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Special Issue "Molecular Imprinting Science and Technology"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Recognition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2011)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ian A. Nicholls

Bioorganic & Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory Linnæus University Centre for Biomaterials Chemistry & School of Chemistry & Biomedicine Linnæus University SE-39182, Kalmar Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Interests: host-guest chemistry; biomimetic systems; catalysis; nanomaterials; functional polymers; bionanotechnology; phage display
Guest Editor
Dr. Michael J. Whitcombe

Lecturer in Supramolecular Chemistry, Cranfield Health, Vincent Building, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, UK
E-Mail
Phone: +44 1234 758329

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), synthetic polymers with a predetermined capacity to recognise a given molecular structure, continue to attract interest as tools for studying recognition pheomena and as key components in technques and devices for use in a variety of application areas.

Since the seminal work of Polyakov during the 1930s, the field has undergone a period of nearly exponantial growth. The continued rapid expansion of this dynamic field shall be fueled both by studies leading to an increasing understanding of the mechanisms underlying the recognition characteristics of these synthetic polymers, and equally by the development of novel applications for MIPs.  Separation science, drug delivery, sensor technology and catalysis, are some of the areas where MIPs have left their imprint.

This volume provides a highly visible forum for high quality current original research reports and critical reviews covering both fundamental and applied aspects of this exciting field.

Prof. Dr. Ian A. Nicholls
Dr. Michael J. Whitcombe
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • molecularly imprinted polymer
  • molecular imprinting
  • functional material
  • biomimetic

