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Special Issue "Advances in Multifunctional Materials"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Joong Hee Lee (Website)

Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756, Korea
Fax: +82 63 270 2341
Interests: synthesis of nanomaterials; fabrication of nanocomposites; functional materials and composites; functionalization of graphene and its composites; membranes for fuel cells; biosensors and bioelectronics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The “Materials” Journal’s special issue invites the original research articles and comprehensive reviews on multifunctional materials and their composites, including biocomposites, eco-composites, smart composites, structural composites, layered composites, nanocomposites, and composites of natural materials. The reinforcing filler may vary from nano- to micro- scale in metal, metal oxides, clay minerals, carbin nanostructures, and etc. The research works related to the surface modification of these fillers for composite application are encouraged to submit to this journal. The chemically functionalized fillers can homogeneously disperse in the matrix and forms stiffer, stronger, tougher, lighter and more durable polymer composite materials. This special issue covers all aspects of composites research, from material processing, development, characterization to application. It particularly encourages an interdisciplinary research activity to the investigation of multifunctional composites.

Prof. Dr. Joong Hee Lee
Guest Editor

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of Textile Heating Fabric Based on Silver Coated Polymeric Yarn
Materials 2013, 6(3), 1072-1089; doi:10.3390/ma6031072
Received: 31 December 2012 / Revised: 6 March 2013 / Accepted: 13 March 2013 / Published: 20 March 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1782 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a study conducted on the thermo-mechanical properties of knitted structures, the methods of manufacture, effect of contact pressure at the structural binding points, on the degree of heating. The test results also present the level of heating produced as [...] Read more.
This paper presents a study conducted on the thermo-mechanical properties of knitted structures, the methods of manufacture, effect of contact pressure at the structural binding points, on the degree of heating. The test results also present the level of heating produced as a function of the separation between the supply terminals. The study further investigates the rate of heating and cooling of the knitted structures. The work also presents the decay of heating properties of the yarn due to overheating. Thermal images were taken to study the heat distribution over the surface of the knitted fabric. A tensile tester having constant rate of extension was used to stretch the fabric. The behavior of temperature profile of stretched fabric was observed. A comparison of heat generation by plain, rib and interlock structures was studied. It was observed from the series of experiments that there is a minimum threshold force of contact at binding points of a knitted structure is required to pass the electricity. Once this force is achieved, stretching the fabric does not affect the amount of heat produced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multifunctional Materials)
Open AccessArticle Covalently Bonded Chitosan on Graphene Oxide via Redox Reaction
Materials 2013, 6(3), 911-926; doi:10.3390/ma6030911
Received: 4 January 2013 / Revised: 7 February 2013 / Accepted: 26 February 2013 / Published: 7 March 2013
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (1210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon nanostructures have played an important role in creating a new field of materials based on carbon. Chemical modification of carbon nanostructures through grafting has been a successful step to improve dispersion and compatibility in solvents, with biomolecules and polymers to form [...] Read more.
Carbon nanostructures have played an important role in creating a new field of materials based on carbon. Chemical modification of carbon nanostructures through grafting has been a successful step to improve dispersion and compatibility in solvents, with biomolecules and polymers to form nanocomposites. In this sense carbohydrates such as chitosan are extremely valuable because their functional groups play an important role in diversifying the applications of carbon nanomaterials. This paper reports the covalent attachment of chitosan onto graphene oxide, taking advantage of this carbohydrate at the nanometric level. Grafting is an innovative route to modify properties of graphene, a two-dimensional nanometric arrangement, which is one of the most novel and promising nanostructures. Chitosan grafting was achieved by redox reaction using different temperature conditions that impact on the morphology and features of graphene oxide sheets. Transmission Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared, Raman and Energy Dispersive spectroscopies were used to study the surface of chitosan-grafted-graphene oxide. Results show a successful modification indicated by the functional groups found in the grafted material. Dispersions of chitosan-grafted-graphene oxide samples in water and hexane revealed different behavior due to the chemical groups attached to the graphene oxide sheet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multifunctional Materials)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Multifunctional Cement Composites Strain and Damage Sensors Applied on Reinforced Concrete (RC) Structural Elements
Materials 2013, 6(3), 841-855; doi:10.3390/ma6030841
Received: 7 January 2013 / Revised: 25 February 2013 / Accepted: 26 February 2013 / Published: 6 March 2013
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (2290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this research, strain-sensing and damage-sensing functional properties of cement composites have been studied on a conventional reinforced concrete (RC) beam. Carbon nanofiber (CNFCC) and fiber (CFCC) cement composites were used as sensors on a 4 m long RC beam. Different casting [...] Read more.
In this research, strain-sensing and damage-sensing functional properties of cement composites have been studied on a conventional reinforced concrete (RC) beam. Carbon nanofiber (CNFCC) and fiber (CFCC) cement composites were used as sensors on a 4 m long RC beam. Different casting conditions (in situ or attached), service location (under tension or compression) and electrical contacts (embedded or superficial) were compared. Both CNFCC and CFCC were suitable as strain sensors in reversible (elastic) sensing condition testing. CNFCC showed higher sensitivities (gage factor up to 191.8), while CFCC only reached gage factors values of 178.9 (tension) or 49.5 (compression). Furthermore, damage-sensing tests were run, increasing the applied load progressively up to the RC beam failure. In these conditions, CNFCC sensors were also strain sensitive, but no damage sensing mechanism was detected for the strain levels achieved during the tests. Hence, these cement composites could act as strain sensors, even for severe damaged structures near to their collapse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multifunctional Materials)
