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Behav. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Neuroticism Predicts Subsequent Risk of Major Depression for Whites but Not Blacks
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 64; doi:10.3390/bs7040064
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
Cultural and ethnic differences in psychosocial and medical correlates of negative affect are well documented. This study aimed to compare blacks and whites for the predictive role of baseline neuroticism (N) on subsequent risk of major depressive episodes (MDD) 25 years later. Data
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Cultural and ethnic differences in psychosocial and medical correlates of negative affect are well documented. This study aimed to compare blacks and whites for the predictive role of baseline neuroticism (N) on subsequent risk of major depressive episodes (MDD) 25 years later. Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL) Study, 1986–2011. We used data on 1219 individuals (847 whites and 372 blacks) who had data on baseline N in 1986 and future MDD in 2011. The main predictor of interest was baseline N, measured using three items in 1986. The main outcome was 12 months MDD measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) at 2011. Covariates included baseline demographics (age and gender), socioeconomics (education and income), depressive symptoms [Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)], stress, health behaviors (smoking and driking), and physical health [chronic medical conditions, obesity, and self-rated health (SRH)] measured in 1986. Logistic regressions were used to test the predictive role of baseline N on subsequent risk of MDD 25 years later, net of covariates. The models were estimated in the pooled sample, as well as blacks and whites. In the pooled sample, baseline N predicted subsequent risk of MDD 25 years later (OR = 2.23, 95%CI = 1.14–4.34), net of covariates. We also found a marginally significant interaction between race and baseline N on subsequent risk of MDD (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.12–1.12), suggesting a stronger effect for whites compared to blacks. In race-specific models, among whites (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.22–5.32) but not blacks (OR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.24–3.39), baseline N predicted subsequent risk of MDD. Black-white differences in socioeconomics and physical health could not explain the racial differences in the link between N and MDD. Blacks and whites differ in the salience of baseline N as a psychological determinant of MDD risk over a long period of time. This finding supports the cultural moderation hypothesis and is in line with other previously reported black–white differences in social, psychological, and medical correlates of negative affect and depression. Full article
Open AccessArticle Health Philosophy of Dietitians and Its Implications for Life Satisfaction: An Exploratory Study
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 67; doi:10.3390/bs7040067
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
Studies of health providers suggest that satisfaction with life is related to their values and sense of purpose which is best achieved when their professional role is in harmony with personal philosophy. Cross-sectional surveys suggest that personal health beliefs and practices of health
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Studies of health providers suggest that satisfaction with life is related to their values and sense of purpose which is best achieved when their professional role is in harmony with personal philosophy. Cross-sectional surveys suggest that personal health beliefs and practices of health professionals influence their clinical counseling practices. However, little is known about the influence of health philosophy on the personal satisfaction with life for dietitians. This study recruited a randomly selected, cross-sectional sample to complete a self-administered online survey. An exploratory factor analysis of was conducted for 479 participants resulting in a two-factor solution, clinical (α = 0.914) and wellness (α = 0.894) perceptions of health. An index score for the following valid and reliable scales were calculated: satisfaction with life, health conception, and healthy lifestyle and personal control. Pearson correlation coefficients between scores were analyzed to determine the degree of relationship. Potential mediators were explored with multiple regression. The relationships between variables were tested with structural equation modeling using a multigroup comparison between genders. The male participants were removed from the overall model and were separately evaluated. Health philosophy that is oriented toward wellness, was positively and significantly associated with life satisfaction, r(462) = 0.103, p < 0.05. Participants with higher Healthy Lifestyle and Personal Control scores reported greater life satisfaction, r(462) = 0.27, p = 0.000. Healthy lifestyle alone predicted 8.8% of the variance in life satisfaction (R2 = 0.088, df 1462, p = 0.005). SEM confirmed the model had goodness-of-fit (χ2 = 2.63, p = 0.453). The satisfaction with life of dietitians is directly and positively influenced by a greater wellness orientation and personal healthy lifestyle practices. The effect of practice and lifestyle on life satisfaction appears to be greater for men. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Whites but Not Blacks Gain Life Expectancy from Social Contacts
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 68; doi:10.3390/bs7040068
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract
Background. Recent research suggests that the health gain from economic resources and psychological assets may be systematically larger for Whites than Blacks. Aim. This study aimed to assess whether the life expectancy gain associated with social contacts over a long follow
