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Appl. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Study of the Wave Energy Propagation Patterns in the Western Black Sea
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060993 (registering DOI)
Received: 26 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
The most relevant patterns of the wave energy propagation in the western side of the Black Sea were assessed in the present work. The emphasis was put on the western side because this is also the most energetic part of the Black Sea.
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The most relevant patterns of the wave energy propagation in the western side of the Black Sea were assessed in the present work. The emphasis was put on the western side because this is also the most energetic part of the Black Sea. The assessments performed relate some recent results provided by a numerical wave modeling system based on the spectrum concept. The SWAN model (acronym for Simulating Waves Nearshore) was considered. This was implemented over the entire sea basin and focused with increasing resolution in the geographical space towards the Romanian nearshore. Furthermore, some data assimilation techniques have also been implemented, such that the results provided are accurate and reliable. Special attention was paid to the high, but not extreme, winter wave energy conditions. The cases considered are focused on the coastal waves generated by distant storms, which means the local wind has not very high values in the targeted areas. This also takes into account the fact that the configuration of the environmental matrix in the Black Sea is currently subjected to significant changes mainly due to the climate change. From this perspective, the present work illustrates some of the most recent patterns of wave energy propagation in the western side of the Black Sea, considering eight different SWAN computational domains. According to most of the recent evaluations, the nearshore of the Black Sea is characterized by an average wave power lower than 6 kW/m. The results of the present work show that there is a real tendency of the wave energy enhancement. This tendency, especially concerns the western side of the basin, where in the high conditions considered, values of the wave power about 10 times greater than the average have been noticed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Systems Planning, Integration and Management)
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Open AccessReview Microfluidic Technology for Cell Manipulation
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060992 (registering DOI)
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
Microfluidic techniques for cell manipulation have been constantly developed and integrated into small chips for high-performance bioassays. However, the drawbacks of each of the techniques often hindered their further advancement and their wide use in biotechnology. To overcome this difficulty, an examination and
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Microfluidic techniques for cell manipulation have been constantly developed and integrated into small chips for high-performance bioassays. However, the drawbacks of each of the techniques often hindered their further advancement and their wide use in biotechnology. To overcome this difficulty, an examination and understanding of various aspects of the developed manipulation techniques are required. In this review, we provide the details of primary microfluidic techniques that have received much attention for bioassays. First, we introduce the manipulation techniques using a sole driving source, i.e., dielectrophoresis, electrophoresis, optical tweezers, magnetophoresis, and acoustophoresis. Next, we present rapid electrokinetic patterning, a hybrid opto-electric manipulation technique developed recently. It is introduced in detail along with the underlying physical principle, operating environment, and current challenges. This paper will offer readers the opportunity to improve existing manipulation techniques, suggest new manipulation techniques, and find new applications in biotechnology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidics in Biology and Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle GNSS-Based Verticality Monitoring of Super-Tall Buildings
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060991 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
In the construction of super-tall buildings, it is rather important to control the verticality. In general, a laser plummet is used to transmit coordinates of reference points from the ground layer-by-layer, which can effectively control the verticality of super-tall buildings. However, the errors
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In the construction of super-tall buildings, it is rather important to control the verticality. In general, a laser plummet is used to transmit coordinates of reference points from the ground layer-by-layer, which can effectively control the verticality of super-tall buildings. However, the errors in transmission will accumulate with increasing height and motion of the buildings in construction. This paper presents a global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-based method to check the results of laser plumbing. The method consists of four steps: (1) Computing the coordinate time series of monitoring points by adjusting the GNSS monitoring network observations at each epoch; (2) Analyzing the horizontal motion of super-tall buildings and its effect on vertical reference transmission; (3) Calculating the deflections of the vertical at the monitoring point using an Earth gravity field model and a geoid model. With deflections of the