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Condens. Matter, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Research

Open AccessArticle On SU(2) Anomaly and Majorana Fermions
Condens. Matter 2017, 2(2), 13; doi:10.3390/condmat2020013
Received: 27 January 2017 / Revised: 26 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 7 April 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (393 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a loophole in the SU(2) gauge anomaly is presented. It is shown that using several topological tools, a theory can be designed that implements the quantization of a single Weyl doublet anomaly free while keeping the
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In this paper, a loophole in the S U ( 2 ) gauge anomaly is presented. It is shown that using several topological tools, a theory can be designed that implements the quantization of a single Weyl doublet anomaly free while keeping the non-abelian character of the particle in the theory. This opens the perspective for non-Abelian statistics of deconfined particle like objects in 3 + 1 dimensions and for applications in quantum computing. Moreover, if this loophole cannot be closed, old arguments related to anomaly cancellations must be reviewed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Magnetoresistance, Gating and Proximity Effects in Ultrathin NbN-Bi2Se3 Bilayers
Condens. Matter 2017, 2(2), 14; doi:10.3390/condmat2020014
Received: 8 March 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
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Abstract
Ultrathin Bi2Se3-NbN bilayers comprise a simple proximity system of a topological insulator and an s-wave superconductor for studying gating effects on topological superconductors. Here we report on 3 nm thick NbN layers of weakly connected superconducting islands, overlayed with
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Ultrathin Bi 2 Se 3 -NbN bilayers comprise a simple proximity system of a topological insulator and an s-wave superconductor for studying gating effects on topological superconductors. Here we report on 3 nm thick NbN layers of weakly connected superconducting islands, overlayed with 10 nm thick Bi 2 Se 3 film which facilitates enhanced proximity coupling between them. Resistance versus temperature of the most resistive bilayers shows insulating behavior but with signs of superconductivity. We measured the magnetoresistance (MR) of these bilayers versus temperature with and without a magnetic field H normal to the wafer (MR = [R(H) − R(0)]/{[R(H) + R(0)]/2}), and under three electric gate-fields of 0 and ± 2 MV/cm. The MR results showed a complex set of gate sensitive peaks which extended up to about 30 K. The results are discussed in terms of vortex physics, and the origin of the different MR peaks is identified and attributed to flux-flow MR in the isolated NbN islands and the different proximity regions in the Bi 2 Se 3 cap-layer. The dominant MR peak was found to be consistent with enhanced proximity induced superconductivity in the topological edge currents regions. The high temperature MR data suggest a possible pseudogap phase or a highly extended fluctuation regime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Layered Superconductors)
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Open AccessArticle Exploring Cluster Growth Using a Simple Domino Tiling
Condens. Matter 2017, 2(2), 15; doi:10.3390/condmat2020015
Received: 18 March 2017 / Revised: 22 April 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
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Abstract
This paper and its deposited material explore clustering of 2×1 dimers (dominoes) subject to simple interactions and temperature. Much of the work in domino tilings has been statistical, combinatoric and thermodynamic in nature. Instead, here, the domino is used as a
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This paper and its deposited material explore clustering of 2 × 1 dimers (dominoes) subject to simple interactions and temperature. Much of the work in domino tilings has been statistical, combinatoric and thermodynamic in nature. Instead, here, the domino is used as a simple model of a non-spherical molecule to explore aggregation, rather as if the molecules were interacting in solution. As a result, the work does not look at how many ways there are to tile a plane, but at how the cluster evolves with different parameters in the potential that governs the clustering. These parameters include the rules used to select which of the many possible dominoes will be added to the cluster, and temperature. It is shown that qualitative changes in clustering behaviour occur with temperature, including affects on the shape of the cluster, vacancies and the domain structure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Contrasting Phenomenology of NMR Shifts in Cuprate Superconductors
Condens. Matter 2017, 2(2), 16; doi:10.3390/condmat2020016
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shifts, if stripped of their uncertainties, must hold key information about the electronic fluid in the cuprates. The early shift interpretation that favored a single-fluid scenario will be reviewed, as well as recent experiments that reported its failure. Thereafter,