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Background. Recent research suggests that the health gain from economic resources and psychological assets may be systematically larger for Whites than Blacks. Aim. This study aimed to assess whether the life expectancy gain associated with social contacts over a long follow up differs for Blacks and Whites. Methods. Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL) Study, 1986–2011. The sample was a nationally representative sample of American adults 25 and older, who were followed for up to 25 years (n = 3361). Outcome was all-cause mortality. The main predictor was social contacts defined as number of regular visits with friends, relatives, and neighbors. Baseline demographics (age and gender), socioeconomic status (education, income, and employment), health behaviors (smoking and drinking), and health (chronic medical conditions, obesity, and depressive symptoms) were controlled. Race was the focal moderator. Cox proportional hazard models were used in the pooled sample and based on race. Results. More social contacts predicted higher life expectancy in the pooled sample. A significant interaction was found between race and social contacts, suggesting that the protective effect of more social contacts is smaller for Blacks than Whites. In stratified models, more social contacts predicted an increased life expectancy for Whites but not Blacks. Conclusion. Social contacts increase life expectancy for White but not Black Americans. This study introduces social contacts as another social resource that differentially affects health of Whites and Blacks. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Creative Arts Therapies as Temporary Home for Refugees: Insights from Literature and Practice
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 69; doi:10.3390/bs7040069
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
One of the frequently overlooked psychosocial problems of refugees is the phenomenon of homesickness. Being forced into exile and unable to return home may cause natural feelings of nostalgia but may also result in emotional, cognitive, behavioral and physical adversities. According to the
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One of the frequently overlooked psychosocial problems of refugees is the phenomenon of homesickness. Being forced into exile and unable to return home may cause natural feelings of nostalgia but may also result in emotional, cognitive, behavioral and physical adversities. According to the literature, the creative arts therapies with their attention to preverbal language—music, imagery, dance, role play, and movement—are able to reach individuals through the senses and promote successive integration, which can lead to transformation and therapeutic change. These forms of therapy can be a temporary home for refugees in the acculturation process, by serving as a safe and enactive transitional space. More specifically, working with dance and movement can foster the experience of the body as a home and thus provide a safe starting place, from which to regulate arousal, increase interoception, and symbolize trauma- and resource-related processes. Hearing, playing, and singing music from the home culture may assist individuals in maintaining their cultural and personal individuality. Creating drawings, paintings, or sculpturing around the topics of houses and environments from the past can help refugees to retain their identity through art, creating safe spaces for the future helps to look ahead, retain resources, and regain control. This article provides a literature review related to home and homesickness, and the role the arts therapies can play for refugees in transition. It further reports selected interview data on adverse life events and burdens in the host country from a German study. We propose that the creative arts therapies are not only a container that offers a temporary home, but can also serve as a bridge that gently guides refugees to a stepwise integration in the host country. Several clinical and research examples are presented suggesting that the support and affirmation through the creative arts can strengthen individuals in their process of moving from an old to a new environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Embodied Aesthetics and Interpersonal Resonance)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Aesthetic Diagnosis in Gestalt Therapy
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 70; doi:10.3390/bs7040070
Received: 7 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
The diagnostic process in psychotherapy using the aesthetic evaluation is described in this article. Unlike the classical diagnostic process, which presents a result of comparing clinicians´ observations with a diagnostic system (DSM, ICD, etc.), the aesthetic evaluation is a pre-reflexive, embodied, and preverbal
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The diagnostic process in psychotherapy using the aesthetic evaluation is described in this article. Unlike the classical diagnostic process, which presents a result of comparing clinicians´ observations with a diagnostic system (DSM, ICD, etc.), the aesthetic evaluation is a pre-reflexive, embodied, and preverbal process. A Gestalt Therapy theoretical frame is used to introduce a concept of the aesthetic diagnostic process. During this process, the clinicians use their own here-and-now presence, which takes part in the co-creation of the shared relational field during the therapeutic session. A specific procedure of the aesthetic evaluation is introduced. The clinical work with depressed clients is presented to illustrate this perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Embodied Aesthetics and Interpersonal Resonance)
Open AccessArticle Relationship between Self-Rated Health and Lifestyle and Food Habits in Japanese High School Students
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 71; doi:10.3390/bs7040071
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 8 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
Self-rated health (SRH), a subjective assessment of health status, is extensively used in the field of public health. It is an important and valid measure that is strongly related to morbidity, mortality, longevity and health status. Adolescence is a crucial period for the
