Special Issue "Tumor Stroma"

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A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kristian Pietras

Karolinska Institute, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Division of Vascular Biology, Scheeles Väg 2, House A4, level 4, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Interests: molecular studies of the endothelial cell-pericyte interplay; carcinoma-associated fibroblasts: recruitment into tumors, phenotype and therapeutic opportunities; TGF-beta signaling in the tumor microenvironment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The process of tumorigenic conversion of normal cells by genetic events is paralleled by co-evolution of an activated stromal compartment. It is increasingly evident that the microenvironment in which a neoplastic lesion persists holds critical influence over cancer initiation, maintenance, growth and progression into a metastatic and lethal disease. The tumor stroma is populated by endothelial cells and pericytes in the angiogenic vasculature, various types of inflammatory cells of the innate and adaptive immune system, as well as by fibroblasts and a rich connective tissue. Collectively, the stromal components sustain tumor proliferation, survival, stem cell maintenance, angiogenesis, invasiveness and distant spread. As such, the tumor microenvironment is an attractive target for novel anti-cancer therapies. The special issue of Cancers on “Tumor Stroma” will include original research articles and review articles on the influence of the microenvironment on all aspects of tumor biology.

We are looking forward to your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Kristian Pietras
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • tumor stroma
  • microenvironment
  • angiogenesis
  • cancer-associated fibroblast
  • inflammation
  • cancer stem cell niche
  • extra-cellular matrix
  • metastasis
  • targeted therapy
  • paracrine growth factor signaling

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells Increase Tumor Growth Rates and Modify Tumor Physiology: Relevance for Therapeutic Targeting
Cancers 2013, 5(1), 205-217; doi:10.3390/cancers5010205
Received: 26 January 2013 / Revised: 26 January 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2013 / Published: 18 February 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was
[...] Read more.
Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was investigated and the role of these cells as a therapeutic target or in determining treatment sensitivity was tested. After isolation from human blood and expansion in vitro, actively growing cells with verified endothelial phenotype (Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cell, BOEC) were injected i.v. into tumor bearing mice for three consecutive days. The growth rate was significantly enhanced in relatively small RERF human lung tumors (i.e., less than 150 mm3) grown in immunocompromised mice by an average of 1.5-fold while it had no effect when injections were given to animals bearing larger tumors. There were no signs of toxicity or unwanted systemic effects. We also observed evidence of increased perfusion, vessel number, response to 15 Gy radiation and oxygenation in RERF tumors of animals injected with BOECs compared to control tumors. In addition, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma tumors were found to grow faster upon injection of BOECs. When FSaII tumors were subjected to a partial thermal ablation treatment using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) there was consistently elevated detection of fluorescently labeled and i.v. injected endothelial precursors in the tumor when analyzed with optical imaging and/or histological preparations. Importantly, we also observed that BOECs treated with the novel anti-angiogenic peptide anginex in-vitro, show decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to radiation. In vivo, the normal increase in FSaII tumor growth induced by injected BOECs was blunted by the addition of anginex treatment. It appears that endothelial precursors may significantly contribute to tumor vessel growth, tumor progression and/or repair of tumor damage and may improve the oxygenation and subsequent radiation response of tumors. We surmise that these cells are preferentially stimulated to divide in the tumor microenvironment, thereby inducing the significant increase in tumor growth observed and that the use of injected BOECs could be a viable approach to modulate the tumor microenvironment for therapeutic gain. Conversely, agents or approaches to block their recruitment and integration of BOECs into primary or metastatic lesions may be an effective way to restrain cancer progression before or after other treatments are applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Stroma)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Characterization of the Tumor-Microenvironment in Patient-Derived Cervix Xenografts (OCICx)
Cancers 2012, 4(3), 821-845; doi:10.3390/cancers4030821
