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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2011), Pages 308-424

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication Is Macroporosity Absolutely Required for Preliminary in Vitro Bone Biomaterial Study? A Comparison Between Porous Materials and Flat Materials
J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2(4), 308-337; doi:10.3390/jfb2040308
Received: 15 August 2011 / Revised: 19 October 2011 / Accepted: 26 October 2011 / Published: 8 November 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1797 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Porous materials are highly preferred for bone tissue engineering due to space for blood vessel ingrowth, but this may introduce extra experimental variations because of the difficulty in precise control of porosity. In order to decide whether it is absolutely necessary to [...] Read more.
Porous materials are highly preferred for bone tissue engineering due to space for blood vessel ingrowth, but this may introduce extra experimental variations because of the difficulty in precise control of porosity. In order to decide whether it is absolutely necessary to use porous materials in in vitro comparative osteogenesis study of materials with different chemistries, we carried out osteoinductivity study using C3H/10T1/2 cells, pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), on seven material types: hydroxyapatite (HA), α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) and b-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in both porous and dense forms and tissue culture plastic. For all materials under test, dense materials give higher alkaline phosphatase gene (Alp) expression compared with porous materials. In addition, the cell density effects on the 10T1/2 cells were assessed through alkaline phosphatase protein (ALP) enzymatic assay. The ALP expression was higher for higher initial cell plating density and this explains the greater osteoinductivity of dense materials compared with porous materials for in vitro study as porous materials would have higher surface area. On the other hand, the same trend of Alp mRNA level (HA > β-TCP > α-TCP) was observed for both porous and dense materials, validating the use of dense flat materials for comparative study of materials with different chemistries for more reliable comparison when well-defined porous materials are not available. The avoidance of porosity variation would probably facilitate more reproducible results. This study does not suggest porosity is not required for experiments related to bone regeneration application, but emphasizes that there is often a tradeoff between higher clinical relevance, and less variation in a less complex set up, which facilitates a statistically significant conclusion. Technically, we also show that the base of normalization for ALP activity may influence the conclusion and there may be ALP activity from serum, necessitating the inclusion of “no cell” control in ALP activity assay with materials. These explain the opposite conclusions drawn by different groups on the effect of porosity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protein Degradation and Protection Observed in the Presence of Novel Wound Dressing Components
J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2(4), 338-354; doi:10.3390/jfb2040338
Received: 6 October 2011 / Revised: 23 November 2011 / Accepted: 24 November 2011 / Published: 2 December 2011
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Abstract
Chronic wounds typically have excessive levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and proinflammatory cytokines that impair healing. Reducing these detrimental proteins may be key to healing chronic wounds. Proprietary protease blends were formulated specifically to degrade excessive amounts of proinflammatory factors that could [...] Read more.
Chronic wounds typically have excessive levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and proinflammatory cytokines that impair healing. Reducing these detrimental proteins may be key to healing chronic wounds. Proprietary protease blends were formulated specifically to degrade excessive amounts of proinflammatory factors that could prevent wound healing. Applications of protease-containing wound dressings to acute and chronic wounds have been observed clinically to resolve inflammation and appear to aid healing. The purpose of this study was to test in vitro a deliberate blend of proteases for the ability to deactivate or activate known proteins associated with inflammation or healing. Purified human target proteins were incubated with test and control solutions and samples removed at various time points. Blinded samples were tested using a novel infrared protein multiplex sandwich-ELISA-type array technique. Many proinflammatory proteins such as MMPs, cytokines and chemokines were susceptible to degradation. Many proteins such as growth factors, cytokines and TIMP1 were resistant to degradation. Not all proinflammatory proteins were deactivated. Family protein structure did not appear to affect susceptibility to degradation or deactivation. These results suggest that specific protease containing wound dressings appear to reduce multiple detrimental components which may disrupt their deleterious effects on the wound bed and microenvironment. By improving the wound microenvironment through the use of definitive proteases, these novel wound dressings may help transition wounds into the subsequent phase of healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Wound Healing)
Open AccessArticle Ionic and Polyampholyte N-Isopropylacrylamide-Based Hydrogels Prepared in the Presence of Imprinting Ligands: Stimuli-Responsiveness and Adsorption/Release Properties
J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2(4), 373-390; doi:10.3390/jfb2040373
Received: 8 November 2011 / Revised: 8 December 2011 / Accepted: 9 December 2011 / Published: 15 December 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The conformation of the imprinted pockets in stimulus-responsive networks can be notably altered when the stimulus causes a volume phase transition. Such a tunable affinity for the template molecule finds interesting applications in the biomedical and drug delivery fields. Nevertheless, the effect [...] Read more.
