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Foods, Volume 6, Issue 7 (July 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Food Identity, Authenticity and Fraud: The Full Spectrum
Foods 2017, 6(7), 49; doi:10.3390/foods6070049
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
We are pleased to introduce this Special Issue of Foods dedicated to ‘Food Identity, Authenticity and Fraud: The Full Spectrum’.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Identity, Authenticity and Fraud: The Full Spectrum)

Research

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Open AccessCommunication Unequivocal Identification of 1-Phenylethyl Acetate in Clove Buds (syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry) and Clove Essential Oil
Foods 2017, 6(7), 46; doi:10.3390/foods6070046
Received: 5 May 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
The natural occurrence of 1-phenylethyl acetate (styrallyl acetate) was confirmed in commercially available dried clove buds and also in the hydrodistilled oil from clove buds. This confirms previous reports and other anecdotal evidence for its occurrence in nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qualitative Analysis of Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle Macular Carotenoid Supplementation Improves Visual Performance, Sleep Quality, and Adverse Physical Symptoms in Those with High Screen Time Exposure
Foods 2017, 6(7), 47; doi:10.3390/foods6070047
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
The dramatic rise in the use of smartphones, tablets, and laptop computers over the past decade has raised concerns about potentially deleterious health effects of increased “screen time” (ST) and associated short-wavelength (blue) light exposure. We determined baseline associations and effects of 6
[...] Read more.
The dramatic rise in the use of smartphones, tablets, and laptop computers over the past decade has raised concerns about potentially deleterious health effects of increased “screen time” (ST) and associated short-wavelength (blue) light exposure. We determined baseline associations and effects of 6 months’ supplementation with the macular carotenoids (MC) lutein, zeaxanthin, and mesozeaxanthin on the blue-absorbing macular pigment (MP) and measures of sleep quality, visual performance, and physical indicators of excessive ST. Forty-eight healthy young adults with at least 6 h of daily near-field ST exposure participated in this placebo-controlled trial. Visual performance measures included contrast sensitivity, critical flicker fusion, disability glare, and photostress recovery. Physical indicators of excessive screen time and sleep quality were assessed via questionnaire. MP optical density (MPOD) was assessed via heterochromatic flicker photometry. At baseline, MPOD was correlated significantly with all visual performance measures (p < 0.05 for all). MC supplementation (24 mg daily) yielded significant improvement in MPOD, overall sleep quality, headache frequency, eye strain, eye fatigue, and all visual performance measures, versus placebo (p < 0.05 for all). Increased MPOD significantly improves visual performance and, in turn, improves several undesirable physical outcomes associated with excessive ST. The improvement in sleep quality was not directly related to increases in MPOD, and may be due to systemic reduction in oxidative stress and inflammation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Glucose Content and In Vitro Bioaccessibility in Sweet Potato and Winter Squash Varieties during Storage
Foods 2017, 6(7), 48; doi:10.3390/foods6070048
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
Glucose content and in vitro bioaccessibility were determined in raw and cooked pulp of Arapey, Cuabé, and Beauregard sweet potato varieties, as well as Maravilla del Mercado and Atlas winter squash, after zero, two, four, and six months of storage (14 °C, 80%
[...] Read more.
Glucose content and in vitro bioaccessibility were determined in raw and cooked pulp of Arapey, Cuabé, and Beauregard sweet potato varieties, as well as Maravilla del Mercado and Atlas winter squash, after zero, two, four, and six months of storage (14 °C, 80% relative humidity (RH)). The total glucose content in 100 g of raw pulp was, for Arapey, 17.7 g; Beauregard, 13.2 g; Cuabé, 12.6 g; Atlas, 4.0 g; and in Maravilla del Mercado, 4.1 g. These contents were reduced by cooking process and storage time, 1.1 to 1.5 times, respectively, depending on the sweet potato variety. In winter squash varieties, the total glucose content was not modified by cooking, while the storage increased glucose content 2.8 times in the second month. After in vitro digestion, the glucose content released was 7.0 times higher in sweet potato (6.4 g) than in winter squash (0.91 g) varieties. Glucose released by in vitro digestion for sweet potato stored for six months did not change, but in winter squashes, stored Atlas released glucose content increased 1.6 times. In conclusion, in sweet potato and winter squash, the glucose content and the released glucose during digestive simulation depends on the variety and the storage time. These factors strongly affect the supply of glucose for human nutrition and should be taken into account for adjusting a diet according to consumer needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qualitative Analysis of Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle Production of Cow’s Milk Free from Beta-Casein A1 and Its Application in the Manufacturing of Specialized Foods for Early Infant Nutrition
