Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Insects, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2011), Pages 62-263

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-14
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence
Insects 2011, 2(2), 83-95; doi:10.3390/insects2020083
Received: 29 January 2011 / Revised: 20 March 2011 / Accepted: 1 April 2011 / Published: 11 April 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed [...] Read more.
The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 Health and Epidemic Prevention Stations in six Chinese cities in November 2010. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)) are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests) were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts). Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010), there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons), hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong) experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates). There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide resistance. Difficulties of control were noted in our surveys of dormitories in which crowded living, seasonal worker migration, and financial constraints contributed to control failures. This study supports the following conclusions: (1) the bed bug infestation in China dramatically decreased following the campaigns from 1960 to the early 1980s; (2) In our survey of Health and Epidemics Prevention Stations, no bed bug cases were reported in Beijing and Shanghai for the past 12 months, but complaints were reported in Guangzhou, Lanzhou, Urumqi, and Shenzhen; (3) Current bed bug infestations primarily are reported in crowded living environments or transient environments such as worker dormitories and military dormitories. These findings suggest that community-wide bed bug monitoring and control campaigns are necessary for effective control of bed bug infestations as a societal response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bed Bugs: An Emerging Pandemic)
Open AccessArticle Population Growth Potential of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L.: A Life Table Analysis
Insects 2011, 2(2), 173-185; doi:10.3390/insects2020173
Received: 16 February 2011 / Revised: 18 March 2011 / Accepted: 20 April 2011 / Published: 29 April 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Experimental life tables were constructed and analyzed for three strains of the common bed bug: a pyrethroid-susceptible laboratory strain (HS), a highly resistant field strain (RR), and a field strain with a declining level of resistance (KR). Egg to adult survival in [...] Read more.
Experimental life tables were constructed and analyzed for three strains of the common bed bug: a pyrethroid-susceptible laboratory strain (HS), a highly resistant field strain (RR), and a field strain with a declining level of resistance (KR). Egg to adult survival in the RR strain was 94% compared with 79% and 69% in the HS and KR strains, respectively. The RR strain also developed significantly faster from egg to adult (~35 days) than the other two strains (~40 days). Analysis of a survivorship and fecundity life table for the RR strain produced the following results. The average life expectancy for a newly laid egg was ~143 days, and that of a newly molted adult was ~127 days. Females produced an average of 0.64 daughter eggs/day with the highest weekly production during the fifth week of adult life. Analysis of daily reproductive parity showed that females produced 1–3 and 4–6 eggs on 79 and 21% of the days, respectively, when egg laying occurred. The net reproductive rate (R0) of the RR strain was ~35, which represents a 35-fold increase in the population per generation (~92 days). The intrinsic rate of increase, r, was 0.054 indicating that the population multiplies 1.1 times/female/day (λ) and doubles in size every 13 days. The stable age distribution (cx) was dominated by nymphs (54%), followed by eggs (34%) and adults (12%). Reproductive values (vx) for the strain increased from egg to the adult stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bed Bugs: An Emerging Pandemic)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Host Searching and Aggregation Activity of Recently Fed and Unfed Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.)
Insects 2011, 2(2), 186-194; doi:10.3390/insects2020186
Received: 22 February 2011 / Revised: 1 April 2011 / Accepted: 29 April 2011 / Published: 4 May 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Groups of starved, virgin adult male or female bed bugs were stimulated to search for a host by the presence of a heated artificial feeder. Some of the bed bug groups were allowed to obtain a blood meal and some were not. [...] Read more.
Groups of starved, virgin adult male or female bed bugs were stimulated to search for a host by the presence of a heated artificial feeder. Some of the bed bug groups were allowed to obtain a blood meal and some were not. After the removal of the feeder, bed bugs were observed throughout the scotophase to record their searching and aggregation behavior. Groups of male and female bed bugs that were unable to obtain a blood meal continued to search in the arena for the majority of the scotophase. Bed bugs that were able to obtain a blood meal returned to their shelter to aggregate 30 min after feeding. Overall, the proportion of bed bugs aggregating in shelters during the scotophase was significantly greater for those that had fed successfully than those that had not. However, all bed bugs, regardless of feeding status, began to return to shelters to aggregate 2 h prior to the photophase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bed Bugs: An Emerging Pandemic)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Survivorship During Starvation for Cimex lectularius L.