The conformation of the imprinted pockets in stimulus-responsive networks can be notably altered when the stimulus causes a volume phase transition. Such a tunable affinity for the template molecule finds interesting applications in the biomedical and drug delivery fields. Nevertheless, the effect that the binding of the template causes on the stimuli-responsiveness of the network has barely been evaluated. In this work, the effect of two ionic drugs used as templates, namely propranolol hydrochloride and ibuprofen sodium, on the responsiveness of N-isopropylacrylamide-based hydrogels copolymerized with acrylic acid (AAc) and N-(3-aminopropyl) methacrylamide (APMA) and on their ability to rebind and to control the release of the template was evaluated. The degree of swelling and, in some cases, energetics (HS-DSC) of the transitions were monitored as a function of temperature, pH, and concentration of drug. Marked decrease in the transition temperature of the hydrogels, accompanied by notable changes in the transition width, was observed in physiological NaCl solutions and after the binding of the drug molecules, which reveals relevant changes in the domain structure of the hydrogels as the charged groups are shielded. The ability of the hydrogels to rebind propranolol or ibuprofen was quantified at both 4 and 37 °C and at two different drug concentrations, in the range of those that cause major changes in the network structure. Noticeable differences between hydrogels bearing AAc or APMA and between imprinted and non-imprinted networks were also observed during the release tests in NaCl solutions of various concentrations. Overall, the results obtained evidence the remarkable effect of the template molecules on the responsiveness of intelligent imprinted hydrogels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
Open AccessArticle Thrombin Production and Human Neutrophil Elastase Sequestration by Modified Cellulosic Dressings and Their Electrokinetic Analysis
J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2(4), 391-413; doi:10.3390/jfb2040391
Received: 26 September 2011 / Revised: 3 December 2011 / Accepted: 7 December 2011 / Published: 15 December 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (730 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wound healing is a complex series of biochemical and cellular events. Optimally, functional material design addresses the overlapping acute and inflammatory stages of wound healing based on molecular, cellular, and bio-compatibility issues. In this paper the issues addressed are uncontrolled hemostasis and [...] Read more.
Wound healing is a complex series of biochemical and cellular events. Optimally, functional material design addresses the overlapping acute and inflammatory stages of wound healing based on molecular, cellular, and bio-compatibility issues. In this paper the issues addressed are uncontrolled hemostasis and inflammation which can interfere with the orderly flow of wound healing. In this regard, we review the serine proteases thrombin and elastase relative to dressing functionality that improves wound healing and examine the effects of charge in cotton/cellulosic dressing design on thrombin production and elastase sequestration (uptake by the wound dressing). Thrombin is central to the initiation and propagation of coagulation, and elastase is released from neutrophils that can function detrimentally in a stalled inflammatory phase characteristic of chronic wounds. Electrokinetic fiber surface properties of the biomaterials of this study were determined to correlate material charge and polarity with function relative to thrombin production and elastase sequestration. Human neutrophil elastase sequestration was assessed with an assay representative of chronic wound concentration with cotton gauze cross-linked with three types of polycarboxylic acids and one phosphorylation finish; thrombin production, which was assessed in a plasma-based assay via a fluorogenic peptide substrate, was determined for cotton, cotton-grafted chitosan, chitosan, rayon/polyester, and two kaolin-treated materials including a commercial hemorrhage control dressing (QuickClot Combat Gauze). A correlation in thrombin production to zeta potential was found. Two polycarboxylic acid cross linked and a phosphorylated cotton dressing gave high elastase sequestration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Wound Healing)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Biocompatible Polymer/Quantum Dots Hybrid Materials: Current Status and Future Developments
J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2(4), 355-372; doi:10.3390/jfb2040355
Received: 6 October 2011 / Revised: 23 November 2011 / Accepted: 28 November 2011 / Published: 2 December 2011
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (924 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quantum dots (QDs) are nanometer-sized semiconductor particles with tunable fluorescent optical property that can be adjusted by their chemical composition, size, or shape. In the past 10 years, they have been demonstrated as a powerful fluorescence tool for biological and biomedical applications, [...] Read more.