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 17 August 2012 / Accepted: 21 August 2012 / Published: 29 August 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2491 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rationale: The tumor microenvironment (TME) is heterogeneous including both malignant and host cell components as well as regions of hypoxia, elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and poor nutrient supply. The quantitative extent to which the microenvironmental properties of primary tumors are recapitulated
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Rationale: The tumor microenvironment (TME) is heterogeneous including both malignant and host cell components as well as regions of hypoxia, elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and poor nutrient supply. The quantitative extent to which the microenvironmental properties of primary tumors are recapitulated in xenograft models is not well characterized. Methods: Xenografts were generated by implanting tumor biopsies directly into the cervix of mice to create a panel of orthotopically-passaged xenografts (OCICx). Tumors were grown to ~1 cm (diameter) and IFP measurements recorded prior to sacrifice. Enlarged para-aortic lymph nodes (>1–2 mm) were excised for histologic confirmation of metastatic disease. Quantitative histological analysis was used to evaluate hypoxia, proliferation, lymphatic and blood vessels in the epithelial and stromal regions of the xenografts and original patient tumour. Results: IFP and nodal disease were not correlated with tumor engraftment. IFP measurements in the xenografts were generally lower than those in the patient’s tumor. Lymphatic metastasis increased with passage number as did levels of hypoxia in the epithelial component of the xenografts. The blood vessel density in the stromal component of the xenografts increased in parallel. When all the markers were compared between the biopsy and the respective 3rd generation xenograft 10 of 11 tumors showed a good correlation. Conclusions: This ongoing study provides characterization about tumoral and stromal heterogeneity in a unique orthotopic xenograft model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Stroma)
Figures

Open AccessArticle T-Cell Mediated Immune Responses Induced in ret Transgenic Mouse Model of Malignant Melanoma
Cancers 2012, 4(2), 490-503; doi:10.3390/cancers4020490
Received: 27 February 2012 / Revised: 4 April 2012 / Accepted: 18 April 2012 / Published: 26 April 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poor response of human malignant melanoma to currently available treatments requires a development of innovative therapeutic strategies. Their evaluation should be based on animal models that resemble human melanoma with respect to genetics, histopathology and clinical features. Here we used a transgenic mouse
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Poor response of human malignant melanoma to currently available treatments requires a development of innovative therapeutic strategies. Their evaluation should be based on animal models that resemble human melanoma with respect to genetics, histopathology and clinical features. Here we used a transgenic mouse model of spontaneous skin melanoma, in which the ret transgene is expressed in melanocytes under the control of metallothionein-I promoter. After a short latency, around 25% mice develop macroscopic skin melanoma metastasizing to lymph nodes, bone marrow, lungs and brain, whereas other transgenic mice showed only metastatic lesions without visible skin tumors. We found that tumor lesions expressed melanoma associated antigens (MAA) tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein (TRP)-1, TRP-2 and gp100, which could be applied as targets for the immunotherapy. Upon peptide vaccination, ret transgenic mice without macroscopic melanomas were able to generate T cell responses not only against a strong model antigen ovalbumin but also against typical MAA TRP-2. Although mice bearing macroscopic primary tumors could also display an antigen-specific T cell reactivity, it was significantly down-regulated as compared to tumor-free transgenic mice or non-transgenic littermates. We suggest that ret transgenic mice could be used as a pre-clinical model for the evaluation of novel strategies of melanoma immunotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Stroma)
Open AccessArticle P190B RhoGAP Regulates Chromosome Segregation in Cancer Cells
Cancers 2012, 4(2), 475-489; doi:10.3390/cancers4020475
Received: 27 February 2012 / Revised: 13 April 2012 / Accepted: 13 April 2012 / Published: 25 April 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rho GTPases are overexpressed and hyperactivated in many cancers, including breast cancer. Rho proteins, as well as their regulators and effectors, have been implicated in mitosis, and their altered expression promotes mitotic defects and aneuploidy. Previously, we demonstrated that p190B Rho GTPase activating
