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Special Issue "Pollen Tube and Plant Reproduction"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Giampiero Cai

University of Siena, Department of Life Sciences, Siena, Italy
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Fax: +39 0577 232860
Interests: plant cell cytoskeleton; cell wall; organelle movement; cell morphogenesis; plant reproduction
Guest Editor
Prof. Stefano Del Duca

Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Department of Biology, Bologna, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: plant reproduction; pollen tube growth; self-incompatibility; programmed cell death; pollen allergens

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The pollen tube is a fundamental cell in the reproduction process of seed plants. The evolution of this cell has allowed plants to significantly reduce the need for water during the reproductive process, allowing them to conquer more lands. In its simplicity, the pollen tube exhibits several remarkable peculiarities, such as tip growth, a specifically organized cytoskeleton, a cell wall adapted to the growth mechanism and internal transport of sperm cells. Its biological importance and ease of analysis have made the pollen tube one of the most important cell models in plant biology. The importance of research on pollen tubes is always relevant, as demonstrated by the several articles published each year. The purpose of this Special Issue (which should report information or viewpoints of outstanding novelty) is to explore the key aspects of the mechanisms of functioning of the pollen tube in terms of reproductive success of plants. Self-incompatibility, regulation of pollen tube growth by female signals, negative effects of adverse environments on the growth process and therefore on reproduction are only a few of the research topics that are welcome in the special issue. The structure and function of other components of the pollen tube growth machinery, metabolism, genomics, biogenesis and senescence, reactive oxygen species and membrane transport are also of interest. Significant progress in pollen transformation is also welcome.

Prof. Giampiero Cai
Prof. Stefano Del Duca
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Self-incompatibility
  • Cell wall
  • Cell-cell communication
  • Abiotic stress
  • Cell morphogenesis
  • Plant reproduction
  • Plant metabolism
  • Plant genetics

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Transcriptomic and GC-MS Metabolomic Analyses Reveal the Sink Strength Changes during Petunia Anther Development
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19040955
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 10 March 2018 / Accepted: 18 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
PDF Full-text (3656 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Petunia, which has been prevalently cultivated in landscaping, is a dicotyledonous herbaceous flower of high ornamental value. Annually, there is a massive worldwide market demand for petunia seeds. The normal development of anther is the necessary prerequisite for the plants to generate
[...] Read more.
Petunia, which has been prevalently cultivated in landscaping, is a dicotyledonous herbaceous flower of high ornamental value. Annually, there is a massive worldwide market demand for petunia seeds. The normal development of anther is the necessary prerequisite for the plants to generate seeds. However, the knowledge of petunia anther development processes is still limited. To better understand the mechanisms of petunia anther development, the transcriptomes and metabolomes of petunia anthers at three typical development stages were constructed and then used to detect the gene expression patterns and primary metabolite profiles during the anther development processes. Results suggested that there were many differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) that mainly participated in photosynthesis and starch and sucrose metabolism when DEGs were compared between the different development stages of anthers. In this study, fructose and glucose, which were involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, were taken as the most important metabolites by partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA). Additionally, the qRT-PCR analysis of the photosynthetic-related genes all showed decreased expression trends along with the anther development. These pieces of evidence indicated that the activities of energy and carbohydrate metabolic pathways were gradually reduced during all the development stages of anther, which affects the sink strength. Overall, this work provides a novel and comprehensive understanding of the metabolic processes in petunia anthers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollen Tube and Plant Reproduction)
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Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Investigation of Differences in Fertility among Progenies from Self-Pollinated Chrysanthemum
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030832
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
PDF Full-text (10617 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Most chrysanthemum cultivars are self-incompatible, so it is very difficult to create pure lines that are important in chrysanthemum breeding and theoretical studies. In our previous study, we obtained a self-compatible chrysanthemum cultivar and its self-pollinated seed set was 56.50%. It was interesting
[...] Read more.
Most chrysanthemum cultivars are self-incompatible, so it is very difficult to create pure lines that are important in chrysanthemum breeding and theoretical studies. In our previous study, we obtained a self-compatible chrysanthemum cultivar and its self-pollinated seed set was 56.50%. It was interesting that the seed set of its ten progenies ranged from 0% to 37.23%. Examination of the factors causing the differences in the seed set will lead to an improved understanding of chrysanthemum self-incompatibility, and provide valuable information for creating pure lines. Pollen morphology, pollen germination percentage, pistil receptivity and embryo development were investigated using the in vitro culture method, the paraffin section technique, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, RNA sequencing and bioinformatics were applied to analyzing the transcriptomic profiles of mature stigmas and anthers. It was found that the self-pollinated seed set of “Q10-33-1①”,”Q10-33-1③”,”Q10-33-1④” and “Q10-33-1⑩” were 37.23%, 26.77%, 7.97% and 0%, respectively. The differences in fertility among four progenies were mainly attributable to differences in pollen germination percentage and pistil receptivity. Failure of the seed set in “Q10-33-1⑩” was possibly due to self-incompatibility. In the transcriptomic files, 22 potential stigma S genes and 8 potential pollen S genes were found out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollen Tube and Plant Reproduction)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Self-incompatibility of citrus: what should we do next step?
Author: Lijun Chai
Abstract: Citrus is one of the most important economic crops in the world. It possesses a significant reproductive characteristic, self-incompatibility (SI). Here, the focus is on the characterization of S-locus genes of SI. We emphasize recent studies of candidate genes and discuss the technical problems confronting us, including the long juvenile period and the much difficult genetic transformation in citrus. To overcome these problems, three further works will be carried out that the antisense oligonucleotide is utilized, an in vitro and an in vivo system (a Hongkong kumquat transgenic system) of SI are built.