vertical, the static GNSS-measured coordinates are aligned to the same datum as used by the laser plummet; and (4) Finally, validating/checking the result of laser plumbing by comparing it with static GNSS results corrected by deflections of the vertical. A case study of a 438-m high building is tested in Guangzhou, China. The result demonstrates that the gross errors of baseline vectors can be eliminated effectively by GNSS network adjustment of the first step. The two-dimensional displacements can be measured at millimeter-level accuracy; the difference between the coordinates of the static GNSS measurement and laser plumbing is less than ±2.0 cm after correction with the deflections of the vertical, which meets the design requirement of ±3.0 cm according to the Technical Specification for Concrete Structures of Tall Buildings in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Damage Detection and Health Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle An Improved PSO Algorithm and Its Application in GNSS Ambiguity Resolution
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060990 (registering DOI)
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
In this study, we proposed a novel method for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) ambiguity resolution (AR). The proposed method utilizes an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm to obtain the GNSS integer ambiguity with the double differenced (DD) float resolution and its
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In this study, we proposed a novel method for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) ambiguity resolution (AR). The proposed method utilizes an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm to obtain the GNSS integer ambiguity with the double differenced (DD) float resolution and its corresponding covariance matrix. First, we introduced population maturity to the standard PSO (SPSO) algorithm for the adaptive adjustment of inertia weight. Next, to improve the global convergence and robustness of the SPSO algorithm, we adopted population classification and constructed a Gauss mutation for the particle evolution process of the optimal population. Then, we applied the IPSO algorithm in the field of GNSS AR, called IPSO–AR. Finally, we evaluated the performance of the IPSO–AR algorithm under different DD ambiguity float resolutions with various dimensions and precisions. Numerical results showed that compared with the SPSO–AR algorithm, the IPSO–AR algorithm has a superior correct rate, but low efficiency. Under the appropriate parameter settings, the efficiency of the IPSO–AR algorithm is mainly dependent on the dimensions of DD ambiguity, whereas the correct rate of the IPSO–AR algorithm is mainly dependent on the precision of DD ambiguity. The proposed IPSO–AR algorithm has potential applications under the conditions of few visible satellites or constrained baseline length. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Ultraviolet Transient Absorption Spectrometer with Sub-20-fs Time Resolution
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060989 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
We describe a transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy system in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range, for the study of the ultrafast optical response of biomolecules. After reviewing the techniques for the generation and characterization of ultrashort UV pulses, we describe the experimental setup of
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We describe a transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy system in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range, for the study of the ultrafast optical response of biomolecules. After reviewing the techniques for the generation and characterization of ultrashort UV pulses, we describe the experimental setup of our ultrabroadband UV TA spectrometer. The setup combines sub-20-fs UV pump pulses tunable between 3.35 and 4.7 eV, with broadband white-light-continuum probe pulses in the 1.7–4.6 eV range. Thanks to the broad tunability of the pump pulses in the UV spectral range, the extremely high temporal resolution and the broad spectral coverage of the probe, this TA system is a powerful and versatile tool for the study of many biomolecules. As an example of its potential, we apply the TA spectrometer to track ultrafast internal conversion processes in pyrene after excitation in the UV, and to resolve an impulsively excited molecular vibration with 85-fs period. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Off-Body Narrowband and Ultra-Wide Band Channel Model for Body Area Networks in a Ferryboat Environment
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060988 (registering DOI)
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
In the article an off-body narrowband and ultra-wide band channel model for body area networks in a ferryboat environment is described. Considering the limited number of publications there is a need to develop an off-body channel model, which will facilitate the design of
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In the article an off-body narrowband and ultra-wide band channel model for body area networks in a ferryboat environment is described. Considering the limited number of publications there is a need to develop an off-body channel model, which will facilitate the design of radio links, both from the multimedia services provider and the security point of view, for body area networks in this atypical environment. A mobile heterogeneous measurement stand, using radio distance measurements, which consists of three types of devices: miniaturized mobile nodes, stationary reference nodes, and a data acquisition server, was developed. A detailed analysis of both radio channels’ parameters was carried out. An analysis of system loss for off-body communication, including mean system loss, large-scale fading (corresponding to body shadowing), and small-scale fading (associated with the multipath phenomenon), both for 868 MHz narrowband and for 6489 MHz ultra-wide band channels, was performed. A statistical analysis of the obtained system loss model parameters was also carried out; good fit to the empirical data is observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Area Networks)