Quantum dots (QDs) are nanometer-sized semiconductor particles with tunable fluorescent optical property that can be adjusted by their chemical composition, size, or shape. In the past 10 years, they have been demonstrated as a powerful fluorescence tool for biological and biomedical applications, such as diagnostics, biosensing and biolabeling. QDs with high fluorescence quantum yield and optical stability are usually synthesized in organic solvents. In aqueous solution, however, their metallic toxicity, non-dissolubility and photo-luminescence instability prevent the direct utility of QDs in biological media. Polymers are widely used to cover and coat QDs for fabricating biocompatible QDs. Such hybrid materials can provide solubility and robust colloidal and optical stability in water. At the same time, polymers can carry ionic or reactive functional groups for incorporation into the end-use application of QDs, such as receptor targeting and cell attachment. This review provides an overview of the recent development of methods for generating biocompatible polymer/QDs hybrid materials with desirable properties. Polymers with different architectures, such as homo- and co-polymer, hyperbranched polymer, and polymeric nanogel, have been used to anchor and protect QDs. The resulted biocompatible polymer/QDs hybrid materials show successful applications in the fields of bioimaging and biosensing. While considerable progress has been made in the design of biocompatible polymer/QDs materials, the research challenges and future developments in this area should affect the technologies of biomaterials and biosensors and result in even better biocompatible polymer/QDs hybrid materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stimuli Responsive Biomaterials)
Open AccessReview Molecular Design Properties of OxyVita Hemoglobin, a New Generation Therapeutic Oxygen Carrier: A Review
J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2(4), 414-424; doi:10.3390/jfb2040414
Received: 3 November 2011 / Revised: 3 December 2011 / Accepted: 13 December 2011 / Published: 16 December 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
OxyVita Hb is a new generation hemoglobin based oxygen carrier (HBOC) produced through modification of a zero-linked polymerization mechanism using activators which incorporate cross-linked bovine tetramer hemoglobin into “super-polymeric” macromolecules (Average molecular weight = 17 MDa) for the purpose of oxygen delivery [...] Read more.
OxyVita Hb is a new generation hemoglobin based oxygen carrier (HBOC) produced through modification of a zero-linked polymerization mechanism using activators which incorporate cross-linked bovine tetramer hemoglobin into “super-polymeric” macromolecules (Average molecular weight = 17 MDa) for the purpose of oxygen delivery when whole blood or packed red cells are not available. This molecular design approach was generated in order to address several fundamental biochemical and physiological weaknesses of previous generations of HBOCs. Observation during pre-clinical and clinical studies provided evidence that these early generation acellular HBOCs were directly associated with loss of retention within the circulatory system, extravasation across endothelial tissue membranes due to their small molecular size leading to arterial and venous vasoconstriction with coupled increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP). The inherent increase in molecular size and structural stability of the OxyVita Hb is a direct response to addressing these serious weaknesses that have occurred during the evolution of HBOC development within the past two decades. The nature of the zero-linked synthetic route eliminates any chemical linkers remaining in the product, eliminating side reaction concerns, such as reversibility and decomposition due to weak chemical bonds, dependency on temperature and pressure, and residual toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood Substitutes)

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