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Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shifts, if stripped of their uncertainties, must hold key information about the electronic fluid in the cuprates. The early shift interpretation that favored a single-fluid scenario will be reviewed, as well as recent experiments that reported its failure. Thereafter, based on literature shift data for planar Cu, a contrasting shift phenomenology for cuprate superconductors is developed, which is very different from the early view while being in agreement with all published data. For example, it will be shown that the hyperfine scenario used up to now is inadequate as a large isotropic shift component is discovered. Furthermore, the changes of the temperature dependences of the shifts above and below the superconducting transitions temperature proceed according to a few rules that were not discussed before. It appears that there can be substantial spin shift at the lowest temperature if the magnetic field is perpendicular to the CuO 2 plane, which points to a localization of spin in the 3 d ( x 2 y 2 ) orbital. A simple model is presented based on the most fundamental findings. The analysis must have new consequences for theory of the cuprates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inverse Spin Galvanic Effect in the Presence of Impurity Spin-Orbit Scattering: A Diagrammatic Approach
Condens. Matter 2017, 2(2), 17; doi:10.3390/condmat2020017
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (874 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spin-charge interconversion is currently the focus of intensive experimental and theoretical research both for its intrinsic interest and for its potential exploitation in the realization of new spintronic functionalities. Spin-orbit coupling is one of the key microscopic mechanisms to couple charge currents and
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Spin-charge interconversion is currently the focus of intensive experimental and theoretical research both for its intrinsic interest and for its potential exploitation in the realization of new spintronic functionalities. Spin-orbit coupling is one of the key microscopic mechanisms to couple charge currents and spin polarizations. The Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a two-dimensional electron gas has been shown to give rise to the inverse spin galvanic effect, i.e., the generation of a non-equilibrium spin polarization by a charge current. Whereas the Rashba model may be applied to the interpretation of experimental results in many cases, in general, in a given real physical system, spin-orbit coupling also occurs due to other mechanisms such as Dresselhaus bulk inversion asymmetry and scattering from impurities. In this work, we consider the inverse spin galvanic effect in the presence of Rashba, Dresselhaus and impurity spin-orbit scattering. We find that the size and form of the inverse spin galvanic effect is greatly modified by the presence of the various sources of spin-orbit coupling. Indeed, spin-orbit coupling affects the spin relaxation time by adding the Elliott–Yafet mechanism to the Dyakonov–Perel, and, furthermore, it changes the non-equilibrium value of the current-induced spin polarization by introducing a new spin generation torque. We use a diagrammatic Kubo formula approach to evaluate the spin polarization-charge current response function. We finally comment about the relevance of our results for the interpretation of experimental results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Materials and Breakdown Phenomena: Heterogeneous Molybdenum Metallic Films
Condens. Matter 2017, 2(2), 18; doi:10.3390/condmat2020018
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
Technological activities to design, manufacture, and test new accelerating devices using different materials and methods is under way all over the world. The main goal of these studies is to increase the accelerating gradients and reduce the probability of radio-frequency (RF) breakdown. Indeed,
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Technological activities to design, manufacture, and test new accelerating devices using different materials and methods is under way all over the world. The main goal of these studies is to increase the accelerating gradients and reduce the probability of radio-frequency (RF) breakdown. Indeed, it is still not clear why, by increasing the intensity of the applied field, intense surface damage is observed in copper structures, limiting the lifetime and, therefore, the practical applications. A possible solution is represented by a coating of a relatively thick layer of molybdenum in order to improve the breakdown rate. molybdenum can be reliably grown on different substrates with a negligible strain and, for thicknesses up to 600 nm, with a resistivity < 100–150·μΩ cm. Moreover, Mo coatings with controlled composition, internal stress, and roughness may allow improving thermo-mechanical properties reaching values not attainable by uncoated copper. Although the Mo conductivity remains lower compared to Cu, a Mo coating represents a very interesting option for high gradient accelerator components manufactured in copper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Efficient High-Temperature in Situ Photoluminescence from GaN Layers during Epitaxial Growth
Condens. Matter 2017, 2(2), 19; doi:10.3390/condmat2020019
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 29 May 2017
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Abstract
Photoluminescence (PL) in GaN or InGaN layers monitored during epitaxial growth at high temperatures permits a quasi-continuous in situ characterization of opto-electronic properties. Therefore, epitaxial parameters can now be optimized at the earliest possible stage. A pulsed and high-power UV laser was required