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Rho GTPases are overexpressed and hyperactivated in many cancers, including breast cancer. Rho proteins, as well as their regulators and effectors, have been implicated in mitosis, and their altered expression promotes mitotic defects and aneuploidy. Previously, we demonstrated that p190B Rho GTPase activating protein (RhoGAP) deficiency inhibits ErbB2-induced mammary tumor formation in mice. Here we describe a novel role for p190B as a regulator of mitosis. We found that p190B localized to centrosomes during interphase and mitosis, and that it is differentially phosphorylated during mitosis. Knockdown of p190B expression in MCF-7 and Hela cells increased the incidence of aberrant microtubule-kinetochore attachments at metaphase, lagging chromosomes at anaphase, and micronucleation, all of which are indicative of aneuploidy. Cell cycle analysis of p190B deficient MCF-7 cells revealed a significant increase in apoptotic cells with a concomitant decrease in cells in G1 and S phase, suggesting that p190B deficient cells die at the G1 to S transition. Chemical inhibition of the Rac GTPase during mitosis reduced the incidence of lagging chromosomes in p190B knockdown cells to levels detected in control cells, suggesting that aberrant Rac activity in the absence of p190B promotes chromosome segregation defects. Taken together, these data suggest that p190B regulates chromosome segregation and apoptosis in cancer cells. We propose that disruption of mitosis may be one mechanism by which p190B deficiency inhibits tumorigenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Stroma)
Open AccessArticle Discriminating Different Cancer Cells Using a Zebrafish in Vivo Assay
Cancers 2011, 3(4), 4102-4113; doi:10.3390/cancers3044102
Received: 8 September 2011 / Revised: 13 October 2011 / Accepted: 21 October 2011 / Published: 31 October 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the expanded understanding of tumor angiogenesis phenomenon and how it impacts cancer treatment outcomes, we have yet to develop a robust assay that can quickly, easily, and quantitatively measure tumor-induced angiogenesis. Since the zebrafish/tumor xenograft represents an emerging tool in this regard,
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Despite the expanded understanding of tumor angiogenesis phenomenon and how it impacts cancer treatment outcomes, we have yet to develop a robust assay that can quickly, easily, and quantitatively measure tumor-induced angiogenesis. Since the zebrafish/tumor xenograft represents an emerging tool in this regard, the present study strives to capitalize on the ease, effectiveness, and the adaptability of this model to quantify tumor angiogenesis. In order to test a range of responses, we chose two different tumorigenic cell lines, the human non-small cell lung carcinoma (H1299) and the mouse lung adenocarcinoma (CL13). Non-tumorigenic 3T3-L1 cells served as negative control. The cells were grafted near to the perivitelline space of the zebrafish embryos and the angiogenic response was analyzed using whole-mount alkaline phosphatase (AP) vessel staining and fluorescence microscopy. Angiogenic activity was scored based on the length and number of the newly formed ectopic vessels and the percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels. At 2 day-post-implantation, we detected a significant increase in the length and number of ectopic vessels with H1299 cell implantation compared to CL13 cell transplantation, both are higher than 3T3-L1 control. We also observed a significantly higher percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels with H1299 and CL13 transplantation compared to the 3T3-L1 control, but this parameter is not as robust and reliable as measuring the length and number of ectopic vessels. Furthermore, the systemic exposure of zebrafish embryos to an anti-angiogenesis drug (PTK 787, inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase) inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis, suggesting that the assay can be used to evaluate anti-angiogenic drugs. This study implicates the feasibility of using zebrafish xenotransplantation to perform quantitative measurement of the angiogenic activity of cancer cells which can be further extended to measure cancer cell metastasis. This assay represents not only the useful test for patient diagnosis, but also has the potential for evaluating anti-cancer drugs treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Stroma)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Therapeutic Targeting of Hyaluronan in the Tumor Stroma
Cancers 2012, 4(3), 873-903; doi:10.3390/cancers4030873
Received: 25 June 2012 / Revised: 28 August 2012 / Accepted: 31 August 2012 / Published: 6 September 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (3684 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The tumor stroma, consisting of non-malignant cells and the extracellular matrix, undergoes significant quantitative and qualitative changes throughout malignant transformation and tumor progression. With increasing recognition of the role of the tumor microenvironment in disease progression, stromal components of the tumor have become
[...] Read more.
