Special Issue "Dust Storms and Associated Impacts to Human Health and the Environment"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. George Kallos

University of Athens, Department of Physics, Atmospheric Modeling and Weather Forecasting Group University Campus Bldg Phys-5, 15784 Athens, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +30-210-7276835
Fax: +30-210-7276765
Interests: atmospheric model development and applications; aerosol–radiation–cloud–precipitation interactions; dust modeling; sea waves and sea spraying; extreme weather events
Guest Editor
Ass. Prof. Marina Astitha

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering School of Engineering, University of Connecticut 261 Glenbrook Road, Storrs, CT, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 860-486-3941
Fax: 860-486-2298
Interests: Chemical transport models; atmospheric dynamics and weather prediction; modeling desert dust distribution in regional and global scales; aerosol–cloud–radiation interactions in numerical prediction models

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is linked to climate change and health effects that intensify the need for accurate prediction of PM concentrations globally. The variety of chemical species that construct the total PM profile (primary and secondary species) presents a challenge for modelling systems to make accurate predictions and regulations to be effective. Mineral dust is an important atmospheric substance due to its role in various processes in the Earth system. Dust affects weather and climate by modifying physical and dynamical processes (radiative transfer, cloud formation, precipitation patterns, heating, heterogeneous chemistry, fertilizer of land and marine ecosystems, among others). Mineral dust particles comprise a significant portion of the total PM in areas affected by dust storms locally or through long-range transport processes. Extensive research in the past three decades has dealt with dust emissions, transport processes, complex interactions among dust particles and other atmospheric pollutants, their effects on weather conditions, land and marine ecosystems, human health and the environment. In an era of increased risk for altered environmental conditions in various parts of the world, there is a need to reconsider, how and to what extent, dust storms affect the environment and human health.

The Special Issue “Dust Storms and Associated Impacts to Human Health and the Environment” aims to shed light into the current state-of-the-art research about dust emissions, transport, transformation, aging, and impacts on human health and the environment. Impacts include, but are not limited to, urban areas, marine and land ecosystems, weather conditions, and human health. Research related to the above topics will be considered for publication in Atmosphere within the Special Issue. 

Prof. George Kallos
Ass. Prof. Marina Astitha
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mineral dust

