Next Article in Journal
Recent Applications of Metabolomics Toward Cyanobacteria
Previous Article in Journal
Metabonomic Response to Milk Proteins after a Single Bout of Heavy Resistance Exercise Elucidated by 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Metabolites 2013, 3(1), 47-71; doi:10.3390/metabo3010047

Characterisation of the Metabolites of 1,8-Cineole Transferred into Human Milk: Concentrations and Ratio of Enantiomers

1
Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Food Chemistry, Emil Fischer Center, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
2
Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV, 85354 Freising, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 November 2012 / Revised: 16 January 2013 / Accepted: 21 January 2013 / Published: 30 January 2013
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [450 KB, uploaded 30 January 2013]   |  

Abstract

1,8-Cineole is a widely distributed odorant that also shows physiological effects, but whose human metabolism has hitherto not been extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was, thus, to characterise the metabolites of 1,8-cineole, identified previously in human milk, after the oral intake of 100 mg of this substance. Special emphasis was placed on the enantiomeric composition of the metabolites since these data may provide important insights into potential biotransformation pathways, as well as potential biological activities of these substances, for example on the breastfed child. The volatile fraction of the human milk samples was therefore isolated via Solvent Assisted Flavour Evaporation (SAFE) and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The absolute concentrations of each metabolite were determined by matrix calibration with an internal standard, and the ratios of enantiomers were analysed on chiral capillaries. The concentrations varied over a broad range, from traces in the upper ng/kg region up to 40 µg/kg milk, with the exception of the main metabolite α2-hydroxy-1,8-cineole that showed concentrations of 100–250 µg/kg. Also, large inter- and intra-individual variations were recorded for the enantiomers, with nearly enantiomerically pure α2-hydroxy- and 3-oxo-1,8-cineole, while all other metabolites showed ratios of ~30:70 to 80:20. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolism; human milk; gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry; cyclodextrin; enantiomers; chiral chromatography metabolism; human milk; gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry; cyclodextrin; enantiomers; chiral chromatography
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kirsch, F.; Buettner, A. Characterisation of the Metabolites of 1,8-Cineole Transferred into Human Milk: Concentrations and Ratio of Enantiomers. Metabolites 2013, 3, 47-71.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Metabolites EISSN 2218-1989 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top