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Educ. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Educational Justice
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 53; doi:10.3390/educsci7020053
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 1 May 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
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Abstract Last year, Education Sciencies initiated a Special Issue on the topic of educational justice throughout the world. Now, the guest-edited issue has been closed [...]
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Educational Justice)
Open AccessEditorial Epistemology and Education
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 44; doi:10.3390/educsci7020044
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
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Abstract
While philosophy of education is often considered an applied discipline, it has made contributions across the philosophical spectrum. For example, there has been a significant body of work on aesthetics and education. There have been occasional incursions into debates about ontology and even,
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While philosophy of education is often considered an applied discipline, it has made contributions across the philosophical spectrum. For example, there has been a significant body of work on aesthetics and education. There have been occasional incursions into debates about ontology and even, albeit rarely, metaphysics. However, the majority of work has always been concerned with epistemology (questions of knowing) and ethics (questions of right action). Traditionally, much of this work, particularly in epistemology, has had a highly individualistic tendency. The assumption of the knowing mind as key characteristic of the rational autonomous agent is at the heart of the liberal educational tradition and takes root in Descartes’ cogito: even if I doubt who I am, there is an ‘I’ that doubts, and this ‘I’ is the fundamental characteristic of the autonomous rational agent, the fully human being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epistemology and Education)

Research

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Open AccessArticle I Thought This Was a Study on Math Games: Attribute Modification in Children’s Interactions with Mathematics Apps
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 50; doi:10.3390/educsci7020050
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 1 May 2017
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Abstract
Technology is an increasingly important component of education. Children’s mathematical interactions with technology have become a focus of mathematics education research, but less research has investigated constructs that contribute to these mathematical interactions. Attributes of children and technology play a key role in
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Technology is an increasingly important component of education. Children’s mathematical interactions with technology have become a focus of mathematics education research, but less research has investigated constructs that contribute to these mathematical interactions. Attributes of children and technology play a key role in mathematical interactions and both children and technology can modify attributes during these interactions. Grounded in the Artifact-Centric Activity Theory and linked to recent developments in research on technology in mathematics education, this qualitative study extended an earlier exploratory study to investigate attribute modification. In particular, this study examined patterns of attribute modification evident during fifth grade students’ mathematical interactions with two mathematics virtual manipulative touchscreen tablet apps. Results included three categories related to attribute modification: (1) reactive attribute modification (linear progression or repeated repetition); (2) unperceived attributes and opportunities for proactive modification; and (3) proactive modification (seeking equilibrium, seeking disequilibrium, or seeking equilibrium and disequilibrium). Findings have implications for designers, teachers, and researchers of educational technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Issues in Mathematics Education)
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Open AccessArticle Using Grounded Theory to Extend Existing PCK Framework at the Secondary Level
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 60; doi:10.3390/educsci7020060
Received: 15 January 2017 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
This paper addresses two critical issues in mathematics education, the need: (a) to understand the nature of educator’s subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge; and (b) to find ways to measure them. It stems from a mixed-methods study designed to inspect the
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This paper addresses two critical issues in mathematics education, the need: (a) to understand the nature of educator’s subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge; and (b) to find ways to measure them. It stems from a mixed-methods study designed to inspect the secondary mathematics teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) related to the area of a trapezoid, a common topic in intermediate/secondary school classes. Based on the provided exemplars of student work, in-service teachers were invited to propose possible ways for addressing perceived difficulties of students and provide extensions. Using a Grounded Theory approach, we identified themes in our data and incorporated them with existing conceptualizations of knowledge for teaching secondary level mathematics, and developed rubrics that allow discriminating different levels of teachers’ PCK. In this paper, we describe the process of developing the rubrics, and propose ways to: (a) extend the existing frameworks for PCK in/for teaching mathematics at the secondary level; and (b) measure multiple facets of PCK in order to design technology-based professional development for mathematics teachers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Issues in Mathematics Education)
