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Diseases, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Review

Open AccessReview The Role of the MAPK Signaling, Topoisomerase and Dietary Bioactives in Controlling Cancer Incidence
Diseases 2017, 5(2), 13; doi:10.3390/diseases5020013
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, xenobiotics metabolism and are generated in response to several environmental stress conditions. Some of them play important biochemical roles in cellular signal transduction and gene transcription. On the other hand, ROS are
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, xenobiotics metabolism and are generated in response to several environmental stress conditions. Some of them play important biochemical roles in cellular signal transduction and gene transcription. On the other hand, ROS are known to be involved in a wide range of human diseases, including cancer. The excessive production of such ROS together with disruption of homeostasis detoxifying mechanisms can mediate a series of cellular oxidative stresses. The oxidative stress of redundant free radicals production can lead to oxidative denaturation of cellular macromolecules including proteins, lipids and DNA. Moreover, oxidative damage is one of the major causes of DNA mutations, replication errors and genomic abnormalities which result in either inhibition or induction of transcription, and end with the disturbance of signal transduction pathways. Among affected signaling pathways are redox-sensitive kinases. The stimulation of these kinases induces several transcription factors through the phosphorylation of their module proteins. The activation of such pathways induces proliferation and cellular transformation. A diet rich in antioxidant compounds has potential health benefits, and there is a growing interest in the role of natural antioxidants in nutrition for prevention and cure of cancer diseases. A controversy has risen regarding the relation between antioxidants and the significant decrease in the risk of cancer incidence. In this review, we will focus on redox-sensitive kinases signaling pathways, highlighting the effects of dietary antioxidant on the prevention, incidence, prognosis or even treatment of human cancers. In addition, we will place emphasis on the chemical classes of pterocarpans as natural anti-oxidants/cancers as well as their underlying mechanisms of action, including their effects on MAPKs and topoisomerase activities. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Targeting Metabolic Modulation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Treatment of Heart Failure
Diseases 2017, 5(2), 14; doi:10.3390/diseases5020014
Received: 25 February 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
Despite significant improvements in morbidity and mortality with current evidence-based pharmaceutical-based treatment of heart failure (HF) over the previous decades, the burden of HF remains high. An alternative approach is currently being developed, which targets myocardial energy efficiency and the dysfunction of the
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Despite significant improvements in morbidity and mortality with current evidence-based pharmaceutical-based treatment of heart failure (HF) over the previous decades, the burden of HF remains high. An alternative approach is currently being developed, which targets myocardial energy efficiency and the dysfunction of the cardiac mitochondria. Emerging evidence suggests that the insufficient availability of ATP to the failing myocardium can be attributed to abnormalities in the myocardial utilisation of its substrates rather than an overall lack of substrate availability. Therefore, the development of potential metabolic therapeutics has commenced including trimetazidine, ranolazine and perhexiline, as well as specific mitochondrial-targeting pharmaceuticals, such as elamipretide. Large randomised controlled trials are required to confirm the role of metabolic-modulating drugs in the treatment of heart failure, but early studies have been promising in their possible efficacy for the management of heart failure in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Potential Therapeutic Strategies for Heart Failure)
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Open AccessReview Biomarkers and Imaging Findings of Anderson–Fabry Disease—What We Know Now
Diseases 2017, 5(2), 15; doi:10.3390/diseases5020015
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 11 June 2017
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Abstract
Anderson–Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, caused by deficiency or absence of the alpha-galactosidase A activity, with a consequent glycosphingolipid accumulation. Biomarkers and imaging findings may be useful for diagnosis, identification of an organ involvement, therapy monitoring and prognosis. The
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Anderson–Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, caused by deficiency or absence of the alpha-galactosidase A activity, with a consequent glycosphingolipid accumulation. Biomarkers and imaging findings may be useful for diagnosis, identification of an organ involvement, therapy monitoring and prognosis. The aim of this article is to review the current available literature on biomarkers and imaging findings of AFD patients. An extensive bibliographic review from PubMed, Medline and Clinical Key databases was performed by a group of experts from nephrology, neurology, genetics, cardiology and internal medicine, aiming for consensus. Lyso-GB3 is a valuable biomarker to establish the diagnosis. Proteinuria and creatinine are the most valuable to detect renal damage. Troponin I and high-sensitivity assays for cardiac troponin T can identify patients with cardiac lesions, but new techniques of cardiac imaging are essential to detect incipient damage. Specific cerebrovascular imaging findings are present in AFD patients. Techniques as metabolomics and proteomics have been developed in order to find an AFD fingerprint. Lyso-GB3 is important for evaluating the pathogenic mutations and monitoring the response to treatment. Many biomarkers can detect renal, cardiac and cerebrovascular involvement, but none of these have proved to be important to monitoring the response to treatment. Imaging features are preferred in order to find cardiac and cerebrovascular compromise in AFD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Lysosomal Storage Diseases)

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