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Dent. J., Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Dentistry Journal in 2016
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 6; doi:10.3390/dj5010006
Received: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
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Abstract
The editors of Dentistry Journal would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Undergraduate Confidence When Undertaking Root Canal Treatment and Their Perception of the Quality of Their Endodontic Education
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 1; doi:10.3390/dj5010001
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 26 December 2016
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Abstract
The General Dental Council expects graduating dentists to be competent at treating pulpal disease. Previous studies have found dental undergraduates to have low levels of confidence with respect to endodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the confidence of undergraduate
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The General Dental Council expects graduating dentists to be competent at treating pulpal disease. Previous studies have found dental undergraduates to have low levels of confidence with respect to endodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the confidence of undergraduate dental students at the University of Bristol when performing root canal treatment, and to investigate their perception of the quality of their endodontic education. An anonymous questionnaire, based upon one used in a 2015 study at Cardiff University, was distributed to all (n = 204) undergraduate students in Years 3–5 at the University of Bristol. The results were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS). There was a 59% (n = 120) response rate and a significant (p < 0.01) difference in confidence levels for root canal treatments (RCTs) completed between these students. All (100%) Year-5 students felt confident in completing anterior RCTs, and 91% felt confident in completing posterior RCTs. The majority (93%) of Year-4 students felt confident in completing anterior RCTs, and 77% felt confident in completing posterior RCTs. Over one-half (56%) of Year-3 students felt confident in anterior RCTs and 17% in posterior RCTs. With respect to the individual stages of RCT (access cavity, cleaning and shaping of root canal system, and obturation/filling), results showed that there was a significant difference (p < 0.01) in confidence levels between year groups. Many students thought the amount of time spent on endodontic teaching and the quality of teaching to be satisfactory. Improvements suggested for future endodontic teaching included higher numbers of staff supervision and additional endodontic practice on extracted teeth before seeing patients. There was a strong association between students’ clinical experience and their levels of confidence when completing RCT. Increasing the amount of clinical experience of RCTs could enhance students’ confidence further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle A Study for Tooth Bleaching via Carbamide Peroxide-Loaded Hollow Calcium Phosphate Spheres
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 3; doi:10.3390/dj5010003
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 26 December 2016
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate if a prolonged bleaching effect of carbamide peroxide-loaded hollow calcium phosphate spheres (HCPS) can be achieved. HCPS was synthesized via a hydrothermal reaction method. Carbamide peroxide (CP) was-loaded into HCPS by mixing with distilled water
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate if a prolonged bleaching effect of carbamide peroxide-loaded hollow calcium phosphate spheres (HCPS) can be achieved. HCPS was synthesized via a hydrothermal reaction method. Carbamide peroxide (CP) was-loaded into HCPS by mixing with distilled water as solvent. We developed two bleaching gels containing CP-loaded HCPS: one gel with low HP concentration as at-home bleaching gel, and one with high HP concentration as in-office gel. Their bleaching effects on stained human permanent posterior teeth were investigated by measuring the color difference before and after bleaching. The effect of gels on rhodamine B degradation was also studied. To investigate the potential effect of remineralization of using HCPS, bleached teeth were soaked in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) containing calcium and magnesium ions. Both bleaching gels had a prolonged whitening effect, and showed a strong ability to degrade rhodamine B. After soaking in PBS for 3 days, remineralization was observed at the sites where HCPS attached to the teeth surface. CP-loaded HCPS could prolong the HP release behavior and improve the bleaching effect. HCPS was effective in increasing the whitening effect of carbamide peroxide and improving remineralization after bleaching process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prioritizing the Risk Factors of Severe Early Childhood Caries
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 4; doi:10.3390/dj5010004
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 6 January 2017
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Abstract
Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. The multifactorial etiology of caries has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore, our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well
[...] Read more.
Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. The multifactorial etiology of caries has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore, our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well agreed upon” common risk factors in order of significance, to aid the clinician in tailoring an adequate preventive program. The study prioritized or reshuffled the risk factors contributing to severe early childhood caries and placed them in the order of their significance as follows: snacking of sugary food several times a day, increased number of siblings to three or more, night feeding, child self-employed brushing, mother’s caries experience, two siblings, on demand feeding, once/day sugary food, sharing utensils, one sibling, male gender, father’s education, late first dental visit, brushing time, mother’s education, no dental visit, decreased brushing frequency, and no night brushing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Health Care in Pediatric Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle Association of Quality of Coronal Filling with the Outcome of Endodontic Treatment: A Follow-up Study
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 5; doi:10.3390/dj5010005
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the quality of the coronal restoration and the root filling on the success of endodontic treatment. Patients treated at Kuwait University Dental Clinics (KUDC) from 2003 to 2014 were contacted by telephone
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the quality of the coronal restoration and the root filling on the success of endodontic treatment. Patients treated at Kuwait University Dental Clinics (KUDC) from 2003 to 2014 were contacted by telephone calls. Demographic data and clinical records of patients, including age, gender, the tooth number, and medical history were recorded. Each patient received clinical examination for all teeth, including assessment of the coronal filling (type, quality), root- and/or coronal fracture, and the periodontal condition around the tooth (e.g., probing depth, gingival recession); percussion and mobility tests. A periapical radiograph of the endodontic treated tooth was taken to determine the health of the periapical tissues using the periapical index. The quality of the root filling was assessed by length and density of the root filling. The mean follow-up period was 4.8 years. The overall success rate of endodontic treatment was 86%; teeth without any initial periapical lesion had a success of 93%, whereas those with such lesion had a success rate of 80%. Periapical healing was not significantly associated with either the length of root filling (p = 0.40) or the density of root filling (p = 0.099), but was statistically significantly associated with the presence of coronal filling defects (p = 0.001). This study demonstrated that inadequate coronal filling but not the quality of root filling was associated with a higher prevalence of periapical lesions. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Evaluation of the Accuracy of the Subtraction Method Used for Determining Platelet Counts in Advanced Platelet-Rich Fibrin and Concentrated Growth Factor Preparations
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 7; doi:10.3390/dj5010007
Received: 21 November 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
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Abstract
Platelet concentrates should be quality-assured of purity and identity prior to clinical use. Unlike for the liquid form of platelet-rich plasma, platelet counts cannot be directly determined in solid fibrin clots and are instead calculated by subtracting the counts in other liquid or
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Platelet concentrates should be quality-assured of purity and identity prior to clinical use. Unlike for the liquid form of platelet-rich plasma, platelet counts cannot be directly determined in solid fibrin clots and are instead calculated by subtracting the counts in other liquid or semi-clotted fractions from those in whole blood samples. Having long suspected the validity of this method, we herein examined the possible loss of platelets in the preparation process. Blood samples collected from healthy male donors were immediately centrifuged for advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) and concentrated growth factors (CGF) according to recommended centrifugal protocols. Blood cells in liquid and semi-clotted fractions were directly counted. Platelets aggregated on clot surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy. A higher centrifugal force increased the numbers of platelets and platelet aggregates in the liquid red blood cell fraction and the semi-clotted red thrombus in the presence and absence of the anticoagulant, respectively. Nevertheless, the calculated platelet counts in A-PRF/CGF preparations were much higher than expected, rendering the currently accepted subtraction method inaccurate for determining platelet counts in fibrin clots. To ensure the quality of solid types of platelet concentrates chairside in a timely manner, a simple and accurate platelet-counting method should be developed immediately. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modified Glass Ionomer Cement with “Remove on Demand” Properties: An In Vitro Study