Insects 2011, 2(2), 232-242; doi:10.3390/insects2020232
Received: 9 February 2011 / Revised: 20 April 2011 / Accepted: 9 May 2011 / Published: 11 May 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Four bed bug strains (Cimex lectularius) with different levels of pyrethroid resistance were evaluated to determine their ability to survive extended periods of starvation. First instar bed bugs of all strains were the most vulnerable to starvation (13.8–36.3 days mean survival time). Fifth instars and adults survived the longest during starvation (41.5–142.6 days). Significant differences in survivorship during starvation were observed between resistant and susceptible strains of bed bugs. Overall, all immature and adult stages of the resistant bed bug strains had significantly shorter survival times than those of the susceptible strains (P < 0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bed Bugs: An Emerging Pandemic)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Consumption of Bt-maize (MON 810) on the Collembolan Folsomia candida, Over Multiple Generations: A Laboratory Study
Insects 2011, 2(2), 243-252; doi:10.3390/insects2020243
Received: 6 April 2011 / Revised: 7 May 2011 / Accepted: 19 May 2011 / Published: 23 May 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The effect of long-term feeding on Bt-maize by collembolans in the laboratory is virtually unestablished. That is why the aim of the present study was to test whether the reproduction, fecal pellet production or food preference of the collembolan F. candida is [...] Read more.
The effect of long-term feeding on Bt-maize by collembolans in the laboratory is virtually unestablished. That is why the aim of the present study was to test whether the reproduction, fecal pellet production or food preference of the collembolan F. candida is affected when fed on Bt-maize for several consecutive generations. The collembolans were fed with Bt-maize for 0, 6, 16 and 22 months and the number of eggs and fecal pellets were determined. The experiment was repeated seven months later with the same populations. Food preference tests were additionally performed. Significant differences were found in food consumption, egg production and food preference between populations in some cases, but no time-response effect was observed. In conclusion, several generations feeding of F. candida on Cry1Ab toxin containing Bt-maize seems not to be harmful to this collembolan species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Genetically Modified Plants on Insects)
Open AccessArticle Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music
Insects 2011, 2(2), 253-263; doi:10.3390/insects2020253
Received: 6 April 2011 / Revised: 28 April 2011 / Accepted: 23 May 2011 / Published: 26 May 2011
PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by [...] Read more.
The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects in Pop Culture, Art, and Music)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Extreme Glacial Legacies: A Synthesis of the Antarctic Springtail Phylogeographic Record
Insects 2011, 2(2), 62-82; doi:10.3390/insects2020062
Received: 23 December 2010 / Revised: 15 February 2011 / Accepted: 2 April 2011 / Published: 6 April 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We review current phylogeographic knowledge from across the Antarctic terrestrial landscape with a focus on springtail taxa. We describe consistent patterns of high genetic diversity and structure among populations which have persisted in glacial refugia across Antarctica over both short (10 Mya) [...] Read more.
We review current phylogeographic knowledge from across the Antarctic terrestrial landscape with a focus on springtail taxa. We describe consistent patterns of high genetic diversity and structure among populations which have persisted in glacial refugia across Antarctica over both short (10 Mya) timescales. Despite a general concordance of results among species, we explain why location is important in determining population genetic patterns within bioregions. We complete our review by drawing attention to the main limitations in the field of Antarctic phylogeography, namely that the scope of geographic focus is often lacking within studies, and that large gaps remain in our phylogeographic knowledge for most terrestrial groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)
Figures

Open AccessReview Bed Bugs: The Australian Response
Insects 2011, 2(2), 96-111; doi:10.3390/insects2020096
Received: 15 March 2011 / Revised: 8 April 2011 / Accepted: 12 April 2011 / Published: 15 April 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of [...] Read more.
Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bed Bugs: An Emerging Pandemic)
Open AccessReview Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar
Insects 2011, 2(2), 112-127; doi:10.3390/insects2020112
Received: 25 February 2011 / Revised: 8 April 2011 / Accepted: 13 April 2011 / Published: 20 April 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species). Here,we review the current knowledge of [...] Read more.
Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species). Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles. Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa. The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species haveshifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)
Open AccessReview Phylogeography of Phytophagous Weevils and Plant Species in Broadleaved Evergreen Forests: A Congruent Genetic Gap between Western and Eastern Parts of Japan
Insects 2011, 2(2), 128-150; doi:10.3390/insects2020128
Received: 28 February 2011 / Accepted: 15 April 2011 / Published: 21 April 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (816 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in shaping the distribution of biodiversity among current populations, even in warm-temperate zones, where land was not covered by ice sheets. We focused on the Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen forest community in Japan, which [...] Read more.
The Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in shaping the distribution of biodiversity among current populations, even in warm-temperate zones, where land was not covered by ice sheets. We focused on the Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen forest community in Japan, which characterizes the biodiversity and endemism of the warm-temperate zone. A comparison of the phylogeographic patterns of three types of phytophagous weevils associated with Castanopsis (a host-specific seed predator, a generalist seed predator, and a host-specific leaf miner) and several other plant species inhabiting the forests revealed largely congruent patterns of genetic differentiation between western and eastern parts of the main islands of Japan. A genetic gap was detected in the Kii Peninsula to Chugoku-Shikoku region, around the Seto Inland Sea. The patterns of western-eastern differentiation suggest past fragmentation of broadleaved evergreen forests into at least two separate refugia consisting of the southern parts of Kyushu to Shikoku and of Kii to Boso Peninsula. Moreover, the congruent phylogeographic patterns observed in Castanopsis and the phytophagous insect species imply that the plant-herbivore relationship has been largely maintained since the last glacial periods. These results reinforce the robustness of the deduced glacial and postglacial histories of Castanopsis-associated organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)
Figures

Open AccessReview Stress Tolerance of Bed Bugs: A Review of Factors That Cause Trauma to Cimex lectularius and C. Hemipterus
Insects 2011, 2(2), 151-172; doi:10.3390/insects2020151
Received: 28 February 2011 / Revised: 26 March 2011 / Accepted: 20 April 2011 / Published: 29 April 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent emergence of bed bugs (Cimex spp.) has prompted a significant expansion of research devoted to this pest. The ability to survive and recover from stress has significant implications on the distribution and survival of insects, and bed bugs are no [...] Read more.
Recent emergence of bed bugs (Cimex spp.) has prompted a significant expansion of research devoted to this pest. The ability to survive and recover from stress has significant implications on the distribution and survival of insects, and bed bugs are no exception. Research on bed bug stress tolerance has shown considerable progress and necessitates a review on this topic. Bed bugs have an extraordinary ability to resist dehydration between bloodmeals, and this represents a critical factor allowing their prolonged survival when no host is available. High relative humidities are detrimental to bed bugs, leading to reduced survival in comparison to those held at lower relative humidities. Continual exposure of bed bugs, eggs and mobile stages, to temperatures below freezing and short term exposure (=1 h) to temperatures below −16 to −18 °C results in mortality. The upper thermal limit for short term exposure of eggs, nymphs and adults is between 40–45 °C for the common (Cimex lectularius) and tropical (C. hemipterus) bed bugs. Long-term exposure to temperatures above 35 °C results in significant reduction in survival of mobile bed bugs. Eggs for C. lectularius and C. hemipterus are no longer viable when held below 10 °C or above 37 °C throughout embryogenesis. Blood feeding, although necessary for survival and reproduction, is discussed as a stress due to thermal and osmotic fluctuations that result from ingesting a warm bloodmeal from a vertebrate host. Cold, heat, water stress and blood feeding prompted the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps). Pesticide application is a common human-induced stress for urban pests, and recent studies have documented pesticide resistance in many bed bug populations. High levels of traumatic insemination (mating) of bed bugs has been linked to reduced survival and fecundity along with possibly exposing individuals to microbial infections after cuticular penetration by the paramere (=male reproductive organ), thus represents a form of sexual stress. Additionally, less common stress types such as microbial infections that have been documented in bed bugs will be discussed. Overall, this review provides a current update of research related to bed bug stress tolerance and how their ability to resist stressful conditions has lead to their expansion and proliferation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bed Bugs: An Emerging Pandemic)
Open AccessReview Speciation, Divergence, and the Origin of Gryllus rubens: Behavior, Morphology, and Molecules
Insects 2011, 2(2), 195-209; doi:10.3390/insects2020195
Received: 30 March 2011 / Revised: 22 April 2011 / Accepted: 26 April 2011 / Published: 4 May 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The last 25 years or so has seen a huge resurgence of interest in speciation research. This has coincided with the development and widespread use of new tools in molecular genetics, especially DNA sequencing, to inform ecological and evolutionary questions. Here I [...] Read more.