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Self-rated health (SRH), a subjective assessment of health status, is extensively used in the field of public health. It is an important and valid measure that is strongly related to morbidity, mortality, longevity and health status. Adolescence is a crucial period for the formation of health status, because health-risk behaviours (e.g., skipping breakfast) are often established during this period. In this study, we investigated the relationship of SRH with lifestyle and eating habits in Japanese high school students. In this study, 1296 students aged 16–18 years from 11 high schools in Japan participated. A questionnaire was administered to these participants that included a question on SRH, five questions on demographic characteristics, six questions on lifestyle items (e.g., wake-up time), five questions on miscellaneous health issues (e.g., anorexia), and 25 questions on food habits and attitudes towards food. We examined the differences between self-rated healthy and unhealthy groups using logistic regression analysis adjusted for gender and age. A dichotomy regression analysis was performed using a stepwise elimination method. Of the 1296 respondents, 16.7% reported feeling unhealthy, 57.7% of whom were females. The self-rated healthy group had a higher frequency of eating breakfast (odds ratio (OR): 2.13; confidence interval (CI): 1.07–4.24) and liked home meals to a greater extent (OR: 3.12; CI: 1.27–7.65) than the self-rated unhealthy group. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of other lifestyle factors or unidentified complaints. Our results suggest that liking home meals during adolescence may lead to the development of good eating habits, i.e., eating breakfast, and better SRH. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Map Sensitivity vs. Map Dependency: A Case Study of Subway Maps’ Impact on Passenger Route Choices in Washington DC
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 72; doi:10.3390/bs7040072
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
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Abstract
This paper addresses the key assumption in behavioral and transportation planning literature that, when people use a transit system more frequently, they become less dependent on and less sensitive to transit maps in their decision-making. Therefore, according to this assumption, map changes are
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This paper addresses the key assumption in behavioral and transportation planning literature that, when people use a transit system more frequently, they become less dependent on and less sensitive to transit maps in their decision-making. Therefore, according to this assumption, map changes are much less impactful to travel decisions of frequent riders than to that of first-time or new passengers. This assumption—though never empirically validated—has been the major hurdle for transit maps to becoming a planning tool to change passengers’ behavior. This paper examines this assumption using the Washington DC metro map as a case study by conducting a route choice experiment between 30 Origin-Destination (O-D) pairs on seven metro map designs. The experiment targets two types of passengers: frequent metro riders through advertisements on a free daily newspaper available at DC metro stations, and general residents in the Washington metropolitan area through Amazon Mechanical Turk, an online crowdsourcing platform. A total of 255 and 371 participants made 2024 and 2960 route choices in the respective experiments. The results show that frequent passengers are in fact more sensitive to subtle changes in map design than general residents who are less likely to be familiar with the metro map and therefore unaffected by map changes presented in the alternative designs. The work disproves the aforementioned assumption and further validates metro maps as an effective planning tool in transit systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Financing Cocaine Use in a Homeless Population
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 74; doi:10.3390/bs7040074
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
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Abstract
Background: Cocaine use is highly prevalent among homeless populations, yet little is known about how it is financed. This study examined associations of income sources with cocaine use and financing of drugs in a longitudinal evaluation of a homeless sample. Methods: A homeless
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Background: Cocaine use is highly prevalent among homeless populations, yet little is known about how it is financed. This study examined associations of income sources with cocaine use and financing of drugs in a longitudinal evaluation of a homeless sample. Methods: A homeless sample was recruited systematically in St. Louis in 1999–2001 and longitudinally assessed annually over two years using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Homeless Supplement, with urine drug testing. Results: More than half (55%) of participants with complete follow-up data (N = 255/400) had current year cocaine use. Current users spent nearly $400 (half their income) in the last month on drugs at baseline. Benefits, welfare, and disability were negatively associated and employment and income from family/friends, panhandling, and other illegal activities were positively associated with cocaine use and monetary expenditures for cocaine. Conclusions: Findings suggest that illegal and informal income-generating activities are primary sources for immediate gratification with cocaine use and public entitlements do not appear to be primary funding sources used by homeless populations. Policy linking drug testing to benefits is likely to have little utility, and public expenditures on measures to unlink drug use and income might be more effectively used to fund employment and treatment programs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Discrimination Increases Suicidal Ideation in Black Adolescents Regardless of Ethnicity and Gender
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 75; doi:10.3390/bs7040075
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 29 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: Discrimination is a common experience for Blacks across various developmental periods. Although much is known about the effect of discrimination on suicidal ideation of adults, less is known about the same association in Black youth. Aim: We examined the association between discrimination