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Open AccessArticle Digital Storytelling in a Flipped Classroom for Effective Learning
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 61; doi:10.3390/educsci7020061
Received: 29 January 2017 / Revised: 28 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 June 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
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Abstract
Conclusive empirical evidence on whether virtual classrooms result in higher performance, satisfaction, or an improvement in problem solving skills when compared with traditional face-to-face lecturing does not exist. Various studies point in different directions. However, blended learning outperforms the traditional classroom in student
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Conclusive empirical evidence on whether virtual classrooms result in higher performance, satisfaction, or an improvement in problem solving skills when compared with traditional face-to-face lecturing does not exist. Various studies point in different directions. However, blended learning outperforms the traditional classroom in student performance and satisfaction. A flipped classroom is one type of blended learning. For more than 20 years, this approach has been used at a European executive MBA (EMBA) program delivering online content combined with six residential weeks where students collaborate and reflect upon their online learning. Our research examined the overall setup of this program, and assessed one course in depth. As part of the course—International Management—an intercultural negotiation project was chosen to highlight the integration of online and offline activities. The flipped classroom is a demonstration of the reform-based teaching approach. The power of reform-based learning in executive education is the engaging combination of practice and theory, which improves the performance of executives. The participants considered the flipped approach exciting, dynamic, and insightful. The emphasis on a negotiation process involving classmates from around the world increased their global understanding. Beginning with a negotiation experience in the digital story project gave them a better appreciation of the relevant theories, techniques, and applications. Focusing on the practice of international negotiation and a cross-cultural analysis with reflection on cultural intelligence improved the competencies of the participants both during the course and after it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Flipped Classroom in Higher Education: Research and Practice)
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Open AccessArticle Engaging Elementary Students in the Creative Process of Mathematizing Their World through Mathematical Modeling
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 62; doi:10.3390/educsci7020062
Received: 22 February 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
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Abstract
This paper examines the experiences of two elementary teachers’ implementation of mathematical modeling in their classrooms and how the enactment by the teachers and the engagement by students exhibited their creativity, critical thinking, collaboration and communication skills. In particular, we explore the questions:
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This paper examines the experiences of two elementary teachers’ implementation of mathematical modeling in their classrooms and how the enactment by the teachers and the engagement by students exhibited their creativity, critical thinking, collaboration and communication skills. In particular, we explore the questions: (1) How can phases of mathematical modeling as a process serve as a venue for exhibiting students’ critical 21st century skills? (2) What were some effective pedagogical practices teachers used as they implemented mathematical modeling with elementary students and how did these promote students’ 21st century skills? We propose that mathematical modeling provides space for teachers and students to have a collective experience through the iterative process of making sense of and building knowledge of important mathematical ideas while engaging in the critical 21st century skills necessary in our complex modern world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Issues in Mathematics Education)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Instructional Guidance and Sequencing of Manipulatives and Written Symbols on Second Graders’ Numeration Knowledge
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 52; doi:10.3390/educsci7020052
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract
Concrete objects used to illustrate mathematical ideas are commonly known as manipulatives. Manipulatives are ubiquitous in North American elementary classrooms in the early years, and although they can be beneficial, they do not guarantee learning. In the present study, the authors examined two
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Concrete objects used to illustrate mathematical ideas are commonly known as manipulatives. Manipulatives are ubiquitous in North American elementary classrooms in the early years, and although they can be beneficial, they do not guarantee learning. In the present study, the authors examined two factors hypothesized to impact second-graders’ learning of place value and regrouping with manipulatives: (a) the sequencing of concrete (base-ten blocks) and abstract (written symbols) representations of the standard addition algorithm; and (b) the level of instructional guidance on the structural relations between the representations. Results from a classroom experiment with second-grade students (N = 87) indicated that place value knowledge increased from pre-test to post-test when the base-ten blocks were presented before the symbols, but only when no instructional guidance was offered. When guidance was given, only students in the symbols-first condition improved their place value knowledge. Students who received instruction increased their understanding of regrouping, irrespective of representational sequence. No effects were found for iterative sequencing of concrete and abstract representations. Practical implications for teaching mathematics with manipulatives are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Issues in Mathematics Education)