Open AccessArticle Influence of N2 Partial Pressure on Structure and Mechanical Properties of TiAlN/Al2O3 Multilayers
Materials 2013, 6(3), 795-804; doi:10.3390/ma6030795
Received: 31 December 2012 / Revised: 22 February 2013 / Accepted: 22 February 2013 / Published: 28 February 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (432 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers with different Ar/N2 ratios were deposited on Si substrates in different N2 partial pressure by magnetron sputtering. The crystalline and multilayer structures of the multilayers were determined by a glancing angle X-ray diffractometer (XRD). A [...] Read more.
TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers with different Ar/N2 ratios were deposited on Si substrates in different N2 partial pressure by magnetron sputtering. The crystalline and multilayer structures of the multilayers were determined by a glancing angle X-ray diffractometer (XRD). A nanoindenter was used to evaluate the hardness, the elastic modulus and scratch scan of the multilayers. The chemical bonding was investigated by a X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The maximum hardness (36.3 GPa) and elastic modulus (466 GPa) of the multilayers was obtained when Ar/N2 ratio was 18:1. The TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers were crystallized with orientation in the (111) and (311) crystallographic planes. The multilayers displayed stably plastic recovery in different Ar/N2 ratios. The scratch scan and post scan surface profiles of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers showed the highest critical fracture load (Lc) of 53 mN for the multilayer of Ar/N2 = 18:1. It indicated that the multilayer had better practical adhesion strength and fracture resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multifunctional Materials)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Alginate-Based Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications
Materials 2013, 6(4), 1285-1309; doi:10.3390/ma6041285
Received: 31 December 2012 / Revised: 19 February 2013 / Accepted: 19 March 2013 / Published: 26 March 2013
Cited by 100 | PDF Full-text (329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alginate is a natural polysaccharide exhibiting excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, having many different applications in the field of biomedicine. Alginate is readily processable for applicable three-dimensional scaffolding materials such as hydrogels, microspheres, microcapsules, sponges, foams and fibers. Alginate-based biomaterials can be utilized [...] Read more.
Alginate is a natural polysaccharide exhibiting excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, having many different applications in the field of biomedicine. Alginate is readily processable for applicable three-dimensional scaffolding materials such as hydrogels, microspheres, microcapsules, sponges, foams and fibers. Alginate-based biomaterials can be utilized as drug delivery systems and cell carriers for tissue engineering. Alginate can be easily modified via chemical and physical reactions to obtain derivatives having various structures, properties, functions and applications. Tuning the structure and properties such as biodegradability, mechanical strength, gelation property and cell affinity can be achieved through combination with other biomaterials, immobilization of specific ligands such as peptide and sugar molecules, and physical or chemical crosslinking. This review focuses on recent advances in the use of alginate and its derivatives in the field of biomedical applications, including wound healing, cartilage repair, bone regeneration and drug delivery, which have potential in tissue regeneration applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multifunctional Materials)
Open AccessReview Quantum Dots as Multifunctional Materials for Tumor Imaging and Therapy
Materials 2013, 6(2), 483-499; doi:10.3390/ma6020483
Received: 13 November 2012 / Revised: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 22 January 2013 / Published: 5 February 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (837 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rapidly developing field of quantum dots (QDs) provides researchers with more options for imaging modalities and therapeutic strategies. In recent years, QDs were widely used as multifunctional materials for tumor imaging and therapy due to their characteristic properties such as semiconductive, [...] Read more.
The rapidly developing field of quantum dots (QDs) provides researchers with more options for imaging modalities and therapeutic strategies. In recent years, QDs were widely used as multifunctional materials for tumor imaging and therapy due to their characteristic properties such as semiconductive, zero-dimension and strong fluorescence. Nevertheless, there still exist the challenges of employing these properties of QDs for clinical diagnosis and therapy. Herein, we briefly review the development, properties and applications of QDs in tumor imaging and therapy. Future perspectives in these areas are also proposed as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multifunctional Materials)
Open AccessReview Characterization of Nanocomposites by Thermal Analysis
Materials 2012, 5(12), 2960-2980; doi:10.3390/ma5122960
Received: 10 September 2012 / Revised: 3 December 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 19 December 2012
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In materials research, the development of polymer nanocomposites (PN) is rapidly emerging as a multidisciplinary research field with results that could broaden the applications of polymers to many different industries. PN are polymer matrices (thermoplastics, thermosets or elastomers) that have been reinforced [...] Read more.
In materials research, the development of polymer nanocomposites (PN) is rapidly emerging as a multidisciplinary research field with results that could broaden the applications of polymers to many different industries. PN are polymer matrices (thermoplastics, thermosets or elastomers) that have been reinforced with small quantities of nano-sized particles, preferably characterized by high aspect ratios, such as layered silicates and carbon nanotubes. Thermal analysis (TA) is a useful tool to investigate a wide variety of properties of polymers and it can be also applied to PN in order to gain further insight into their structure. This review illustrates the versatile applications of TA methods in the emerging field of polymer nanomaterial research, presenting some examples of applications of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and thermal mechanical analysis (TMA) for the characterization of nanocomposite materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multifunctional Materials)

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