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Open AccessArticle A Lattice-Based Group Authentication Scheme
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 987; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060987
Received: 19 May 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Authentication has been adopted in many areas, but most of these authentication schemes are built using traditional cryptographic primitives. It is widely believed that such primitives are not resistant to quantum algorithms. To deal with those quantum attacks, lattice-based cryptography was introduced by
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Authentication has been adopted in many areas, but most of these authentication schemes are built using traditional cryptographic primitives. It is widely believed that such primitives are not resistant to quantum algorithms. To deal with those quantum attacks, lattice-based cryptography was introduced by Ajtai in 1996. To the best of our knowledge, the existing lattice-based authentication schemes are based on a lattice-based public key encryption called NTRU: a ring-based public key cryptosystem, proposed by Hoffstein, Pipher, and Silverman in 1998. However, these schemes only support the case of a single user. In view of the aforementioned issue, we propose the first lattice-based group authentication scheme. The proposed scheme is secure against replay attacks and man-in-the-middle attacks. Moreover, compared with the existing lattice-based authentication schemes, ours provides the most efficient method to agree upon a session key among a group of users after mutual authentication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 2017 International Conference on Inventions)
Open AccessArticle Anamorphic and Local Characterization of a Holographic Data Storage System with a Liquid-Crystal on Silicon Microdisplay as Data Pager
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060986
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we present a method to characterize a complete optical Holographic Data Storage System (HDSS), where we identify the elements that limit the capacity to register and restore the information introduced by means of a Liquid Cristal on Silicon (LCoS) microdisplay
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In this paper, we present a method to characterize a complete optical Holographic Data Storage System (HDSS), where we identify the elements that limit the capacity to register and restore the information introduced by means of a Liquid Cristal on Silicon (LCoS) microdisplay as the data pager. In the literature, it has been shown that LCoS exhibits an anamorphic and frequency dependent effect when periodic optical elements are addressed to LCoS microdisplays in diffractive optics applications. We tested whether this effect is still relevant in the application to HDSS, where non-periodic binary elements are applied, as it is the case in binary data pages codified by Binary Intensity Modulation (BIM). To test the limits in storage data density and in spatial bandwidth of the HDSS, we used anamorphic patterns with different resolutions. We analyzed the performance of the microdisplay in situ using figures of merit adapted to HDSS. A local characterization across the aperture of the system was also demonstrated with our proposed methodology, which results in an estimation of the illumination uniformity and the contrast generated by the LCoS. We show the extent of the increase in the Bit Error Rate (BER) when introducing a photopolymer as the recording material, thus all the important elements in a HDSS are considered in the characterization methodology demonstrated in this paper. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Self-Powered Fast Brazing of Ti-6Al-4V Using Ni/Al Reactive Multilayer Films
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060985
Received: 26 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Self-powered brazing of Ti-6Al-4V was performed using Ni/Al reactive multilayer films (RMFs) as self-propagated heat resources. BAlSi-4 was first coated on Ti-6Al-4V by plasma welding, then alternating layers of Ni and Al were successfully deposited on BAlSi-4 up to 32.9 μm thick with
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Self-powered brazing of Ti-6Al-4V was performed using Ni/Al reactive multilayer films (RMFs) as self-propagated heat resources. BAlSi-4 was first coated on Ti-6Al-4V by plasma welding, then alternating layers of Ni and Al were successfully deposited on BAlSi-4 up to 32.9 μm thick with e-beam deposition. The joint microstructure was investigated and the AlNi and Ni5Al3 phases were identified in the RMF. The cause for the two phases was determined to be differences in the diffusivity of Ni and Al, ultrafast brazing time, and faster cooling at the interface between brazing filler metal and the RMF. The maximum temperature of 683 °C was reached in the brazed joint, with a total RMF thickness of 135 μm, which is more than sufficient to melt the BAlSi-4 brazing material. The maximum bonding strength obtained was 10.6 MPa, with a self-power brazing procedure conducted in a minute. It is possible to further improve the bonding strength by using more ductile RMFs and/or modifying the bonding interface configuration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the NMJ2018)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Approach for Outdoor Fall Detection Using Multidimensional Features from A Single Camera
