GNSS-Based Verticality Monitoring of Super-Tall Buildings
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060991 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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In the construction of super-tall buildings, it is rather important to control the verticality. In general, a laser plummet is used to transmit coordinates of reference points from the ground layer-by-layer, which can effectively control the verticality of super-tall buildings. However, the errors
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In the construction of super-tall buildings, it is rather important to control the verticality. In general, a laser plummet is used to transmit coordinates of reference points from the ground layer-by-layer, which can effectively control the verticality of super-tall buildings. However, the errors in transmission will accumulate with increasing height and motion of the buildings in construction. This paper presents a global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-based method to check the results of laser plumbing. The method consists of four steps: (1) Computing the coordinate time series of monitoring points by adjusting the GNSS monitoring network observations at each epoch; (2) Analyzing the horizontal motion of super-tall buildings and its effect on vertical reference transmission; (3) Calculating the deflections of the vertical at the monitoring point using an Earth gravity field model and a geoid model. With deflections of the vertical, the static GNSS-measured coordinates are aligned to the same datum as used by the laser plummet; and (4) Finally, validating/checking the result of laser plumbing by comparing it with static GNSS results corrected by deflections of the vertical. A case study of a 438-m high building is tested in Guangzhou, China. The result demonstrates that the gross errors of baseline vectors can be eliminated effectively by GNSS network adjustment of the first step. The two-dimensional displacements can be measured at millimeter-level accuracy; the difference between the coordinates of the static GNSS measurement and laser plumbing is less than ±2.0 cm after correction with the deflections of the vertical, which meets the design requirement of ±3.0 cm according to the Technical Specification for Concrete Structures of Tall Buildings in China.