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Background: Discrimination is a common experience for Blacks across various developmental periods. Although much is known about the effect of discrimination on suicidal ideation of adults, less is known about the same association in Black youth. Aim: We examined the association between discrimination and suicidal ideation in a national sample of Black youth. We also explored gender and ethnic differences in this association. Methods: We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003–2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (aged 13 to 17 years). Demographic and socioeconomic factors were controls, perceived discrimination was the predictor, and lifetime suicidal ideation was the outcome. Logistic regression was used to test the association between perceived discrimination and suicidal ideation in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity and gender. Results: In the pooled sample of Black youth, higher perceived discrimination was associated with higher odds of suicidal ideation (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.09; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02−1.17). This association was significant net of age, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. We did not find interactions between perceived discrimination and ethnicity or gender on suicidal ideation. Perceived discrimination was associated with suicidal ideation in African Americans (CI = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.01−1.17) and Caribbean Blacks (CI = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.03−1.32), males (CI = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.00−1.25), and females (CI = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.00−1.16). Conclusion: Discrimination jeopardizes the mental health of Black youth. In a universal pattern, discrimination is associated with suicidal ideation in Black youth. More research is needed on this topic. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Efficacy of Web-Based Weight Loss Maintenance Programs: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Standard Features Versus the Addition of Enhanced Personalized Feedback over 12 Months
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 76; doi:10.3390/bs7040076
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
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Abstract
Few randomized controlled trials (RCT) have evaluated the efficacy of web-based programs targeting maintenance of lost weight. The aims of this study were to evaluate two versions of a commercially available web-based weight loss maintenance (WLM) program and examine whether the provision of
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Few randomized controlled trials (RCT) have evaluated the efficacy of web-based programs targeting maintenance of lost weight. The aims of this study were to evaluate two versions of a commercially available web-based weight loss maintenance (WLM) program and examine whether the provision of enhanced feedback was associated with better WLM. The study was an assessor-blinded RCT of change in body mass index (BMI) over 12 months WLM. Participants were 227 adults (44% male, 42.3 ± 10.1 years, BMI 30.4 ± 4.1 kg/m2) randomized to either a basic (Basic WLM) or enhanced program with additional support (Enhanced WLM). Analysis was intention-to-treat with imputation using last observation carried forward. There was no significant weight rebound from the start of weight loss maintenance to 12 months for either group (mean: basic 1.3%, enhanced 1.5%) and limited change in secondary outcomes for either program. There were no significant between-group differences in the primary outcome of change in BMI (basic −0.5 (1.9) kg/m2, enhanced −0.5 (1.6) kg/m2, p = 0.93). In conclusion, a web-based WLM program was effective in preventing weight regain over one year following weight loss. However, the addition of personalized e-feedback provided limited additional benefits compared to a standard program. Given the potential reach of web-based approaches, further research examining which web-based program components optimize weight outcomes long-term is required. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Clinic Design as Placebo—Using Design to Promote Healing and Support Treatments
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 77; doi:10.3390/bs7040077
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
Analogously to the medical placebo effect, people seem to anticipate the quality of treatments based on external stimuli. In order to gain insights on the effect the built environment can have on a person’s judgments and behavior with a particular focus on health
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Analogously to the medical placebo effect, people seem to anticipate the quality of treatments based on external stimuli. In order to gain insights on the effect the built environment can have on a person’s judgments and behavior with a particular focus on health related issues, a quantitative survey (N = 851) with four groups before and after the renovation of a rehabilitation clinic has been conducted. In line with an overall modernization of the clinic, the entrance, the lobby, and some patient rooms have been changed. In the lobby, a service counter and coffee bar have been added as well as light colors and new flooring material to achieve a more modern and clean atmosphere in the sense of aesthetical appearance of the space. The outcome revealed that patients rate the intention to change their health behavior as well as the quality of food or significantly higher in a modernized clinic. These differences cannot be directly attributed solely to the changes in the building. Analogously to the medical placebo, an effect referred to as design placebo effect is, therefore, proposed to explain improved ratings of aspects that have not directly been changed due to the intervention. Other significant effects are attributable to winter and summer climate. During summer time, ratings for waiting area, atmosphere, patient rooms, as well as for staff were significantly higher. It is, therefore, assumed that aesthetic attributes, such as architectural design, or friendliness of the weather, exert their effects as perceptual placebos that directly influence judgment outcomes and behavioral intentions. Further research is needed to match certain design and general environmental features to their effects on patients and investigate their effect strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Embodied Aesthetics and Interpersonal Resonance)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Atypical Processing of Novel Distracters in a Visual Oddball Task in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 79; doi:10.3390/bs7040079