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Open AccessArticle The Flipped Classroom as a Pedagogical Tool for Leadership Development in Postgraduate Medical Education
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 63; doi:10.3390/educsci7020063
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
Following a needs assessment among residents, a 10-module leadership curriculum was developed that included health care law and medical errors. An educational intervention using the flipped classroom model (FCM) was developed and we investigated (1) its effectiveness as a teaching method, and (2)
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Following a needs assessment among residents, a 10-module leadership curriculum was developed that included health care law and medical errors. An educational intervention using the flipped classroom model (FCM) was developed and we investigated (1) its effectiveness as a teaching method, and (2) the degree of knowledge acquisition of the content of the module. Thirty-four residents were selected using convenience sampling and were divided into an intervention group (n = 10) and a control group (n = 24). The residents in the intervention group received reading materials and assignments in preparation for two reflective sessions. The control group only received reading material. Multiple-choice questionnaires were used to measure knowledge acquisition. Qualitative interviews were used to assess the perceived effectiveness of the FCM. Eight residents from the intervention group and 10 from the control group were used for final analysis. A significant improvement was observed in acquired knowledge of health care law and medical errors in the intervention group and the FCM was perceived to be effective in teaching health care law and medical errors. The FCM was perceived to facilitate residents’ knowledge acquisition and stimulate active learning. Interventions with FCM positively influence residents’ performance and should play more structural roles in postgraduate medical education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Flipped Classroom in Higher Education: Research and Practice)
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Open AccessArticle From Linear Industrial Structures to Living Systems: A Design Shift in Education for Sustainability
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 43; doi:10.3390/educsci7020043
Received: 2 October 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 26 March 2017
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Abstract
If sustainability is to be an integral part of rethinking education organization, it is necessary to redesign mental models that shape present curricular structures. Assumptions underlying the design of most schools and curricula are based on linear industrial models, which raises an essential
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If sustainability is to be an integral part of rethinking education organization, it is necessary to redesign mental models that shape present curricular structures. Assumptions underlying the design of most schools and curricula are based on linear industrial models, which raises an essential question: How can we use opposite concepts of systems dynamics and living structures to create a shift in our present thinking about curriculum and learning for sustainability? From this, we can begin a dramatic design shift toward innovative curriculum to prepare future students and teachers. This article begins with a critique of modern industrial education, then moves into an overview of sustainability concepts and structure through systems thinking. The article then presents the research of an original sustainability curriculum that structures assessment to measure systems thinking. From the results, the article then explores a conceptual design framework for a 21st century curriculum that bio-mimics living systems and organic molecular structure, based on systems thinking and mechanistic principles. By placing assessment on competency relationships and not solely assignment completion, this new framework encourages students and educators to develop emerging 21st century skills in the age of digital technology and communication. This essay and framework, which emerged from the author’s dissertation research and findings, offers a new conceptual tool to the field of sustainability education while challenging educators to adopt living systems into their own instructional designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability, Environment and Education)
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Open AccessArticle Preparing Graduates to Meet the Allied Health Workforce Needs in Rural Australia: Short-Term Outcomes from a Longitudinal Study
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 64; doi:10.3390/educsci7020064
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
The future allied health workforce needs to be flexible to meet the needs of an ageing population with increasing chronic health care needs and geographically dispersed populations in many developed countries. Existing research shows the maldistribution of the Australian health workforce, with allied