The last 25 years or so has seen a huge resurgence of interest in speciation research. This has coincided with the development and widespread use of new tools in molecular genetics, especially DNA sequencing, to inform ecological and evolutionary questions. Here I review about a decade of work on the sister species of field crickets Gryllus texensis and G. rubens. This work has included analysis of morphology, behavior, and the mitochondrial DNA molecule. The molecular work in particular has dramatically re-shaped my interpretation of the speciational history of these taxa, suggesting that rather than ‘sister’ species we should consider these taxa as ‘mother-daughter’ species with G. rubens derived from within a subset of ancestral G. texensis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)
Open AccessReview Moving From the Old to the New: Insecticide Research on Bed Bugs since the Resurgence
Insects 2011, 2(2), 210-217; doi:10.3390/insects2020210
Received: 11 February 2011 / Revised: 14 April 2011 / Accepted: 3 May 2011 / Published: 5 May 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (142 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The scarcity of bed bugs in many countries over the last 50 years has resulted in a lack of modern research into the toxicology of this pest. Although bed bugs resurged in the late 1990s, published research related to insecticides has lagged [...] Read more.
The scarcity of bed bugs in many countries over the last 50 years has resulted in a lack of modern research into the toxicology of this pest. Although bed bugs resurged in the late 1990s, published research related to insecticides has lagged behind and only began to appear in 2006. The difficulty in controlling bed bugs triggered the interest of both private and academic sectors to determine the value of currently available insecticides. What follows, is updated information on effectiveness of products, studies on insecticide susceptibility, identification of mechanisms of insecticide resistance and chemical strategies proposed to overcome resistance in modern bed bug populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bed Bugs: An Emerging Pandemic)
Open AccessReview Phylogeography of the Cactophilic Drosophila and Other Arthropods Associated with Cactus Necroses in the Sonoran Desert
Insects 2011, 2(2), 218-231; doi:10.3390/insects2020218
Received: 19 March 2011 / Revised: 23 April 2011 / Accepted: 3 May 2011 / Published: 5 May 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studies on the population genetics, phylogenetic relationships, systematics and evolution of arthropods that inhabit necrotic tissue of cacti in the Sonoran Desert of North America are reviewed. These studies have focused upon several species of insects (orders Diptera and Coleoptera) and arachnids [...] Read more.
Studies on the population genetics, phylogenetic relationships, systematics and evolution of arthropods that inhabit necrotic tissue of cacti in the Sonoran Desert of North America are reviewed. These studies have focused upon several species of insects (orders Diptera and Coleoptera) and arachnids (order Pseudoscorpiones). For most taxa studied, little genetic structure and high dispersal ability are found in populations inhabiting the mainland and Baja California peninsula regions of the Sonoran Desert, consistent with the availability of the rotting cactus microhabitat which is patchily distributed and ephemeral. There is evidence, however, that the Gulf of California, which bisects the Sonoran Desert, has played a role in limiting gene flow and promoting speciation in several taxa, including histerid beetles, whereas other taxa, especially Drosophila nigrospiracula and D. mettleri, apparently are able to freely cross the Gulf, probably by taking advantage of the Midriff Islands in the northern Gulf as dispersal “stepping stones”. Genetic evidence has also been found for historical population expansions dating to the Pleistocene and late Pliocene in several taxa. Overall, these studies have provided important insights into how arthropods with different life history traits, but generally restricted to a necrotic cactus microhabitat, have evolved in an environmentally harsh and tectonically active region. In addition, they suggest some taxa for further, and more detailed, hypothesis driven studies of speciation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)
Figures

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Insects Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
insects@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Insects
Back to Top