Received: 24 September 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Several studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show abnormalities in P3b to targets in standard oddball tasks. The present study employed a three-stimulus visual oddball task with novel distracters that analyzed event-related potentials (ERP) to both target and non-target
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Several studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show abnormalities in P3b to targets in standard oddball tasks. The present study employed a three-stimulus visual oddball task with novel distracters that analyzed event-related potentials (ERP) to both target and non-target items at frontal and parietal sites. The task tested the hypothesis that children with autism are abnormally orienting attention to distracters probably due to impaired habituation to novelty. We predicted a lower selectivity in early ERPs to target, frequent non-target, and rare distracters. We also expected delayed late ERPs in autism. The study enrolled 32 ASD and 24 typically developing (TD) children. Reaction time (RT) and accuracy were analyzed as behavioral measures, while ERPs were recorded with a dense-array EEG system. Children with ASD showed higher error rate without normative post-error RT slowing and had lower error-related negativity. Parietal P1, frontal N1, as well as P3a and P3b components were higher to novels in ASD. Augmented exogenous ERPs suggest low selectivity in pre-processing of stimuli resulting in their excessive processing at later stages. The results suggest an impaired habituation to unattended stimuli that incurs a high load at the later stages of perceptual and cognitive processing and response selection when novel distracter stimuli are differentiated from targets. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Psychology of the Embrace: How Body Rhythms Communicate the Need to Indulge or Separate
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 80; doi:10.3390/bs7040080
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 November 2017 / Published: 29 November 2017
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Abstract
In the context of embodiment research, there has been a growing interest in phenomena of interpersonal resonance. Given that haptic communication is particularly under-researched, we focused on the phenomenon of embracing. When we embrace a dear friend to say good-bye at the end
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In the context of embodiment research, there has been a growing interest in phenomena of interpersonal resonance. Given that haptic communication is particularly under-researched, we focused on the phenomenon of embracing. When we embrace a dear friend to say good-bye at the end of a great evening, we typically first employ smooth and yielding movements with round transitions between muscular tensing and relaxing (smooth, indulging rhythms), and when the embrace is getting too long, we start to use slight patting (sharp, fighting rhythms with sharp transitions) on the back or the shoulders of the partner in order to indicate that we now want to end the embrace. On the ground of interpersonal resonance, most persons (per-sonare, latin = to sound through) understand these implicit nonverbal signals, expressed in haptic tension-flow changes, and will react accordingly. To experimentally test the hypothesis that smooth, indulgent rhythms signal the wish to continue, and sharp, fighting rhythms signal the wish to separate from an embrace, we randomly assigned 64 participants, all students at the University of Heidelberg, to two differently sequenced embrace conditions: (a) with the fighting rhythm at the end of the sequence of two indulgent rhythms (Sequence A: smooth-smooth-sharp); and (b) with the fighting rhythm between two indulgent rhythms (Sequence B: smooth-sharp-smooth). Participants were embraced for 30 s by a female confe­derate with their eyes blindfolded to focus on haptic and kinesthetic cues without being distracted by visual cues. They were instructed to let go of a handkerchief that they held between the fingers of their dominant hand during the embrace, when they felt that the embracer signaled the wish to finish the embrace. Participants significantly more often dropped the handkerchief in the phase of the fighting rhythm, no matter in which location it occurred in the embrace sequence. We assume that we learn such rhythmic behaviors and their meaning from the beginning of life in the communication with caregivers and meaningful others. Some are universal and some are quite idiosyncratic. Infants seem to be highly sensitive to the dynamic nuances presented to them, demonstrating a high capacity for embodied resonance and a high behavioral plasticity. Such adaptive mechanisms are assumed to lay the foundations of family culture (including the degree to which nonverbal cues are attended to, the communication of taboos, etc.) and larger culture, and may also play an important role in interpersonal attraction and aesthetic experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Embodied Aesthetics and Interpersonal Resonance)
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Open AccessArticle Challenging Notions of Academic Entitlement and Its Rise among Liberal Arts College Students
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 81; doi:10.3390/bs7040081
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 2 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract
To assess academic entitlement, we employed a repeated cross-sectional design to compare survey data from two systematic random samples collected eight years apart, in 2009 (n = 225) and 2017 (n = 159), at a small, private, mid-Atlantic liberal arts college.