The tumor stroma, consisting of non-malignant cells and the extracellular matrix, undergoes significant quantitative and qualitative changes throughout malignant transformation and tumor progression. With increasing recognition of the role of the tumor microenvironment in disease progression, stromal components of the tumor have become attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Stromal accumulation of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan occurs in many tumor types and is frequently associated with a negative disease prognosis. Hyaluronan interacts with other extracellular molecules as well as cellular receptors to form a complex interaction network influencing physicochemical properties, signal transduction, and biological behavior of cancer cells. In preclinical animal models, enzymatic removal of hyaluronan is associated with remodeling of the tumor stroma, reduction of tumor interstitial fluid pressure, expansion of tumor blood vessels and facilitated delivery of chemotherapy. This leads to inhibition of tumor growth and increased survival. Current evidence shows that abnormal accumulation of hyaluronan may be an important stromal target for cancer therapy. In this review we highlight the role of hyaluronan and hyaluronan-mediated interactions in cancer, and discuss historical and recent data on hyaluronidase-based therapies and the effect of hyaluronan removal on tumor growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Stroma)
Open AccessReview Ovarian Cancer Stroma: Pathophysiology and the Roles in Cancer Development
Cancers 2012, 4(3), 701-724; doi:10.3390/cancers4030701
Received: 17 May 2012 / Revised: 29 June 2012 / Accepted: 12 July 2012 / Published: 18 July 2012
PDF Full-text (390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers
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Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Stroma)
Open AccessReview Macrophage-Mediated Lymphangiogenesis: The Emerging Role of Macrophages as Lymphatic Endothelial Progenitors
Cancers 2012, 4(3), 618-657; doi:10.3390/cancers4030618
Received: 2 May 2012 / Revised: 15 June 2012 / Accepted: 20 June 2012 / Published: 27 June 2012
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (643 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is widely accepted that macrophages and other inflammatory cells support tumor progression and metastasis. During early stages of neoplastic development, tumor-infiltrating macrophages (TAMs) mount an immune response against transformed cells. Frequently, however, cancer cells escape the immune surveillance, an event that is
[...] Read more.
It is widely accepted that macrophages and other inflammatory cells support tumor progression and metastasis. During early stages of neoplastic development, tumor-infiltrating macrophages (TAMs) mount an immune response against transformed cells. Frequently, however, cancer cells escape the immune surveillance, an event that is accompanied by macrophage transition from an anti-tumor to a pro-tumorigenic type. The latter is characterized by high expression of factors that activate endothelial cells, suppress immune response, degrade extracellular matrix, and promote tumor growth. Cumulatively, these products of TAMs promote tumor expansion and growth of both blood and lymphatic vessels that facilitate metastatic spread. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies induce the formation of new lymphatic vessels (i.e., lymphangiogenesis) that leads to lymphatic and subsequently, to distant metastasis. Both experimental and clinical studies have shown that TAMs significantly promote tumor lymphangiogenesis through paracrine and cell autonomous modes. The paracrine effect consists of the expression of a variety of pro-lymphangiogenic factors that activate the preexisting lymphatic vessels. The evidence for cell-autonomous contribution is based on the observed tumor mobilization of macrophage-derived lymphatic endothelial cell progenitors (M-LECP) that integrate into lymphatic vessels prior to sprouting. This review will summarize the current knowledge of macrophage-dependent growth of new lymphatic vessels with specific emphasis on an emerging role of macrophages as lymphatic endothelial cell progenitors (M-LECP). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Stroma)
Open AccessReview The Stroma—A Key Regulator in Prostate Function and Malignancy
Cancers 2012, 4(2), 531-548; doi:10.3390/cancers4020531
Received: 9 April 2012 / Revised: 20 May 2012 / Accepted: 21 May 2012 / Published: 29 May 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prostate cancer is a very common and highly unpredictable form of cancer. Whereas many prostate cancers are slow growing and could be left without treatment, others are very aggressive. Additionally, today there is no curative treatment for prostate cancer patients with local or
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Prostate cancer is a very common and highly unpredictable form of cancer. Whereas many prostate cancers are slow growing and could be left without treatment, others are very aggressive. Additionally, today there is no curative treatment for prostate cancer patients with local or distant metastasis. Identification of new, improved prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer and the finding of better treatment strategies for metastatic prostate cancer is therefore highly warranted. Interactions between epithelium and stroma are known to be important already during prostate development and this interplay is critical also in development, progression of primary tumors and growth of metastases. It is therefore reasonable to expect that future biomarkers and therapeutic targets can be identified in the prostate tumor and metastasis stroma and this possibility should be further explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Stroma)
Open AccessReview The Dynamics of Developmental and Tumor Angiogenesis—A Comparison
Cancers 2012, 4(2), 400-419; doi:10.3390/cancers4020400
Received: 1 March 2012 / Revised: 3 April 2012 / Accepted: 4 April 2012 / Published: 11 April 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The blood vasculature in cancers has been the subject of intense interest during the past four decades. Since the original ideas of targeting angiogenesis to treat cancer were proposed in the 1970s, it has become evident that more knowledge about the role of
[...] Read more.