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060984
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
In the past few years, it has become increasingly important to automatically detect falls and provide feedback in emergency situations. To meet these demands, fall detection studies have been undertaken using various methods ranging from wearable devices to vision-based methods. However, each method
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In the past few years, it has become increasingly important to automatically detect falls and provide feedback in emergency situations. To meet these demands, fall detection studies have been undertaken using various methods ranging from wearable devices to vision-based methods. However, each method has its own limitations and one common limitation that is prevalent in almost all fall detection studies is that they are restricted to indoor environments. Therefore, we focused on a more dynamic and complex outdoor environment. We used two-dimensional features and Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filtering for human detection and tracking, and extracted three-dimensional features from depth images estimated by the supervised learning method from single input images. As we used the methods in combination, we could distinguish a series of states in which a person falls more precisely and then successfully perform fall detection under dynamic and complex scenes. In this study, we solved the initialization problem, the main constraint of existing tracking studies, by applying the particle swarm optimization method to the human detection system. In addition, we avoided using the background reference image feature for image segmentation due to its vulnerability towards dynamic outdoor changes. The experimental results show a reliable and robust performance for the proposed method and suggest the possibility of effective application to the pre-existing surveillance systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science and Electrical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle A Modified Polynomial Expansion Algorithm for Solving the Steady-State Allen-Cahn Equation for Heat Transfer in Thin Films
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060983
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Meshfree algorithms offer a convenient way of solving nonlinear steady-state problems in arbitrary plane areas surrounded by complicated boundary shapes. The simplest of these is the polynomial expansion approach. However, it is rarely utilized as a primary tool for this purpose because of
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Meshfree algorithms offer a convenient way of solving nonlinear steady-state problems in arbitrary plane areas surrounded by complicated boundary shapes. The simplest of these is the polynomial expansion approach. However, it is rarely utilized as a primary tool for this purpose because of its rather ill-conditioned behavior. A well behaved polynomial expansion algorithm is presented in this paper which can be more effectively used to solve the steady-state Allen-Cahn (AC) equation for heat transfer in thin films. In this method, modified polynomial expansion was used to cope with each iteration of the steady-state Allen-Cahn equation to produce nonlinear algebraic equations where multiple scales are automatically determined by the collocation points. These scales can largely decrease the condition number of the coefficient matrix in each nonlinear system, so that the iteration process converges very quickly. The numerical solutions were found to be accurate and stable against moderate noise to better than 7.5%. Computational results verified the method and showed the steady-state Allen-Cahn equation for heat transfer in thin films could easily be resolved for several arbitrary plane domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 2017 International Conference on Inventions)
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Open AccessArticle Active Color Control in a Metasurface by Polarization Rotation
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060982
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Generating colors by employing metallic nanostructures has attracted intensive scientific attention recently, because one can easily realize higher spatial resolution and highly robust colors compared to conventional pigment. However, since the scattering spectra and thereby the resultant colors are determined by the nanostructure
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Generating colors by employing metallic nanostructures has attracted intensive scientific attention recently, because one can easily realize higher spatial resolution and highly robust colors compared to conventional pigment. However, since the scattering spectra and thereby the resultant colors are determined by the nanostructure geometries, only one fixed color can be produced by one design and a whole new sample is required to generate a different color. In this paper, we demonstrate active metasurface, which shows a range of colors dependent on incident polarization by selectively exciting three different plasmonic nanorods. The metasurface, which does not include any tunable materials or external stimuli, will be beneficial in real-life applications especially in the display applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Metamaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Comparing Deep Learning and Classical Machine Learning Approaches for Predicting Inpatient Violence Incidents from Clinical Text