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 9; doi:10.3390/dj5010009
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
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Abstract
Objectives: To investigate the influence of different temperatures on the compressive strength of glass ionomer cement (GIC) modified by the addition of silica-coated wax capsules; Material and Methods: Commercially-available GIC was modified by adding 10% silica-coated wax capsules. Test blocks were fabricated from
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Objectives: To investigate the influence of different temperatures on the compressive strength of glass ionomer cement (GIC) modified by the addition of silica-coated wax capsules; Material and Methods: Commercially-available GIC was modified by adding 10% silica-coated wax capsules. Test blocks were fabricated from pure cement (control) and modified cement (test), and stored in distilled water (37 °C/23 h). The compressive strength was determined using a universal testing machine under different temperatures (37 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C). The maximum load to failure was recorded for each group. Fractured surfaces of selected test blocks were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); Results: For the control group, the average compressive strength was 96.8 ± 11.8, 94.3 ± 5.7 and 72.5 ± 5.7 MPa for the temperatures 37 °C, 50 °C and 60 °C respectively. The test group reported compressive strength of 64.8 ± 5.4, 47.1 ± 5.4 and 33.4 ± 3.6 MPa at 37 °C, 50 °C and 60 °C, respectively. This represented a decrease of 28% in compressive strength with the increase in temperature from 37 °C to 50 °C and 45% from the 37 °C to the 60 °C group; Conclusion: GIC modified with 10% silica-coated wax capsules and temperature application show a distinct effect on the compressive strength of GIC. Considerable compressive strength reduction was detected if the temperature was above the melting temperature of the wax core. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Association between Postgraduate Studies, Gender and Qualifying Dental School for Graduates Qualifying from UK Dental Schools between 2000 and 2009
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 11; doi:10.3390/dj5010011
Received: 25 December 2016 / Revised: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 28 January 2017
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Abstract
Various factors will influence a dental graduate’s decision to undertake postgraduate education and training, including encouragement from family, partners and staff at individual dental schools, although there is currently little information available regarding the number and distribution (by dental school) of recent dental
[...] Read more.
Various factors will influence a dental graduate’s decision to undertake postgraduate education and training, including encouragement from family, partners and staff at individual dental schools, although there is currently little information available regarding the number and distribution (by dental school) of recent dental graduates undertaking postgraduate studies. The aim of this study was to analyse data on postgraduate qualifications achieved by dentists who graduated from UK dental schools between 2000 and 2009 and relate this to graduate gender. Data were collected from the General Dental Council (GDC) in an anonymous electronic format, analysed and ordered by year of graduation, dental school, gender and type of postgraduate qualification. Nearly one-quarter (24%) of the dentists that graduated between 2000 and 2004 completed postgraduate studies, with more females (26%) than males (23%) obtaining further postgraduate qualifications. Overall, Bristol produced the largest proportion of graduates completing postgraduate study (39%) and of these the largest proportion of female graduates (45%). Glasgow produced the largest proportion of male graduates completing postgraduate study (37%). Membership of the Faculty of Dental Surgery (MFDS), one of the Royal Colleges, was the most popular postgraduate qualification obtained followed by Membership of the Faculty of General Dental Practitioners UK (MFGDP). This study provides insight into postgraduate studies undertaken by UK dental graduates. An increasing proportion of females are gaining Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) qualifications and therefore the number of female dental graduates obtaining postgraduate qualifications is likely to increase further. This also suggests the male domination of the dental profession is likely to decrease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Angiogenesis in the Development of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws: An Overview
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 2; doi:10.3390/dj5010002
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 26 December 2016
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Abstract
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MR-ONJ) is one of the most relevant side effects of bisphosphonate therapy; it is clinically defined as a non-healing wound in combination with an avascular and necrotic jaw within ongoing bisphosphonate therapy or after completed bisphosphonate therapy. Different
[...] Read more.