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The future allied health workforce needs to be flexible to meet the needs of an ageing population with increasing chronic health care needs and geographically dispersed populations in many developed countries. Existing research shows the maldistribution of the Australian health workforce, with allied health professionals being poorly represented in rural and remote areas. This mixed-methods longitudinal workforce outcomes study is ongoing to determine the rural and remote allied health workforce outcomes from an immersive student placement program based in rural New South Wales, Australia. Outcomes, to date, show 52% of graduates working in a rural or remote area (RA2–RA5) after one year and 37.5% at three years post-graduation. Students from a rural or remote background were 2.35 times (95% CI 1.056–5.229) more likely to be located in a rural or remote workplace after one year than graduates from a metropolitan background. Graduates provided reasons for their plans to move from or stay in their current position. Four key themes emerged: Seeking new and different opportunities; Better income and job security; Personal change and lifestyle improvement and Level of job satisfaction. An existing program to develop the allied health workforce in rural Australia is demonstrating positive short-term outcomes. Ongoing monitoring of workforce outcomes is required to determine the long-term outcomes for rural and remote communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Professional Education: Responding to Population Health Needs)
Open AccessArticle Health Literacy amongst Health Professional University Students: A Study Using the Health Literacy Questionnaire
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 54; doi:10.3390/educsci7020054
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
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Abstract
Background: This study aimed to assess and compare health literacy levels in a range of university-based health students. Methods: A survey containing the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) was administered to students enrolled in university-based medical, allied health or nursing degree programs. The HLQ
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Background: This study aimed to assess and compare health literacy levels in a range of university-based health students. Methods: A survey containing the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) was administered to students enrolled in university-based medical, allied health or nursing degree programs. The HLQ scores and scale scores were compared across student groups. Results: In total, 374 students (24% response rate) with a median age of 25 years (range: 17–61 years), returned completed surveys. Three students who did not identify their degree programs were excluded from the final analysis which included 371 respondents; 242 graduate-entry medical students (65%), 67 allied health students (18%) and 62 nursing students (17%). Overall, the medical students had the highest score for seven of the nine HLQ scales; while the nursing students had the lowest score for all of the nine HLQ scales. Conclusion: These results show that health literacy profiles are different across student groups. In order to provide excellent patient-centred care, and to successfully look after their own health, a high level of health literacy is required by future health professionals. Health literacy training modules, tailored according to the different needs of the student groups, should therefore be included in university-based health professional degree programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Professional Education: Responding to Population Health Needs)
Open AccessArticle ‘Speaking Truth’ Protects Underrepresented Minorities’ Intellectual Performance and Safety in STEM
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 65; doi:10.3390/educsci7020065
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
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Abstract
We offer and test a brief psychosocial intervention, Speaking Truth to EmPower (STEP), designed to protect underrepresented minorities’ (URMs) intellectual performance and safety in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). STEP takes a ‘knowledge as power’ approach by: (a) providing a tutorial on
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We offer and test a brief psychosocial intervention, Speaking Truth to EmPower (STEP), designed to protect underrepresented minorities’ (URMs) intellectual performance and safety in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). STEP takes a ‘knowledge as power’ approach by: (a) providing a tutorial on stereotype threat (i.e., a social contextual phenomenon, implicated in underperformance and early exit) and (b) encouraging URMs to use lived experiences for generating be-prepared coping strategies. Participants were 670 STEM undergraduates [URMs (Black/African American and Latina/o) and non-URMs (White/European American and Asian/Asian American)]. STEP protected URMs’ abstract reasoning and class grades (adjusted for grade point average [GPA]) as well as decreased URMs’ worries about confirming ethnic/racial stereotypes. STEP’s two-pronged approach—explicating the effects of structural ‘isms’ while harnessing URMs’ existing assets—shows promise in increasing diversification and equity in STEM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Examining Pinterest as a Curriculum Resource for Negative Integers: An Initial Investigation
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 45; doi:10.3390/educsci7020045
Received: 15 January 2017 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 22 March 2017 / Published: 1 April 2017
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Abstract
This paper reports an investigation of mathematical resources available on the social media site Pinterest. Pinterest is an online bulletin board where users create visual bookmarks called pins in order to share digital content (e.g., webpages, images, videos). Although recent surveys have shown