  • Dust size distribution

  • Soil characterization

  • Saltation bombardment

  • Soluble material in dust

  • Cloud condensation nuclei

  • Ice nuclei

  • Threshold velocity

  • Natural and anthropogenic emissions

  • Health effects

  • Deposition

Published Papers (6 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-6
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Health Impact Assessment Associated with Exposure to PM10 and Dust Storms in Kuwait
Atmosphere 2018, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9010006
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 8 January 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1960 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Little information is available on the assessment of health impact concerning the Middle Eastern dust storms and PM10 concentration levels despite the aridity of the region and frequent dust storms occurring in this part of the world. A prospective study was conducted
[...] Read more.
Little information is available on the assessment of health impact concerning the Middle Eastern dust storms and PM10 concentration levels despite the aridity of the region and frequent dust storms occurring in this part of the world. A prospective study was conducted to determine the association between dust particles and morbidity and mortality rates for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Kuwait. Spearman and Pearson’s correlations were used to identify such associations. Results revealed a significant correlation between dust storms, suspended dust and rising dust (p < 0.01). Correlation between the occurrence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and dust storms showed that PM10 concentrations were significantly correlated with bronchial asthma at the 0.05 level (Pearson r = 0.292). Significant correlations at the 0.01 level were shown between bronchial asthma and both acute lower respiratory tract infection (r = 0.737) and acute upper respiratory tract infection (r = 0.839). Respiratory and cardiovascular mortality rates were both equal to 0.62 per 10,000 persons, each corresponding to 8.7% proportionate mortality rate. This study provides a good evidence of the consistent relationship between dust storm events, PM10 concentration levels, and respiratory diseases. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Quantifying Dry and Wet Deposition Fluxes in Two Regions of Contrasting African Influence: The NE Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands
Atmosphere 2017, 8(5), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos8050086
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
PDF Full-text (2077 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study considers the role of distance to the African source on the amount of deposition. To this end, dry and wet deposition was measured at a site close to Africa (Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the Canary Islands, SCO) and at a
[...] Read more.
This study considers the role of distance to the African source on the amount of deposition. To this end, dry and wet deposition was measured at a site close to Africa (Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the Canary Islands, SCO) and at a distant site located in NE Spain (La Castanya, Montseny, MSY). Because of the important influence of African influence on the buildup of particles in the atmosphere, we specifically addressed the contribution of North African events (NAF events) compared to other provenances (no-NAF events) in the wet and dry pathways at the two sites. At the site close to Africa, most of the crustal-derived elements were deposited in the dry mode, with NAF events contributing more than no-NAF events. Marine elements, by contrast, were mostly deposited at this site in the wet form with a predominance of no-NAF events. At MSY, wet deposition of SO4–S, NO3–N and NH4–N during NAF events was higher than at the site close to Africa, either in the wet or dry mode. This fact suggests that mineral dust interacts with pollutants, the mineral surface being coated with ammonium, sulphate and nitrate ions as the dust plume encounters polluted air masses in its way from North Africa to the Western Mediterranean. African dust may provide a mechanism of pollution scavenging and our results indicate that this removal is more effective in the wet mode at sites far away from the mineral source. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Quantifying Light Absorption of Iron Oxides and Carbonaceous Aerosol in Seasonal Snow across Northern China
Atmosphere 2017, 8(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos8040063
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 18 March 2017 / Published: 28 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2750 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, we attempted to quantify light absorption by insoluble light-absorbing particles (ILAPs) such as black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and iron oxides in snow using an optical method directly and compared the results with those obtained using optical and chemical
[...] Read more.
In this study, we attempted to quantify light absorption by insoluble light-absorbing particles (ILAPs) such as black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and iron oxides in snow using an optical method directly and compared the results with those obtained using optical and chemical analysis methods cooperatively in previous studies. The mass absorption coefficients (MACs) and absorption Ångström exponents (AAEs) of pure hematite, goethite and fullerene soot were also measured using an integrating sphere/integrating sandwich (ISSW) spectrophotometer in the laboratory. The results indicated that the MACs of pure hematite and goethite are 0.97 ± 0.02 m2·g−1 and 0.43 ± 0.01 m2·g−1 at 550 nm, and their AAEs are 5.53 ± 0.47 and 2.18 ± 0.16 from 550 nm to 750 nm, respectively. The MAC and AAE of fullerene soot are 6.40 ± 0.42 m2·g−1 at 550 nm and 0.54 ± 0.06 from 450 to 750 nm. By using the regionally average AAEs of non-BC components in snow, we evaluated the performance of a directly optical analysis, rather than combination of the optical and chemical methods, in quantifying the light absorption of BC, OC and Fe in snow samples. We found that the directly optical method used to measure the light absorption of BC and OC in Northern China snow has substantially low biases of 6.29% and 4.27% in median comparing to previous method. However, the high biases in estimating light absorption of Fe (33.01%) may be associated with the significant underestimation of the AAE of Fe. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Satellite-Observed Transport of Dust to the East China Sea and the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: Contribution of Dust to the Increase in Chlorophyll during Spring 2010