The blood vasculature in cancers has been the subject of intense interest during the past four decades. Since the original ideas of targeting angiogenesis to treat cancer were proposed in the 1970s, it has become evident that more knowledge about the role of vessels in tumor biology is needed to fully take advantage of such strategies. The vasculature serves the surrounding tissue in a multitude of ways that all must be taken into consideration in therapeutic manipulation. Aspects of delivery of conventional cytostatic drugs, induction of hypoxia affecting treatment by radiotherapy, changes in tumor cell metabolism, vascular leak and trafficking of leukocytes are affected by interventions on vascular function. Many tumors constitute a highly interchangeable milieu undergoing proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis with abundance of growth factors, enzymes and metabolites. These aspects are reflected by the abnormal tortuous, leaky vascular bed with detached mural cells (pericytes). The vascular bed of tumors is known to be unstable and undergoing remodeling, but it is not until recently that this has been dynamically demonstrated at high resolution, facilitated by technical advances in intravital microscopy. In this review we discuss developmental genetic loss-of-function experiments in the light of tumor angiogenesis. We find this a valid comparison since many studies phenocopy the vasculature in development and tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Stroma)
Open AccessReview Remodeling of Tumor Stroma and Response to Therapy
Cancers 2012, 4(2), 340-353; doi:10.3390/cancers4020340
Received: 24 February 2012 / Revised: 20 March 2012 / Accepted: 22 March 2012 / Published: 27 March 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Solid tumors are intrinsically resistant to therapy. Cancer progression occurs when tumor cells orchestrate responses from diverse stromal cell types such as blood vessels and their support cells, inflammatory cells, and fibroblasts; these cells collectively form the tumor microenvironment and provide direct support
[...] Read more.
Solid tumors are intrinsically resistant to therapy. Cancer progression occurs when tumor cells orchestrate responses from diverse stromal cell types such as blood vessels and their support cells, inflammatory cells, and fibroblasts; these cells collectively form the tumor microenvironment and provide direct support for tumor growth, but also evasion from cytotoxic, immune and radiation therapies. An indirect result of abnormal and leaky blood vessels in solid tumors is high interstitial fluid pressure, which reduces drug penetration, but also creates a hypoxic environment that further augments tumor cell growth and metastatic spread. Importantly however, studies during the last decade have shown that the tumor stroma, including the vasculature, can be modulated, or re-educated, to allow better delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs or enhance the efficiency of active immune therapy. Such remodeling of the tumor stroma using genetic, pharmacological and other therapeutic approaches not only enhances selective access into tumors but also reduces toxic side effects. This review focuses on recent novel concepts to modulate tumor stroma and thus locally increase therapeutic efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Stroma)
Open AccessReview Stroma-Directed Molecular Targeted Therapy in Gastric Cancer
Cancers 2011, 3(4), 4245-4257; doi:10.3390/cancers3044245
Received: 11 October 2011 / Revised: 22 November 2011 / Accepted: 30 November 2011 / Published: 8 December 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent studies in molecular and cellular biology have shown that tumor growth and metastasis are not determined by cancer cells alone, but also by a variety of stromal cells. Tumor stroma contains abundant extracellular matrix and several types of cells, including carcinoma-associated fibroblasts
[...] Read more.
Recent studies in molecular and cellular biology have shown that tumor growth and metastasis are not determined by cancer cells alone, but also by a variety of stromal cells. Tumor stroma contains abundant extracellular matrix and several types of cells, including carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), endothelial cells, pericytes and inflammatory cells including macrophages. In gastric cancer tissues, tumor cells express platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B. Stromal cells, including CAFs, pericytes and lymphatic endothelial cells, express PDGF receptor (PDGFR)-β. Administration of PDGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor significantly decreases stromal reaction, lymphatic vessel area and pericyte coverage of tumor microvessels. Administration of PDGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drug(s) impairs the progressive growth and metastasis of gastric cancer. Activated stroma might serve as a novel therapeutic target in cases of gastric cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Stroma)

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