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This paper reports an investigation of mathematical resources available on the social media site Pinterest. Pinterest is an online bulletin board where users create visual bookmarks called pins in order to share digital content (e.g., webpages, images, videos). Although recent surveys have shown that Pinterest is a popular reference for teachers, understanding of the mathematical resources available on the site is lacking. To take initial steps in investigating the curriculum resources provided by Pinterest, we used keyword searches to gather a database of pins related to the topic of negative integers. A content analysis was conducted on the pins with a focus on several characteristics including mathematical operations, mathematical models, use of real-world context, and whether mathematical errors were present in source material. Results show a dominance of addition and subtraction over other operations, use of mathematical models in half of pins, infrequent use of real-world context, and mathematical errors in roughly one-third of pins. We provide a breakdown of these results and discuss implications of the findings for mathematics teacher education and professional development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Issues in Mathematics Education)
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Open AccessArticle Globalization and Digitalization as Challenges for a Professional Career in Manufacturing Industries—Differences in Awareness and Knowledge of Students from Brazil and Germany
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 55; doi:10.3390/educsci7020055
Received: 4 February 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
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Abstract
In this study, we provide the outcomes of a survey with Brazilian and German students about two main topics: (1) students’ willingness and motivation to work abroad; and (2) the students’ awareness about current industrial challenges, their knowledge perception and perspectives about the
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In this study, we provide the outcomes of a survey with Brazilian and German students about two main topics: (1) students’ willingness and motivation to work abroad; and (2) the students’ awareness about current industrial challenges, their knowledge perception and perspectives about the workplace of the future. We survey 733 college students from technical and natural sciences degrees in the period of October to December 2016 and compare our findings with the existing literature. We analyze the results by stressing the relevance of management’s international experience for the success of company’s internationalization as well as the importance of student’s awareness about current industrial challenges for the development of national industry. The analysis shows that Brazilian students have a significant higher willingness to work abroad and are less money-driven compared to students from Germany. On the other hand, German surveyed students have a higher awareness regarding industrial digitalization than students from Brazil. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Internet-Based Medicine Education Intervention: Fourth Graders’ Perspectives
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 46; doi:10.3390/educsci7020046
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 11 April 2017
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Abstract
Health education, which also includes medicine education, promotes social sustainability in society. Through the context of Internet-based intervention, this study reports on fourth graders’ (N = 51, aged 10–11 years) perspectives on medicines, their use with common diseases and medicine-related information sources.
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Health education, which also includes medicine education, promotes social sustainability in society. Through the context of Internet-based intervention, this study reports on fourth graders’ (N = 51, aged 10–11 years) perspectives on medicines, their use with common diseases and medicine-related information sources. The study was qualitative by nature. Data was collected in spring 2010, by audio recording students’ group discussions during the study process and group interviews. After intervention, students were well aware of the proper use of medicines and how to find information both on medicines and health issues. The main challenge was finding websites that provide reliable and confidential information. The results of this study raise awareness of a concrete pedagogical approach to health education. The pedagogical approach conducted in the intervention could, to some extent, be transferred to any school setting. This study underlies the promotion of Internet-based health literacy and criteria, for evaluating online health information in the primary school context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Teaching Methods in Science Subjects Promoting Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle ‘Chinuch Mashlim’—Losses and Displacements at the Contact Zone between English and Hebrew: Transcending Monolingual Boundaries
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 56; doi:10.3390/educsci7020056
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
This conceptual article investigates the losses and displacements taking place at the contact zone between English and Hebrew. The study focuses on one Hebrew term ‘chinuch mashlim’ [complementary education in Hebrew] and its relationships with its equivalent English term ‘informal education’. By applying