Title: Physiological and Parental Effects on Pollen Performance in Clarkia Taxa with Contrasting Mating Systems 
Author: Alisa A. Hove and Susan J. Mazer
Abstract: Studies of sexual selection in animals have revealed that male physiological condition is often positively correlated with mating success. Many studies of sexual selection in plants have examined the effects of pollen performance traits on fertilization success following gametophytic competition, as well as the effects of environmental conditions on the expression of these traits. The extent to which individual plant physiological status influences the expression of pollen performance traits, however, is not well understood. Here, we examine the relationships between ecophysiological performance and pollen performance, and we measured the effects of pollen donor and recipient identity on pollen performance. We assessed variation in gas exchange physiology and pollen performance in four taxa in the genus Clarkia: C. unguiculata, an outcrosser, and its selfing sister species, C. exilis, as well as the outcrosser C. xantiana ssp. xantiana and the selfer C. xantiana ssp. parviflora. We conducted a series of hand-pollinations in two populations per taxon in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California. In each population, pollen from individual donor plants was applied to 2-16 receptive stigmas [(1-4 recipient flowers per plant x 3 maternal plants] + (1-3 self-pollinations)]. Pollinated styles were excised and fixed in formalin acetic acid 2.5 hours post-pollination. Germination success, mean pollen tube growth rate (PTGR), and the mean distance traversed as a proportion of total style length were estimated for each pollinated flower, controlling statistically for variation in air temperature at the time of pollination. We also measured each pollen donor’s instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, conductance, and transpiration, as well as instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi). Phenotypic associations betweenphysiological traits and pollen performance traits were species-specific. In exilis, among all pollen donors, germination success was negatively correlated with stomatal conductance and transpiration rates. In unguiculata, among pollen donors, we observed significant non-linear effects of WUEi on both PTGR and the mean proportion of the style length traversed per hour. Rapid pollen tube growth (measured as PTGR and the mean proportion of the style length traversed per hour) was associated with both high and low WUEi. In C. x. ssp. parviflora, photosynthetic rates were positively correlated with germination success, PTGR, and the mean proportion of the style traversed among donors. In C. x. ssp. xantiana, we found no significant relationships between pollen performance traits and physiological traits. We did not observe significant differences among donors in pollen performance in any of the Clarkia taxa studied here. Pollen recipient identity, however, explained significant levels of variation in pollen performance in C. exilis and C. x. parviflora.
Keywords: mating system evolution; life history; sexual selection; pollen tube growth; pollen germination; maternal effect; gas exchange physiology

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