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To assess academic entitlement, we employed a repeated cross-sectional design to compare survey data from two systematic random samples collected eight years apart, in 2009 (n = 225) and 2017 (n = 159), at a small, private, mid-Atlantic liberal arts college. According to an entitlement scale (based on Greenberger et al., 2008), students were less likely to be entitled in 2017 (27%) than in 2009 (41%) (p = 0.02). In 2009, a higher proportion of males than females felt entitled (50% versus 34%, p = 0.05), a sex difference that disappeared by 2017. To explore academic entitlement further, we developed the “PIE” scale to measure the extent to which students believe “participation,” “improvement” and “effort” should help determine their course grades. Although the proportion of above average PIE scorers was stable from 2009 (36%) to 2017 (34%), in 2017, more females than males were above average on PIE (26% of males versus 44% of females, p = 0.02). PIE, or the desire for recognition of “academic sweat equity,” could reflect students’ support for a learning model that goes beyond mastery and is more developmental and process oriented. These data challenge common conceptions of what constitutes academic entitlement, the belief that it is rising, and suggest continued discussions of what factors should determine grades. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview On the Importance of Both Dimensional and Discrete Models of Emotion
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 66; doi:10.3390/bs7040066
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
We review research on the structure and functions of emotions that has benefitted from a serious consideration of both discrete and dimensional perspectives on emotion. To illustrate this point, we review research that demonstrates: (1) how affective valence within discrete emotions differs as
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We review research on the structure and functions of emotions that has benefitted from a serious consideration of both discrete and dimensional perspectives on emotion. To illustrate this point, we review research that demonstrates: (1) how affective valence within discrete emotions differs as a function of individuals and situations, and how these differences relate to various functions; (2) that anger (and other emotional states) should be considered as a discrete emotion but there are dimensions around and within anger; (3) that similarities exist between approach-related positive and negative discrete emotions and they have unique motivational functions; (4) that discrete emotions and broad dimensions of emotions both have unique functions; and (5) evidence that a “new” discrete emotion with discrete functions exists within a broader emotion family. We hope that this consideration of both discrete and dimensional perspectives on emotion will assist in understanding the functions of emotions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Perspectives on Emotion)
Open AccessReview A Comparison of the Social-Adaptive Perspective and Functionalist Perspective on Guilt and Shame
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 83; doi:10.3390/bs7040083
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract
Within the field of guilt and shame two competing perspectives have been advanced. The first, the social-adaptive perspective, proposes that guilt is an inherently adaptive emotion and shame is an inherently maladaptive emotion. Thus, those interested in moral character development and psychopathology should
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Within the field of guilt and shame two competing perspectives have been advanced. The first, the social-adaptive perspective, proposes that guilt is an inherently adaptive emotion and shame is an inherently maladaptive emotion. Thus, those interested in moral character development and psychopathology should work to increase an individual’s guilt-proneness and decrease an individual’s shame-proneness. The functionalist perspective, in contrast, argues that both guilt and shame can serve a person adaptively or maladaptively—depending on the situational appropriateness, duration, intensity, and so forth. This paper reviews the research conducted supporting both positions; critiques some issues with the most widely used guilt- and shame-proneness measure in the social-adaptive research (the TOSCA) and discusses the differences in results found when assessing guilt and shame at the state versus trait level. The conclusion drawn is that although there is broad support for the functionalist perspective across a wide variety of state and trait guilt/shame studies, the functionalist perspective does not yet have the wealth of data supporting it that has been generated by the social-adaptive perspective using the TOSCA. Thus, before a dominant perspective can be identified, researchers need to (1) do more research assessing how the social-adaptive perspective compares to the functionalist perspective at the state level and (2) do more trait research within the functionalist perspective to compare functionalist guilt- and shame-proneness measures with the TOSCA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Perspectives on Emotion)

Other

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Open AccessPerspective Bystander Programs: Accommodating or Derailing Sexism?