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This conceptual article investigates the losses and displacements taking place at the contact zone between English and Hebrew. The study focuses on one Hebrew term ‘chinuch mashlim’ [complementary education in Hebrew] and its relationships with its equivalent English term ‘informal education’. By applying a theoretic–linguistic analysis process, the study traces the socio-historical-political meanings of ‘chinuch mashlim’ and relates this theoretical construct to its English counterpart, ‘informal education’. Examination of the relationships between the two terms at their contact zone reveals a strong English dominancy which creates a barrier for researchers in the field to use their full linguistic repertoire. The analysis reveals that the monolingual ‘informal education’ research does not create permeable boundaries that allow valuable knowledge to transcend from Hebrew to English. Full article
Open AccessArticle Mathematics Intervention Supporting Allen, a Latino EL: A Case Study
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 57; doi:10.3390/educsci7020057
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
This research discusses a single case study of a first-grade Latino English Learner (EL) student, Allen (pseudonym), from a larger inquiry-based intervention on inversion and mental reversibility development. The purpose of this case study was to develop a better understanding of the relationship
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This research discusses a single case study of a first-grade Latino English Learner (EL) student, Allen (pseudonym), from a larger inquiry-based intervention on inversion and mental reversibility development. The purpose of this case study was to develop a better understanding of the relationship between Allen’s English language proficiency and his ability to solve inversion and compensation mathematics tasks. The integration of multiple paradigms confronting radical constructivism and sociocultural theory of learning via culturally relevant pedagogy provided us with a multi-faceted set of perspectives in understanding the interconnection between Allen’s cultural and linguistic background and his development of algebraic reasoning. Through conceptual and retrospective analyses, we found that Allen’s language features are highly correlated with the development of his thinking strategies and his ability to solve mathematics tasks. Implications of this study include the development of teaching strategies that address critical issues in mathematics, such as the individual differences of learners, specifically ELs from Latino background. We suggest further research is needed in the field of language acquisition and access to STEM related concepts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Issues in Mathematics Education)
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Open AccessArticle Reconceptualizing Scientific Literacy: The Role of Students’ Epistemological Profiles
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 47; doi:10.3390/educsci7020047
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 30 March 2017 / Accepted: 30 March 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
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Abstract
In this theoretical article we construct an argument for a pedagogical perspective based on the notion of epistemological profiles for scientific literacy for primary and secondary education. Concurrently, we offer a discussion of the implications of this proposal to the preparation of teachers
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In this theoretical article we construct an argument for a pedagogical perspective based on the notion of epistemological profiles for scientific literacy for primary and secondary education. Concurrently, we offer a discussion of the implications of this proposal to the preparation of teachers and the development of their pedagogical skills. Underlining cultural practices in the construction, communication and validation of knowledge—called epistemic practices which are informed by an ideological perspective on science, are implied in the notion of epistemological profiles in the context of science teaching, particularly physics. Using the concept of mass in the context of science education, we discuss how different ideological perspectives on science reflect distinct aspects of reality. Thus, in this paper we propose an ‘order’ and ‘direction’ to scientific literacy and education in science, emphasizing the construction of a clear empirical perspective for primary school and a rationalistic ideological perspective for secondary school. We complement our argument with resources from activity theory and discourse studies, alongside a discussion of issues and challenges. In concluding this paper, we point out that such proposal requires a change in the classroom teaching culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Teaching Methods in Science Subjects Promoting Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Making Mathematics Learning More Engaging for Students in Health Schools through the Use of Apps
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 48; doi:10.3390/educsci7020048
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 8 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
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Abstract
This paper reports on an aspect of a case study of four 11-to-13-year-old students of a Regional Health School (RHS) in New Zealand, using apps on their own mobile devices as part of their mathematics programs. It considers the issue of engaging students
