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Special Issue "Phase Transfer Catalysis"

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A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dariusz Bogdal

Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Politechnika Krakowska ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Krakow, Poland
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +48 12 6282038
Interests: organic synthesis; phase-transfer catalysis; microwave-assisted synthesis; nitrenium ions; polymer chemistry; fotoluminescence; electroluminescence

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last four decades, a great deal of organic reactions have been reported to be carried out under phase-transfer catalytic conditions (PTC).  PTC has found applications in essentially all the fields of organic syntheses, industrial chemistry, biotechnology and material sciences. It can be encountered in the manufacture of advanced pharmaceuticals, pharmaceuticals, fragrances, crop protection chemicals, highly advanced engineering plastics, advanced materials for semiconductors and also electro-optical and data storage devices. It is intended that this special issue of "Molecules" will consider fundamentals of PTC, synthesis and modification organic compounds and polymers in the lab scale as well as industrial chemistry, biotechnology and material sciences. Previously unpublished experimental, theoretical, prospective, historical, and review papers are solicited on the following and related topics.

Guest Editor
Prof. Dariusz Bogdal

Keywords

  • ion pairs extraction
  • N-,O-, C- alkylation reactions
  • elimination reactions
  • oxidation and epoxidation reactions
  • cross-coupling reactions
  • tandem reactions
  • enantioselective synthesis
  • synthesis and modification of polymers
  • PTC in the presence of microwaves and/or ultrasounds

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Sonolytic and Silent Polymerization of Methacrlyic Acid Butyl Ester Catalyzed by a New Onium Salt with bis-Active Sites in a Biphasic System — A Comparative Investigation
Molecules 2013, 18(2), 2419-2437; doi:10.3390/molecules18022419
Received: 22 November 2012 / Revised: 9 January 2013 / Accepted: 28 January 2013 / Published: 21 February 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, ingenious new analytical and process experimental techniques which are environmentally benign techniques, viz., ultrasound irradiation, have become immensely popular in promoting various reactions. In this work, a novel soluble multi-site phase transfer catalyst (PTC) viz., 1,4-bis-(propylmethyleneammounium chloride)benzene (BPMACB) was synthesized
[...] Read more.
Currently, ingenious new analytical and process experimental techniques which are environmentally benign techniques, viz., ultrasound irradiation, have become immensely popular in promoting various reactions. In this work, a novel soluble multi-site phase transfer catalyst (PTC) viz., 1,4-bis-(propylmethyleneammounium chloride)benzene (BPMACB) was synthesized and its catalytic efficiency was assessed by observing the kinetics of sonolytic polymerization of methacrylic acid butyl ester (MABE) using potassium persulphate (PPS) as an initiator. The ultrasound–multi-site phase transfer catalysis (US-MPTC)-assisted polymerization reaction was compared with the silent (non-ultrasonic) polymerization reaction. The effects of the catalyst and various reaction parameters on the catalytic performance were in detail investigated by following the kinetics of polymerization of MABE in an ethyl acetate-water biphasic system. From the detailed kinetic investigation we propose a plausible mechanism. Further the kinetic results demonstrate clearly that ultrasound-assisted phase-transfer catalysis significantly increased the reaction rate when compared to silent reactions. Notably, this environmentally benign and cost-effective process has great potential to be applied in various polymer industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Transfer Catalysis)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of New Phosphorus-Containing (Co)Polyesters Using Solid-Liquid Phase Transfer Catalysis and Product Characterization
Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9090-9103; doi:10.3390/molecules17089090
Received: 13 June 2012 / Revised: 12 July 2012 / Accepted: 24 July 2012 / Published: 31 July 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (290 KB) | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper is directed towards the development of safe, and thermally stable solid polymer electrolytes. Linear phosphorus-containing (co)polyesters are described, including their synthesis, thermal analysis, conductivity, and non-flammability. Polycondensation of phenylphosphonic dichloride (PPD) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 12000) with and without bisphenol A
[...] Read more.
This paper is directed towards the development of safe, and thermally stable solid polymer electrolytes. Linear phosphorus-containing (co)polyesters are described, including their synthesis, thermal analysis, conductivity, and non-flammability. Polycondensation of phenylphosphonic dichloride (PPD) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 12000) with and without bisphenol A (BA) was carried out using solid-liquid phase transfer catalysis. Potassium phosphate is used as base. Yields in the range of 85.0–88.0%, and inherent viscosities in the range of 0.32–0.58 dL/g were obtained. The polymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, FT-IR, 1H- and 31P-NMR spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Their flammability was investigated by measuring limiting oxygen index values. The polymers are flame retardants and begin to lose weight in the 190 °C–231 °C range. Solid phosphorus- containing (co)polyesters were complexed with lithium triflate and the resulting ionic conductivity was determined. Conductivities in the range of 10−7–10−8 S cm−1 were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Transfer Catalysis)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Phosphane-Based Cyclodextrins as Mass Transfer Agents and Ligands for Aqueous Organometallic Catalysis
Molecules 2012, 17(11), 13062-13072; doi:10.3390/molecules171113062
Received: 11 October 2012 / Revised: 30 October 2012 / Accepted: 30 October 2012 / Published: 2 November 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (587 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The replacement of hazardous solvents and the utilization of catalytic processes are two key points of the green chemistry movement, so aqueous organometallic catalytic processes are of great interest in this context. Nevertheless, these processes require not only the use of water-soluble ligands
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The replacement of hazardous solvents and the utilization of catalytic processes are two key points of the green chemistry movement, so aqueous organometallic catalytic processes are of great interest in this context. Nevertheless, these processes require not only the use of water-soluble ligands such as phosphanes to solubilise the transition metals in water, but also the use of mass transfer agents to increase the solubility of organic substrates in water. In this context, phosphanes based on a cyclodextrin skeleton are an interesting alternative since these compounds can simultaneously act as mass transfer agents and as coordinating species towards transition metals. For twenty years, various cyclodextrin-functionalized phosphanes have been described in the literature. Nevertheless, while their coordinating properties towards transition metals and their catalytic properties were fully detailed, their mass transfer agent properties were much less discussed. As these mass transfer agent properties are directly linked to the availability of the cyclodextrin cavity, the aim of this review is to demonstrate that the nature of the reaction solvent and the nature of the linker between cyclodextrin and phosphorous moieties can deeply influence the recognition properties. In addition, the impact on the catalytic activity will be also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Transfer Catalysis)

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