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MR-ONJ) is one of the most relevant side effects of bisphosphonate therapy; it is clinically defined as a non-healing wound in combination with an avascular and necrotic jaw within ongoing bisphosphonate therapy or after completed bisphosphonate therapy. Different theories concerning the development of MR-ONJ have been reported, while the exact pathophysiology is still unknown. Recent studies have increasingly focused on angiogenesis and revascularization concerning MR-ONJ pathophysiology, which seems to be a relevant factor in the development of MR-ONJ and a possible and promising point of action for MR-ONJ prevention and therapy. Therefore, and with respect to the different aspects and specific forms of angiogenesis, the enclosed review summarizes the possible role of angiogenesis and revascularization in the pathophysiology of MR-ONJ. Special focus is given to the strong negative influence of bisphosphonates on progenitor and mature endothelial cells in vitro as well as on microvessel sprouting in vitro and in vivo, which might result in overall reduced wound healing of oral soft and hard tissues, and therefore in an exposed and avascular jaw from a clinical viewpoint. Further, it will be summarized whether and in what way the aspect of angiogenesis might be used for possible MR-ONJ prevention and therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Cancer and Osteoporosis Therapies and Osteocrosis of the Jaws)
Open AccessReview Oral Health, Nutritional Choices, and Dental Fear and Anxiety
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 8; doi:10.3390/dj5010008
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 24 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
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Abstract
Oral health is an integral part of overall health. Poor oral health can lead to an increased risk of chronic diseases including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some types of cancer. The etiology of these diseases could be linked to the individual’s inability
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Oral health is an integral part of overall health. Poor oral health can lead to an increased risk of chronic diseases including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some types of cancer. The etiology of these diseases could be linked to the individual’s inability to eat a healthy diet when their dentition is compromised. While periodontal or implant surgery may be necessary to reconstruct tissue around natural teeth or replace missing teeth, respectively, some individuals avoid such interventions because of their associated fear and anxiety. Thus, while the relationship between poor oral health, compromised nutritional choices and fear and anxiety regarding periodontal procedures is not entirely new, this review provides an up-to-date summary of literature addressing aspects of this complex relationship. This review also identifies potential strategies for clinicians to help their patients overcome their fear and anxiety associated with dental treatment, and allow them to seek the care they need. Full article
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Open AccessReview Human Gingival Crevicular Fluids (GCF) Proteomics: An Overview
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 12; doi:10.3390/dj5010012
Received: 21 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
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Abstract
Like other fluids of the human body, a gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) contains proteins, a diverse population of cells, desquamated epithelial cells, and bacteria from adjacent plaque. Proteomic tools have revolutionized the characterization of proteins and peptides and the detection of early disease
[...] Read more.
Like other fluids of the human body, a gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) contains proteins, a diverse population of cells, desquamated epithelial cells, and bacteria from adjacent plaque. Proteomic tools have revolutionized the characterization of proteins and peptides and the detection of early disease changes in the human body. Gingival crevicular fluids (GCFs) are a very specific oral cavity fluid that represents periodontal health. Due to their non-invasive sampling, they have attracted proteome research and are used as diagnostic fluids for periodontal diseases and drug analysis. The aim of this review is to explore the proteomic science of gingival crevicular fluids (GCFs), their physiology, and their role in disease detection. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report Unexpected Hazards with Dental High Speed Drill
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 10; doi:10.3390/dj5010010
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 25 January 2017
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Abstract
An expected accident can happen at any time during a routine practice in the dental office due to the types of instruments used. One of the instruments used in routine dental practice is a high speed drill and a bur. If Personal Protective
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An expected accident can happen at any time during a routine practice in the dental office due to the types of instruments used. One of the instruments used in routine dental practice is a high speed drill and a bur. If Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is not practiced at any time in the dental office, very serious injuries could easily happen to the clinician, staff or to the patient. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ) in Osteoporosis Patients: Report of Delayed Diagnosis of a Multisite Case and Commentary about Risks Coming from a Restricted ONJ Definition
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 13; doi:10.3390/dj5010013
Received: 20 January 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
Osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) in osteoporosis patients has been defined as rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing. We report a case of delayed ONJ diagnosis in a patient, who was being treated with alendronate, developing bone alterations both in
[...] Read more.
Osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) in osteoporosis patients has been defined as rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing. We report a case of delayed ONJ diagnosis in a patient, who was being treated with alendronate, developing bone alterations both in maxilla and in mandible. Underestimation of ONJ incidence and missed or delayed ONJ diagnosis in osteoporosis patients might derive from lack of awareness of health providers as well as from an ONJ definition that is too restricted. The more recent definition of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) released in 2014 by the American Association of Oral Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) accept fistula, besides bone exposure, as a major sign of disease, but it seems to be insufficient since it excludes all cases of ONJ disease without bone exposure. A new MRONJ definition is needed to avoid missing or delayed diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Cancer and Osteoporosis Therapies and Osteocrosis of the Jaws)
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