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060981
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Machine learning techniques are increasingly being applied to clinical text that is already captured in the Electronic Health Record for the sake of delivering quality care. Applications for example include predicting patient outcomes, assessing risks, or performing diagnosis. In the past, good results
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Machine learning techniques are increasingly being applied to clinical text that is already captured in the Electronic Health Record for the sake of delivering quality care. Applications for example include predicting patient outcomes, assessing risks, or performing diagnosis. In the past, good results have been obtained using classical techniques, such as bag-of-words features, in combination with statistical models. Recently however Deep Learning techniques, such as Word Embeddings and Recurrent Neural Networks, have shown to possibly have even greater potential. In this work, we apply several Deep Learning and classical machine learning techniques to the task of predicting violence incidents during psychiatric admission using clinical text that is already registered at the start of admission. For this purpose, we use a novel and previously unexplored dataset from the Psychiatry Department of the University Medical Center Utrecht in The Netherlands. Results show that predicting violence incidents with state-of-the-art performance is possible, and that using Deep Learning techniques provides a relatively small but consistent improvement in performance. We finally discuss the potential implication of our findings for the psychiatric practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Analytics in Smart Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle Output Power Smoothing Control for a Wind Farm Based on the Allocation of Wind Turbines
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 980; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060980
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents a new output power smoothing control strategy for a wind farm based on the allocation of wind turbines. The wind turbines in the wind farm are divided into control wind turbines (CWT) and power wind turbines (PWT), separately. The PWTs
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This paper presents a new output power smoothing control strategy for a wind farm based on the allocation of wind turbines. The wind turbines in the wind farm are divided into control wind turbines (CWT) and power wind turbines (PWT), separately. The PWTs are expected to output as much power as possible and a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control strategy combining the rotor inertia based power smoothing method is adopted. The CWTs are in charge of the output power smoothing for the whole wind farm by giving the calculated appropriate power. The battery energy storage system (BESS) with small capacity is installed to be the support and its charge and discharge times are greatly reduced comparing with the traditional ESSs based power smoothing strategies. The simulation model of the permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) based wind farm by considering the wake effect is built in Matlab/Simulink to test the proposed power smoothing method. Three different working modes of the wind farm are given in the simulation and the simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed power smoothing control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Grid-Connected Wind Turbines)
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Open AccessArticle Editorial: Sub- and Unconscious Information Processing in the Human Brain
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060979
Received: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
This Special Issue about sub- and unconscious information processing in the human brain finally became a collection of 6 accepted contributions, 2 articles, 2 reviews, 1 opinion and 1 concept paper. Even though more papers were submitted this rather small number of accepted
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This Special Issue about sub- and unconscious information processing in the human brain finally became a collection of 6 accepted contributions, 2 articles, 2 reviews, 1 opinion and 1 concept paper. Even though more papers were submitted this rather small number of accepted contributions mirrors the still existing lack of focus on non-conscious human brain processes that surely influence human behavior to a much larger extent than one would ever imagine. Our brains contain evolutionary old neural structures that much more primitive organisms have in their brains too and crucially those old structures have more or the less the same functional properties regardless of what brain they belong to. Consciousness as an individual experience is a rather young evolutionary product, which means that those older structures that are strongly involved in the generation of human behavior work largely without being associated with conscious experience. This explains why people not always do what they say. In other words, the brain knows more than it admits to consciousness and since we have more and more access to that knowledge we should be interested in gaining it. The evidence grows that demonstrates how non-conscious processing occurs and influences our decision making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sub- and Unconscious Information Processing in the Human Brain)
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