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Consequences of Morphology on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-Ligand Recognition
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 1207-1217; doi:10.3390/ijms14011207
Received: 20 November 2012 / Revised: 24 December 2012 / Accepted: 1 January 2013 / Published: 9 January 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (362 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relationship between molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) morphology and template-rebinding over a series of warfarin-imprinted methacrylic acid co(ethylene dimethacrylate) polymers has been explored. Detailed investigations of the nature of template recognition revealed that an optimal template binding was obtained with polymers possessing
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The relationship between molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) morphology and template-rebinding over a series of warfarin-imprinted methacrylic acid co(ethylene dimethacrylate) polymers has been explored. Detailed investigations of the nature of template recognition revealed that an optimal template binding was obtained with polymers possessing a narrow population of pores (~3–4 nm) in the mesopore size range. Importantly, the warfarin-polymer rebinding analyses suggest strategies for regulating ligand binding capacity and specificity through variation of the degree of cross-linking, where polymers prepared with a lower degree of cross-linking afford higher capacity though non-specific in character. In contrast, the co-existence of specific and non-specific binding was found in conjunction with higher degrees of cross-linking and resultant meso- and macropore size distributions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Imprinting Science and Technology)
Open AccessArticle Molecular Recognition Effects in Atomistic Models of Imprinted Polymers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 4781-4804; doi:10.3390/ijms12084781
Received: 10 June 2011 / Revised: 8 July 2011 / Accepted: 25 July 2011 / Published: 28 July 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (709 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this article we present a model for molecularly imprinted polymers, which considers both complexation processes in the pre-polymerization mixture and adsorption in the imprinted structures within a single consistent framework. As a case study we investigate MAA/EGDMA polymers imprinted with pyrazine and
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In this article we present a model for molecularly imprinted polymers, which considers both complexation processes in the pre-polymerization mixture and adsorption in the imprinted structures within a single consistent framework. As a case study we investigate MAA/EGDMA polymers imprinted with pyrazine and pyrimidine. A polymer imprinted with pyrazine shows substantial selectivity towards pyrazine over pyrimidine, thus exhibiting molecular recognition, whereas the pyrimidine imprinted structure shows no preferential adsorption of the template. Binding sites responsible for the molecular recognition of pyrazine involve one MAA molecule and one EGDMA molecule, forming associations with the two functional groups of the pyrazine molecule. Presence of these specific sites in the pyrazine imprinted system and lack of the analogous sites in the pyrimidine imprinted system is directly linked to the complexation processes in the pre-polymerization solution. These processes are quite different for pyrazine and pyrimidine as a result of both enthalpic and entropic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Imprinting Science and Technology)
Open AccessArticle Behavior of Phenols and Phenoxyacids on a Bisphenol-A Imprinted Polymer. Application for Selective Solid-Phase Extraction from Water and Urine Samples
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(5), 3322-3339; doi:10.3390/ijms12053322
Received: 25 January 2011 / Revised: 8 March 2011 / Accepted: 10 May 2011 / Published: 20 May 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), obtained by precipitation polymerisation with 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker, and bisphenol-A (BPA) as template, was prepared. The binding site configuration of the BPA-MIP was examined using Scatchard analysis. Moreover, the behaviour of
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A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), obtained by precipitation polymerisation with 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker, and bisphenol-A (BPA) as template, was prepared. The binding site configuration of the BPA-MIP was examined using Scatchard analysis. Moreover, the behaviour of the BPA-MIP for the extraction of several phenolic compounds (bisphenol-A, bisphenol-F, 4-nitrophenol, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol) and phenoxyacid herbicides such as 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and 2,4,5-TP has been studied in organic and aqueous media in the presence of other pesticides in common use. It was possible to carry out the selective preconcentration of the target analytes from the organic medium with recoveries of higher than 70%. In an aqueous medium, hydrophobic interactions were found to exert a remarkably non-specific contribution to the overall binding process. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the BPA-MIP were evaluated to achieve the selective preconcentration of phenols and phenoxyacids from aqueous samples. The possibility of using the BPA-MIP as a selective sorbent to preconcentrate these compounds from other samples such as urine and river water was also explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Imprinting Science and Technology)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Molecularly Imprinted Polymers: Present and Future Prospective
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5908-5945; doi:10.3390/ijms12095908
Received: 7 June 2011 / Revised: 3 August 2011 / Accepted: 17 August 2011 / Published: 14 September 2011
Cited by 169 | PDF Full-text (790 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Molecular Imprinting Technology (MIT) is a technique to design artificial receptors with a predetermined selectivity and specificity for a given analyte, which can be used as ideal materials in various application fields. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs), the polymeric matrices obtained using the imprinting
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Molecular Imprinting Technology (MIT) is a technique to design artificial receptors with a predetermined selectivity and specificity for a given analyte, which can be used as ideal materials in various application fields. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs), the polymeric matrices obtained using the imprinting technology, are robust molecular recognition elements able to mimic natural recognition entities, such as antibodies and biological receptors, useful to separate and analyze complicated samples such as biological fluids and environmental samples. The scope of this review is to provide a general overview on MIPs field discussing first general aspects in MIP preparation and then dealing with various application aspects. This review aims to outline the molecularly imprinted process and present a summary of principal application fields of molecularly imprinted polymers, focusing on chemical sensing, separation science, drug delivery and catalysis. Some significant aspects about preparation and application of the molecular imprinting polymers with examples taken from the recent literature will be discussed. Theoretical and experimental parameters for MIPs design in terms of the interaction between template and polymer functionalities will be considered and synthesis methods for the improvement of MIP recognition properties will also be presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Imprinting Science and Technology)
Open AccessReview To Remove or Not to Remove? The Challenge of Extracting the Template to Make the Cavities Available in Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4327-4347; doi:10.3390/ijms12074327
Received: 2 June 2011 / Revised: 23 June 2011 / Accepted: 29 June 2011 / Published: 5 July 2011
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (685 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Template removal is a critical step in the preparation of most molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). The polymer network itself and the affinity of the imprinted cavities for the template make its removal hard. If there are remaining template molecules in the MIPs, less
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Template removal is a critical step in the preparation of most molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). The polymer network itself and the affinity of the imprinted cavities for the template make its removal hard. If there are remaining template molecules in the MIPs, less cavities will be available for rebinding, which decreases efficiency. Furthermore, if template bleeding occurs during analytical applications, errors will arise. Despite the relevance to the MIPs performance, template removal has received scarce attention and is currently the least cost-effective step of the MIP development. Attempts to reach complete template removal may involve the use of too drastic conditions in conventional extraction techniques, resulting in the damage or the collapse of the imprinted cavities. Advances in the extraction techniques in the last decade may provide optimized tools. The aim of this review is to analyze the available data on the efficiency of diverse extraction techniques for template removal, paying attention not only to the removal yield but also to MIPs performance. Such an analysis is expected to be useful for opening a way to rational approaches for template removal (minimizing the costs of solvents and time) instead of the current trial-and-error methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Imprinting Science and Technology)
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