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 65; doi:10.3390/bs7040065
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 23 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
Bystander programs implemented to meet federal requirements to reduce sexual assaults on college campuses in the United States must include primary prevention. Survey data (n = 280) and interview data (n = 20) presented in this paper explore students’ hypothetical and
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Bystander programs implemented to meet federal requirements to reduce sexual assaults on college campuses in the United States must include primary prevention. Survey data (n = 280) and interview data (n = 20) presented in this paper explore students’ hypothetical and actual willingness to intervene as bystanders. Although most students surveyed (57%) claim they would be very likely to intervene, fewer than half would be very suspicious of someone leading away an intoxicated individual at a party (45% of women and 28% of men: p < 0.01). Interview data reveal how students perceive risk factors at college parties and what types of bystander measures they attempt, including “distractions”, a nonconfrontational tactic in which bystanders avoid more direct but socially risky interventions. Subsumed in many current bystander programs is an invisible element of valorizing harmony. Condoning bystanders’ unwillingness to directly confront seemingly predatory individuals could make change seem out of reach and could also embolden offenders whose behavior is observed and only temporarily thwarted. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperPerspective Perspectives on the Role of Professional Laboratory Animal Science Associations
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 73; doi:10.3390/bs7040073
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
The three authors of this letter had the honor and pleasure of being invited to the international meeting “Laboratory Animal Science, Moving Forward Together: State of the Art in Non-Clinical Models for Neurodegenerative Diseases”, held in Varadero, Cuba, 21–24 June 2017.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of Art in Non-Clinical Models for Neurodegenerative Diseases)
Open AccessOpinion Creating a World-Class Program through Training and Certification
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 78; doi:10.3390/bs7040078
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
The animal research field has gotten more sophisticated with the use of genetically engineered animals, biohazardous agents, and advanced technologies. Trained and competent personnel are a cornerstone of any animal care and use program. Individual career success is a combination of education, experience,
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The animal research field has gotten more sophisticated with the use of genetically engineered animals, biohazardous agents, and advanced technologies. Trained and competent personnel are a cornerstone of any animal care and use program. Individual career success is a combination of education, experience, continuing competence, professional development, and personal commitment. Integration of training and certification into programs demonstrate institutional commitment to quality research and enhance the program by providing staff with knowledge and training to address problems and situation that arise and to perform their job in a professional and effective manner. Professional development programs offered through the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science—including the AALAS Learning Library and the AALAS certification process—will be presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of Art in Non-Clinical Models for Neurodegenerative Diseases)
Open AccessPerspective Non-Clinical Models for Neurodegenerative Diseases: Therapeutic Approach and Drug Validation in Animal Models
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 82; doi:10.3390/bs7040082
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
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Abstract
In 2016, 19.8% of the Cuban population was aged 60 or over. As a result, age-associated degenerative diseases and other diseases have become priority targets from a prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic perspective. As a result, the Cuban biomedical scientific community has addressed its
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In 2016, 19.8% of the Cuban population was aged 60 or over. As a result, age-associated degenerative diseases and other diseases have become priority targets from a prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic perspective. As a result, the Cuban biomedical scientific community has addressed its basic, preclinical and epidemiological research in order to rise up to the challenge. A firm step in this direction has been the international congress “State of the art in non-clinical models for neurodegenerative diseases” which has brought together preclinical and clinical researchers, technicians and regulatory staff members from different countries to review the state of the art in neurodegenerations, find unifying ideas, objectives and collaborations or partnership. The objective is to expose the perspectives of new biotechnological products from Cuba and other countries from the diagnostic, therapeutic and neuroprotective point of view. It is crucial, therefore, that the irreplaceable role of laboratory animals in achieving these objectives is understood but they must be used in rational, adequate and ethical manner. We expose the current development trends in this field, being of common interest to the work directed to the search for potential drugs, diagnostic tools and the promotion of changes in lifestyle as a preventive projection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of Art in Non-Clinical Models for Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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