Atmosphere 2016, 7(11), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7110152
Received: 27 September 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4934 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multiple data sets were combined to investigate five dust storm events over East Asia in spring 2010 and their impacts on chlorophyll in the East China Sea (ECS) and the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). Satellite-observed column aerosol images were able to show
[...] Read more.
Multiple data sets were combined to investigate five dust storm events over East Asia in spring 2010 and their impacts on chlorophyll in the East China Sea (ECS) and the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). Satellite-observed column aerosol images were able to show the spatial distribution of the transport of dust from the source regions to the two seas for some of the dust storm events. The CALIPSO satellite showed the vertical structure of dust aerosol for a greater number of dust storm events, including some weak events. This was confirmed by simulations of dust deposition and backward trajectories traced to dust source regions. The simulated dust deposition flux for five dust storms ranged from 13.0 to 145.6 mg·m−2·d−1 in the ECS and from 0.6 to 5.5 mg·m−2·d−1 in the NPSG, suggesting that the highest deposition was about one order of magnitude higher than the lowest. The estimated nutrients from dust showed that dust containing iron had the greatest effect on phytoplankton growth in both seas; the iron deposited by one dust storm event accounted for at least 5% of growth and satisfied the increase in demand required for chlorophyll a concentration. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Characteristics of PM10 Chemical Source Profiles for Geological Dust from the South-West Region of China
Atmosphere 2016, 7(11), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7110146
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1927 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ninety-six particulate matter (PM10) chemical source profiles for geological sources in typical cities of southwest China were acquired from Source Profile Shared Service in China. Twenty-six elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu,
[...] Read more.
Ninety-six particulate matter (PM10) chemical source profiles for geological sources in typical cities of southwest China were acquired from Source Profile Shared Service in China. Twenty-six elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Be, Tl and Pb), nine ions (F, Cl, SO42−, NO3, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+), and carbon-containing species (organic carbon and elemental carbon) were determined to construct these profiles. Individual source profiles were averaged and compared to quantify similarities and differences in chemical abundances using the profile-compositing method. Overall, the major components of PM10 in geological sources were crustal minerals and undefined fraction. Different chemical species could be used as tracers for various types of geological dust in the region that resulted from different anthropogenic influence. For example, elemental carbon, V and Zn could be used as tracers for urban paved road dust; Al, Si, K+ and NH4+ for agricultural soil; Al and Si for natural soil; and SO42− for urban resuspended dust. The enrichment factor analysis showed that Cu, Se, Sr and Ba were highly enriched by human activities in geological dust samples from south-west China. Elemental ratios were taken to highlight the features of geological dust from south-west China by comparing with northern urban fugitive dust, loess and desert samples. Low Si/Al and Fe/Al ratios can be used as markers to trace geological sources from southwestern China. High Pb/Al and Zn/Al ratios observed in urban areas demonstrated that urban geological dust was influenced seriously by non-crustal sources. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview A Systematic Review of Global Desert Dust and Associated Human Health Effects
Atmosphere 2016, 7(12), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7120158
Received: 28 July 2016 / Revised: 20 October 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 6 December 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2249 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Dust storms and sandy dust events originating in arid and semi-arid areas can transport particulate material, pollutants, and potential transport long distances from their sources. Exposure to desert dust particles is generally acknowledged to endanger human health. However, most studies have examined anthropogenic
[...] Read more.
Dust storms and sandy dust events originating in arid and semi-arid areas can transport particulate material, pollutants, and potential transport long distances from their sources. Exposure to desert dust particles is generally acknowledged to endanger human health. However, most studies have examined anthropogenic particulate sources, with few studies considering contributions from natural desert dust. A systematic literature review was undertaken using the ISI Web of Knowledge and PubMed databases with the objective of identifying all studies presenting results on the potential health impact from desert dust particles across the world. This review reveals an imbalance between the areas most exposed to dust and the areas most studied in terms of health effects. Among the human health effects of dust storms are mortality and morbidity, arising from respiratory system, circulatory system, and other diseases. We summarize the quantitative results of current scientific health research and possible pathological mechanisms, and describe some of the many challenges related to understanding health effects from exposures to desert dust particles. Overall, for respiratory and circulatory mortality, both positive and negative associations have been reported for PM10 of desert dust, but only a positive relationship was reported between PM2.5–10 and mortality, and a positive relationship was also reported between PM2.5 and human mortality. Future pathological studies should continue to focus on those mechanisms causing the most harmful effect of desert dust on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. More attention should also be paid to the association between desert dust and the morbidity of other diseases, such as those affecting the reproductive system and nervous system. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top