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This paper reports on an aspect of a case study of four 11-to-13-year-old students of a Regional Health School (RHS) in New Zealand, using apps on their own mobile devices as part of their mathematics programs. It considers the issue of engaging students in mathematical learning when they are recovering from significant health issues. The paper examines the influence of apps on these students’ engagement with mathematical learning through the facilitation of differentiated learning programs. The research design was a case study with semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and observation used to generate the data. A number of themes arose from the data including both the positive and negative influences of apps on student engagement and the influence of apps on facilitating differentiated learning programs. The results indicated that using apps for mathematics had a positive influence on student engagement for most students. The positive student engagement seemed to be partly due to the apps’ ability to support differentiated learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Issues in Mathematics Education)
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Open AccessArticle Structuring Medical Education for Workforce Transformation: Continuity, Symbiosis and Longitudinal Integrated Clerkships
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 58; doi:10.3390/educsci7020058
Received: 1 April 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
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Abstract
Health systems worldwide are increasingly unable to meet individual and population health needs. The shortage of healthcare workers in rural and other underserved communities is compounded by inadequate primary care infrastructure and maldistribution of services. At the same time, the medical education system
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Health systems worldwide are increasingly unable to meet individual and population health needs. The shortage of healthcare workers in rural and other underserved communities is compounded by inadequate primary care infrastructure and maldistribution of services. At the same time, the medical education system has not changed to address the growing mismatch between population health needs and care delivery capacity. Internationally, leaders are calling for change to address these challenges. Substantive changes are needed in medical education’s stance, structure, and curricula. Educational continuity and symbiosis are two guiding principles at the center of current clinical educational redesign discourse. These principles rely on empirically-derived science to guide educational structure and improve outcomes. Educational continuity and symbiosis may improve student learning and support population health through workforce transformation. Longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs), growing out of workforce imperatives in the 1970s, have demonstrated sustainable educational and workforce outcomes. Alongside the success of LICs, more innovation and more reaching innovation are needed. We propose restructuring clinical medical education specifically to address workforce needs and develop science-minded (rigorous, inquisitive, and innovative) and service-minded (humanistic, community-engaged, and socially accountable) graduates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Professional Education: Responding to Population Health Needs)
Open AccessArticle Useful Knowledge and Beautiful Knowledge in Dewey and Thoreau
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 59; doi:10.3390/educsci7020059
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 4 June 2017
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Abstract
In order to see how the wisdom of American pragmatism can be usefully used in response to the crisis of humanities and of democracy and education, the purpose of this paper is to explore elements in Dewey’s thoughts that tend to be hidden
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In order to see how the wisdom of American pragmatism can be usefully used in response to the crisis of humanities and of democracy and education, the purpose of this paper is to explore elements in Dewey’s thoughts that tend to be hidden in its familiar mainstream reception. The threads of these ideas are evident in Democracy and Education, but they become woven into more explicit expression in Dewey’s later work, particularly in Art as Experience. Following these threads makes it possible to reveal ways of thinking about Dewey’s pragmatism and education that take it beyond its limitations. Those limitations are to be understood in terms of a restricted account of problem-solving, instrumentalism, unqualified aversion to skepticism, and the absence of a tragic sense. Yet a greater sensitivity to these matters is there recessively in Dewey’s writings, and the reading of his work contrapuntally with aspects of Thoreau’s, helps to bring these to light. It is through such a reading that the potential of Dewey’s work as a response to the pressures of a globalized economy come to be seen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Democracy and Education at 100)
Open AccessArticle Re-Imagining Asian Religious Identity: Towards a Critical Pedagogy of Religion and Race in Australian Schools
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 49; doi:10.3390/educsci7020049
Received: 26 October 2016 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
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Abstract
This paper is drawn from a research project that investigates the relationship between teachers’ understanding of the religious identity of Asian background students, and recent Australian curriculum initiatives focused on religion and religious identification. Based on responses from an Australia-wide survey, and follow-up
