which are often used to evaluate restoration projects, may also be influenced by weather variability, confounding interpretations of restoration outcomes. To better understand the influence of weather variability on plant community dynamics, we explore change in a vegetation dataset collected between 1990 and 2005 at a historic tidal wetland reference site and a nearby tidal wetland restoration project initiated in 1976 in California’s San Francisco (SF) Bay. To determine the factors influencing reference and restoration trajectories, we examine changes in plant community identity in relation to annual salinity levels in the SF Bay, annual rainfall, and tidal channel structure. Over the entire study period, both sites experienced significant directional change away from the 1990 community. Community change was accelerated following low salinity conditions that resulted from strong El Niño events in 1994–1995 and 1997–1998. Overall rates of change were greater at the restoration site and driven by a combination of dominant and sub-dominant species, whereas change at the reference site was driven by sub-dominant species. Sub-dominant species first appeared at the restoration site in 1996 and incrementally increased during each subsequent year, whereas sub-dominant species cover at the reference site peaked in 1999 and subsequently declined. Our results show that frequent, long-term monitoring is needed to adequately capture plant community dynamics in variable Mediterranean ecosystems and demonstrate the need for expanding restoration monitoring and timing restoration actions to match weather conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: restoration ecology; tidal wetland; Mediterranean; San Francisco Bay; ecological restoration; climate variability; salinity; El Niño restoration ecology; tidal wetland; Mediterranean; San Francisco Bay; ecological restoration; climate variability; salinity; El Niño
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Chapple, D.E.; Faber, P.; Suding, K.N.; Merenlender, A.M. Climate Variability Structures Plant Community Dynamics in Mediterranean Restored and Reference Tidal Wetlands. Water 2017, 9, 209.

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