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Special Issue "Contrast Agents"

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A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Angelique Louie (Website)

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, CA 95616, USA
Fax: +1 530 754 5739
Interests: molecular imaging; cellular imaging; development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents; magnetic resonance imaging; novel contrast agents; fluorescence microscopy; multimodal imaging and imaging agents

Special Issue Information

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Liposomal Encapsulation Enhances In Vivo Near Infrared Imaging of Exposed Phosphatidylserine in a Mouse Glioma Model
Molecules 2013, 18(12), 14613-14628; doi:10.3390/molecules181214613
Received: 8 October 2013 / Revised: 18 November 2013 / Accepted: 21 November 2013 / Published: 26 November 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have previously demonstrated that exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) on tumor vascular endothelial cells is highly tumor specific, and development of the PS targeted near infrared (NIR) optical probe enables successful in vivo optical imaging of U87 gliomas in a mouse model. Liposomes [...] Read more.
We have previously demonstrated that exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) on tumor vascular endothelial cells is highly tumor specific, and development of the PS targeted near infrared (NIR) optical probe enables successful in vivo optical imaging of U87 gliomas in a mouse model. Liposomes have been widely used as a nanovector for delivery of chemotherapeutics and imaging contrast agents due to their high payload and longer circulation time. In the current study, we have fabricated PS-targeted liposomal nanoprobes encapsulating a NIR dye, IRDye® 800CW, aiming to enhance PS-targeted tumor imaging. Hydrophilic 800CW dye was packed into the core of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated liposomes functionalized with F(ab’)2 fragments of PGN635, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds PS. As expected, in vivo dynamic NIR imaging revealed significantly improved tumor/normal contrast (TNR = 20 ± 3; p < 0.01) of subcutaneous U87 gliomas in mice after injection of the liposomal nanoprobes. Markedly enhanced TNR was observed after the tumors were irradiated to increase PS exposure (TNR = 48 ± 6; p < 0.05). Intriguingly, the liposomal nanoprobes, PGN-L-800CW showed distinct biodistribution and pharmacokinetics compared to the 800CW-PGN probes used in our previous study. Our data further suggest the usefulness of PS-targeted imaging probes for sensitive tumor detection and the potential of utilizing liposomal platform for glioma theranostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contrast Agents)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview The Emerging Role of Ferumoxytol-Enhanced MRI in the Management of Cerebrovascular Lesions
Molecules 2013, 18(8), 9670-9683; doi:10.3390/molecules18089670
Received: 14 June 2013 / Accepted: 8 August 2013 / Published: 13 August 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inflammation is increasingly being understood to be a key component to the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular lesions. Ferumoxytol, an iron oxide nanoparticle coated by a carbohydrate shell, has been used in MRI studies as an inflammatory marker because it is cleared by macrophages. [...] Read more.
Inflammation is increasingly being understood to be a key component to the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular lesions. Ferumoxytol, an iron oxide nanoparticle coated by a carbohydrate shell, has been used in MRI studies as an inflammatory marker because it is cleared by macrophages. Ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI has emerged as an important tool for noninvasive assessment of the inflammatory status of cerebrovascular lesions, namely aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Moreover, preliminary evidence suggests that ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI could be applied as a non-invasive tool to differentiate “unstable” lesions that require early intervention from “stable” lesions in which observation may be safe. Assessment of the effects of anti-inflammatory pharmacological interventions on cerebrovascular lesions is also a potentially crucial application of the technique. Future improvements in technique and MRI signal quantification will certainly pave the way for widespread and efficient use of ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI in clinical practice. In this paper, we review current data regarding ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI and discuss its current/potential applications and future perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contrast Agents)
Open AccessReview Strategies for Optimizing Water-Exchange Rates of Lanthanide-Based Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Molecules 2013, 18(8), 9352-9381; doi:10.3390/molecules18089352
Received: 19 June 2013 / Revised: 28 July 2013 / Accepted: 31 July 2013 / Published: 5 August 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review describes recent advances in strategies for tuning the water-exchange rates of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Water-exchange rates play a critical role in determining the efficiency of contrast agents; consequently, optimization of water-exchange rates, among other parameters, is [...] Read more.
This review describes recent advances in strategies for tuning the water-exchange rates of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Water-exchange rates play a critical role in determining the efficiency of contrast agents; consequently, optimization of water-exchange rates, among other parameters, is necessary to achieve high efficiencies. This need has resulted in extensive research efforts to modulate water-exchange rates by chemically altering the coordination environments of the metal complexes that function as contrast agents. The focus of this review is coordination-chemistry-based strategies used to tune the water-exchange rates of lanthanide(III)-based contrast agents for MRI. Emphasis will be given to results published in the 21st century, as well as implications of these strategies on the design of contrast agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contrast Agents)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of Paper: Review
Title: Strategies for Optimizing Water-exchange Rates of Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Authors: Buddhima N. Siriwardena-Mahanama and Matthew J. Allen
Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, 42 W Warren Ave, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
Abstract: This review describes recent advances in tuning water-exchange rates of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Water-exchange rate plays a critical role in determining the efficiency of contrast agents; consequently, optimization of water-exchange rates, among other parameters, of contrast agents is necessary to achieve high efficiencies. This need has resulted in extensive research efforts to
modulate water-exchange rates by chemically altering the coordination environments of the metal complexes that function as contrast agents. The focus of this review is coordination-chemistry-based strategies used to tune the water-exchange rates of metal-based contrast agents for MRI. Emphasis will be given to results published in the 21st century as well as the implications of these strategies on the future design of contrast agents.

Type of Paper: Review
Title: The Emerging Role of Ferumoxytol-Enhanced MRI in Cerebrovascular Disease
Authors: Nohra Chalouhi 2, Pascal Jabbour 2, Vincent Magnotta 1 and David Hasan 1
Affiliations: 1 Department of Neurosurgery, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Thomas Jefferson University and Jefferson Hospital for Neuroscience, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Abstract: Inflammation is increasingly being understood to be a key component to the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular lesions. Ferumoxytol, an iron oxide nanoparticle coated by a carbohydrate shell, has been used in MRI studies as an inflammatory marker because it is cleared by macrophages. Ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI has emerged as an important tool for noninvasive assessment of the inflammatory status of cerebrovascular lesions, namely aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Moreover, preliminary evidence suggests that ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI could be applied as a non-invasive tool to differentiate “unstable” lesions that require early intervention from “stable” lesions in which observation may be safe. Assessment of the effects of anti-inflammatory pharmacological interventions on cerebrovascular lesions is also a potentially crucial application of the technique. Future improvements in technique and MRI signal quantification will certainly pave the way for widespread and efficient use of ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI in clinical practice. In this paper, we review current data regarding ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI and discuss its potential applications, technical aspects, and future perspectives.

Type of Paper: Review
Title: Responsive Particulate MRI Contrast Agents: Design Principles and Applications
Authors: Valerie C. Pierre* and Lindsay Rymes
Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN, USA
Abstract: Due to their high relaxivities and low toxicity, iron oxide nanoparticles have found increasing use as contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. A decade ago, Weissleder and Josephson first reported the possibility to use the reversible aggregation of such magnetic nanoparticles for the detection of targeted biomarkers via changes in both longitudinal and transverse relaxivities. Since then, magnetic switches have been developed to report on a variety of substrates including enzymes, proteins, nucleic acids, metals, pH, and small molecules. The principles of nanoparticle magnetism which is at the basis for this responsive behavior and the parameters of the nanoparticles that affect their sensitivity and response are described. The advantages and limitations of this class of smart contrast agents are highlighted through a survey of literature examples.

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