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This paper is drawn from a research project that investigates the relationship between teachers’ understanding of the religious identity of Asian background students, and recent Australian curriculum initiatives focused on religion and religious identification. Based on responses from an Australia-wide survey, and follow-up interviews from teachers and principals in several Australian states, the project examined the ways that Australian teachers understand, respond to and talk about the religious identities of their students, and the implications of these demands for teacher practice and education. This paper is concerned with the findings from the interview phase that for a significant number of teachers, notions of religion were often elided with culture and race, and often subsumed by broader notions of a nominal ‘white’ Australian culture. Research conversations appeared framed by an often Christian perspective and sense of self, as opposed to a putative and Asian religious and cultural other. We argue that a better understanding of the ways that teachers participate in discourses of representations about Asian religious identities negotiated by Australian diasporic communities has direct implications for the refinement of policy and for teacher professional learning. In the light of our findings, we further argue that there is a need for curriculum, teachers and researchers to move beyond an understanding of culture and identity that is based on monolingual, monocultural and Anglocentric perspectives that frame the foreign as the ‘exotic’ other, and define it through references to limited, tokenistic artefacts of culture, which are reinforced by iconic use of language to talk about culture, religion and identity. Full article

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Open AccessReview Conceptualizations of Students with and without Disabilities as Mathematical Problem Solvers in Educational Research: A Critical Review
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 51; doi:10.3390/educsci7020051
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 1 May 2017
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Abstract
Students with disabilities are often framed as “the problem” and have limited opportunities to engage in standards based mathematics, leading to persistent underachievement. In this paper, we investigate a research divide between mathematics educational research for students with and without disabilities, a divide
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Students with disabilities are often framed as “the problem” and have limited opportunities to engage in standards based mathematics, leading to persistent underachievement. In this paper, we investigate a research divide between mathematics educational research for students with and without disabilities, a divide with significant differences in the theoretical orientations and research methodologies used to understand learners. Based on an analysis of 149 mathematics educational research articles published between 2013 and 2015, we found significant differences between articles focused on learners with and without disabilities. For those with disabilities, mathematical problem solving was understood primarily from behavioral and information processing theoretical perspectives, while for those without disabilities, problem solving was understood primarily through constructivist and sociocultural perspectives. While 86% of research on problem-solving including students with disabilities was quantitative, only 35% of research on students without disabilities was quantitative. Fifty percent of problem-solving research on students without disabilities was qualitative, compared to only 6% of research on students with disabilities. Problem solving, then, is studied in very different ways for learners with and without disabilities. Students without disabilities are studied through close analysis of learning, often individual. Students with disabilities are most often studied quantitatively, in groups, with little analysis of individual thinking. By offering only a limited range of methods and theoretical orientations, this research divide reifies deficit constructions of students with disabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Issues in Mathematics Education)
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Open AccessEssay The Logic of Democracy and Education
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 42; doi:10.3390/educsci7020042
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
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Abstract
To the best of my knowledge; no one has ever exploited the relationship between Democracy and Education and Dewey’s logical theory as presented in these other works. Doing so not only lends textual evidence to the important relationship between Dewey’s logical theory and
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To the best of my knowledge; no one has ever exploited the relationship between Democracy and Education and Dewey’s logical theory as presented in these other works. Doing so not only lends textual evidence to the important relationship between Dewey’s logical theory and Democracy and Education; it reinforces Dewey’s claim that Democracy and Education best represents his philosophy in general. Democracy and Education evinces arguments regarding logical theory that Dewey hadn’t yet made in his published works on logical theory. These arguments concern the role and scope of scientific method in the context of the practice of teaching and the social psychology of learning. Attention to scientific method and to the habits and dispositions of the student-as-learner will be my focus. I argue that these arguments find their way into Dewey’s later logical theory; represented in Logic: the Theory of Inquiry (1938) under the rubrics of ‘the existential matrix of inquiry’ and ‘social inquiry.’ In particular; the accounts of habit; adaptation; and interaction in Chapter 2 of Dewey’s Logic; together with the account of social problems and their resolution in a genuine determination as discussed in Chapter 24; are indebted to Chapters 11–14 of Democracy and Education. And for this reason alone; Democracy and Education should be considered among the most important of Dewey’s influences regarding the development of his logical theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Democracy and Education at 100)

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