Foods 2017, 6(7), 50; doi:10.3390/foods6070050
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
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Abstract
Beta-casein (BC) is frequently expressed as BC A2 and BC A1 in cow’s milk. Gastrointestinal digestion of BC A1 results in the release of the opioid peptide beta-casomorphin 7 (BCM7) which is less likely to occur from BC A2. This work was aimed
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Beta-casein (BC) is frequently expressed as BC A2 and BC A1 in cow’s milk. Gastrointestinal digestion of BC A1 results in the release of the opioid peptide beta-casomorphin 7 (BCM7) which is less likely to occur from BC A2. This work was aimed to produce milk containing BC A2 with no BC A1 (BC A2 milk) using genetically selected CSN2 A2A2 Jersey cows. Additionally, we aimed to develop an infant formula (IF) suitable for healthy full-term infants during the first six months of life based on BC A2 milk. The concentration of BCM7 released from BC A2 IF, from commercially available IFs as well as from human milk and raw cow’s milk was evaluated after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID). BC A2 IF presented the lowest mean relative abundance of BC A1 (IF 1 = 0.136 ± 0.010), compared with three commercially available IFs (IF 2 = 0.597 ± 0.020; IF 3 = 0.441 ± 0.014; IF 4 = 0.503 ± 0.011). Accordingly, SGID of whole casein fraction from BC A2 IF resulted in a significantly lower release of BCM7 (IF 1 = 0.860 ± 0.014 µg/100 mL) compared to commercially available IFs (IF 2 = 2.625 ± 0.042 µg/100 mL; IF 3 = 1.693 ± 0.012 µg/100 mL; IF 4 = 1.962 ± 0.067 µg/100 mL). Nevertheless, BCM7 levels from BC A2 IF were significantly higher than those found in SGID hydrolysates of BC A2 raw milk (0.742 ± 0.008 µg/100 mL). Interestingly, results showed that BCM7 was also present in human milk in significantly lower amounts (0.697 ± 0.007 µg/100 mL) than those observed in IF 1 and BC A2 milk. This work demonstrates that using BC A2 milk in IF formulation significantly reduces BCM7 formation during SGID. Clinical implications of BC A2 IF on early infant health and development need further investigations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Μetal Uptake by Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Irrigated with Water Polluted with Chromium and Nickel
Foods 2017, 6(7), 51; doi:10.3390/foods6070051
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
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Abstract
The water aquifers of the regions of Asopos River in Viotia and Messapia in Evia (Greece) have been contaminated with hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and bivalent nickel (Ni (II)). Given that these areas are the two biggest tuber producing regions of Greece, in
[...] Read more.
The water aquifers of the regions of Asopos River in Viotia and Messapia in Evia (Greece) have been contaminated with hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and bivalent nickel (Ni (II)). Given that these areas are the two biggest tuber producing regions of Greece, in our previous work, the cross-contamination of the food chain with these two heavy metals was quantified. In the present study, the potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cultivation in these regions is evaluated. The scope of our study was to investigate the uptake of chromium and nickel by sunflower, in a greenhouse experiment. The study included two cultivation periods of plants in six irrigation lines with different levels of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) ranging from 0 μg/L (control) to 10,000 μg/L. In all plant parts, statistically significant increased levels of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) were found when compared to control ones. Also, a positive correlation, both for Cr and Ni, between levels of heavy metals in irrigation water and plants was observed. Following European Food Safety Authority recommendations, the obtained oil was evaluated as safe for consumption, therefore, sunflower cultivation could be a valid bioremediation solution for the Asopos and Messapia regions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutrient and Total Polyphenol Contents of Dark Green Leafy Vegetables, and Estimation of Their Iron Bioaccessibility Using the In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model
Foods 2017, 6(7), 54; doi:10.3390/foods6070054
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
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Abstract
Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLVs) are considered as important sources of iron and vitamin A. However, iron concentration may not indicate bioaccessibility. The objectives of this study were to compare the nutrient content and iron bioaccessibility of five sweet potato cultivars, including three
[...] Read more.
Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLVs) are considered as important sources of iron and vitamin A. However, iron concentration may not indicate bioaccessibility. The objectives of this study were to compare the nutrient content and iron bioaccessibility of five sweet potato cultivars, including three orange-fleshed types, with other commonly consumed DGLVs in Ghana: cocoyam, corchorus, baobab, kenaf and moringa, using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Moringa had the highest numbers of iron absorption enhancers on an “as-would-be-eaten” basis, β-carotene (14169 μg/100 g; p < 0.05) and ascorbic acid (46.30 mg/100 g; p < 0.001), and the best iron bioaccessibility (10.28 ng ferritin/mg protein). Baobab and an orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves had a lower iron bioaccessibility (6.51 and 6.76 ng ferritin/mg protein, respectively) compared with that of moringa, although these three greens contained similar (p > 0.05) iron (averaging 4.18 mg/100 g) and β-carotene levels. The ascorbic acid concentration of 25.50 mg/100 g in the cooked baobab did not enhance the iron bioaccessibility. Baobab and the orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves contained the highest levels of total polyphenols (1646.75 and 506.95 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/100 g, respectively; p < 0.001). This suggests that iron bioaccessibility in greens cannot be inferred based on the mineral concentration. Based on the similarity of the iron bioaccessibility of the sweet potato leaves and cocoyam leaf (a widely-promoted “nutritious” DGLV in Ghana), the former greens have an added advantage of increasing the dietary intake of provitamin A. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qualitative Analysis of Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle An Investigation of Sensory Specific Satiety and Food Size When Children Consume a Whole or Diced Vegetable
Foods 2017, 6(7), 55; doi:10.3390/foods6070055
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 15 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 24 July 2017
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Abstract
Children’s vegetable consumption is often lower than that needed to promote optimal health and development, and practical approaches for increasing vegetable consumption are needed. Sensory Specific Satiety (SSS) reduces the liking and consumption of a consumed food over the course of an eating
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Children’s vegetable consumption is often lower than that needed to promote optimal health and development, and practical approaches for increasing vegetable consumption are needed. Sensory Specific Satiety (SSS) reduces the liking and consumption of a consumed food over the course of an eating occasion and is an important factor in meal termination. The present study aimed to investigate the development of SSS when children ate vegetables of different sizes. The absence of SSS would be an encouraging sign to provide children more vegetables during a meal. Seventy-two children (33 boys, ages 8.8 ± 1.5 years) were recruited from Australian primary schools. Participating children consumed either whole or diced carrots for a maximum period of 10-min from a 500 g box. Cucumber was used as a control vegetable. Children’s liking of carrots and cucumber was measured with a 5-point child friendly hedonic scale prior to and after carrot consumption. In comparison to cucumber, liking for neither diced (p = 0.57) nor whole carrots (p = 0.18) changed during ad libitum consumption of carrots, indicating that SSS did not occur. However, children (n = 36) who finished eating carrots within the 10-min time limit, spent more time eating the whole carrots compared to the diced carrots (p < 0.05), which tended to result in a higher consumption of whole carrots (p < 0.06). This suggests that, in order to increase vegetable consumption, it is better to present children whole carrots than diced carrots. These findings might aid in the development of strategies to promote children’s greater vegetable consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice, Ingestive Behavior and Sensation)
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Review

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Open AccessReview An Overview of Seafood Supply, Food Safety and Regulation in New South Wales, Australia
Foods 2017, 6(7), 52; doi:10.3390/foods6070052
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
Seafood consumption is increasing in Australia, especially in New South Wales (NSW). Average per capita seafood consumption in NSW is higher than the national average. Seafood supply in NSW comes from domestic (wild catch and aquaculture) and overseas (seafood imports) sources. The contribution
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Seafood consumption is increasing in Australia, especially in New South Wales (NSW). Average per capita seafood consumption in NSW is higher than the national average. Seafood supply in NSW comes from domestic (wild catch and aquaculture) and overseas (seafood imports) sources. The contribution of wild catch and aquaculture in domestic seafood production (2012–2013) was 73.42% and 26.52%, respectively. Seafood-associated foodborne illness outbreaks are not common and on an average four outbreaks occur each year in NSW. Most of the outbreaks in 2015 and 2016 were related to ciguatera poisoning. The regulation of the seafood industry and the management of food safety is an example of the coordinated work of multiple government agencies and organizations in which NSW Food Authority is responsible for managing the overall risks through the Seafood Safety Scheme. Overall, seafood supply in NSW is of high quality and poses low food safety risk to consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Products: Safety and Quality)
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Open AccessReview Future Protein Supply and Demand: Strategies and Factors Influencing a Sustainable Equilibrium
Foods 2017, 6(7), 53; doi:10.3390/foods6070053
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative
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A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this “perfect storm” will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption. This paper outlines some potential demand scenarios and provides an overview of selected existing and novel protein sources in terms of their potential to sustainably deliver protein for the future, considering drivers and challenges relating to nutritional, environmental, and technological and market/consumer domains. It concludes that different factors influence the potential of existing and novel sources. Existing protein sources are primarily hindered by their negative environmental impacts with some concerns around health. However, they offer social and economic benefits, and have a high level of consumer acceptance. Furthermore, recent research emphasizes the role of livestock as part of the solution to greenhouse gas emissions, and indicates that animal-based protein has an important role as part of a sustainable diet and as a contributor to food security. Novel proteins require the development of new value chains, and attention to issues such as production costs, food safety, scalability and consumer acceptance. Furthermore, positive environmental impacts cannot be assumed with novel protein sources and care must be taken to ensure that comparisons between novel and existing protein sources are valid. Greater alignment of political forces, and the involvement of wider stakeholders in a governance role, as well as development/commercialization role, is required to address both sources of protein and ensure food security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides)
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