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Photoluminescence (PL) in GaN or InGaN layers monitored during epitaxial growth at high temperatures permits a quasi-continuous in situ characterization of opto-electronic properties. Therefore, epitaxial parameters can now be optimized at the earliest possible stage. A pulsed and high-power UV laser was required for PL excitation at high temperatures. Herein, the underlying nonlinear mechanism was studied via time-resolved PL experiments and rate equation-based modeling. A temperature-activated and saturable path for quenching over defects was identified. Beyond the saturation threshold, reasonably-intensive PL sets in. At high temperatures not only is the near band gap-PL present, but also—as a new observation—a defect-assisted PL emerges. Apart from these specific electronic transitions in high-temperature PL of GaN, a simple, but reasonably predictive model of the luminescent thin film has been set up to track down interference fringes in the PL spectra. It is worth mentioning that the spectral PL modulation (aiming at the Purcell effect) is often mixed up with ordinary Fabry–Pérot interference. A distinction has become key to properly analyze the spectral signatures of high-temperature PL in order to provide a reliable in situ characterization of GaN layers during epitaxial growth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Electrodynamics of s-Wave Superconductors Using First-Order Formalism
Condens. Matter 2017, 2(2), 20; doi:10.3390/condmat2020020
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we give a derivation of a system of equations which generalize the London brothers and Ginzburg–Landau systems of equations, to describe the electrodynamics of s-wave superconductors. First, we consider a relativistically covariant theory in terms of gauge four-vector electromagnetic
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In this paper we give a derivation of a system of equations which generalize the London brothers and Ginzburg–Landau systems of equations, to describe the electrodynamics of s-wave superconductors. First, we consider a relativistically covariant theory in terms of gauge four-vector electromagnetic potential and scalar complex field. We use the first-order formalism to obtain the supplemented Maxwell equations for gauge-invariant electric, magnetic, four-vector fields and the modulus of the superconducting order parameter. The new four-vector field appears in some of the equations as a gauge-invariant super-current, and in other ones, while gauge invariant, as a four-vector electromagnetic potential. This dual contribution of the new four-vector field is the basis of the electrodynamics of superconductors. We focus on the system of equations with time-independent fields. The qualitative analysis shows that the applied magnetic field suppresses the superconductivity, while the applied electric field impacts oppositely, supporting it. Secondly, we consider time-dependent non-relativistic Ginzburg–Landau theory. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Time-Correlated Vortex Tunneling in Layered Superconductors
Condens. Matter 2017, 2(2), 21; doi:10.3390/condmat2020021
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
The nucleation and dynamics of Josephson and Abrikosov vortices determine the critical currents of layered high-Tc superconducting (HTS) thin films, grain boundaries, and coated conductors, so understanding their mechanisms is of crucial importance. Here, we treat pair creation of Josephson and
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The nucleation and dynamics of Josephson and Abrikosov vortices determine the critical currents of layered high-Tc superconducting (HTS) thin films, grain boundaries, and coated conductors, so understanding their mechanisms is of crucial importance. Here, we treat pair creation of Josephson and Abrikosov vortices in layered superconductors as a secondary Josephson effect. Each full vortex is viewed as a composite fluid of micro-vortices, such as pancake vortices, which tunnel coherently via a tunneling matrix element. We introduce a two-terminal magnetic (Weber) blockade effect that blocks tunneling when the applied current is below a threshold value. We simulate vortex tunneling as a dynamic, time-correlated process when the current is above threshold. The model shows nearly precise agreement with voltage-current (V-I) characteristics of HTS cuprate grain boundary junctions, which become more concave rounded as temperature decreases, and also explains the piecewise linear V-I behavior observed in iron-pnictide bicrystal junctions and other HTS devices. When applied to either Abrikosov or Josephson pair creation, the model explains a plateau seen in plots of critical current vs. thickness of HTS-coated conductors. The observed correlation between theory and experiment strongly supports the proposed quantum picture of vortex nucleation and dynamics in layered superconductors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Layered Superconductors)
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Open AccessArticle Goldstone and Higgs Hydrodynamics in the BCS–BEC Crossover
Condens. Matter 2017, 2(2), 22; doi:10.3390/condmat2020022
Received: 23 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
We discuss the derivation of a low-energy effective field theory of phase (Goldstone) and amplitude (Higgs) modes of the pairing field from a microscopic theory of attractive fermions. The coupled equations for Goldstone and Higgs fields are critically analyzed in the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS)-to-Bose–Einstein
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We discuss the derivation of a low-energy effective field theory of phase (Goldstone) and amplitude (Higgs) modes of the pairing field from a microscopic theory of attractive fermions. The coupled equations for Goldstone and Higgs fields are critically analyzed in the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS)-to-Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover—both in three spatial dimensions and in two spatial dimensions. The crucial role of pair fluctuations is investigated, and the beyond-mean-field Gaussian theory of the BCS–BEC crossover is compared with available experimental data of the two-dimensional ultracold Fermi superfluid. Full article
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