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Special Issue "Enteral Nutrition"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Omorogieva Ojo (Website)

School of Health and Social Care, Faculty of Education and Health, University of Greenwich, London, SE9 2UG, UK.
Interests: diabetes and clinical nutrition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The subject of enteral nutrition is an interesting one both to the healthcare professionals working in this area of practice and individuals who may benefit from nutritional support. These individuals usually have functional guts but may be suffering from dysphagia with underlying neurological deficit or the effect of radiotherapy treatment. Enteral nutrition involves the administration of nutritional support to individuals whose nutritional requirements cannot be met by the provision of normal diet. Thus, it could be in the form of oral nutritional support and/or the use of tube feeding. Often, enteral nutrition provision involves the assessment of nutritional status, determination of nutritional requirements, establishment of feeding regimes and management of patients, pumps, feeds and feeding tubes.

Researchers in this field are also keen to evaluate the effect of enteral feeding protocols, algorithms and guidelines on patients with different medical conditions in various care settings. There have also been series of comparisms between the use of feeding tubes, feeding methods and management approaches. Economic evaluation of enteral nutrition and Home Enteral Nutrition (HEN) teams to show the benefits of Home enteral tube feeding (HETF) due to the rising cost of HETF has been the subject of intense debate. There have been reviews on advances, challenges and prospects in enteral nutrition.

This special issue is intended to provide current information on enteral nutrition and an insight into recent advances, challenges and prospects of enteral nutrition.

Dr. Omorogieva Ojo
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • feeding tubes
  • enteral feeds
  • enteral feeding methods
  • evaluation of enteral nutrition
  • evaluation of HEN
  • feeding regimes
  • advances in enteral nutrition
  • challenges in enteral nutrition
  • complications
  • ethics

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Is Early Enteral Nutrition Better for Postoperative Course in Esophageal Cancer Patients?
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3461-3469; doi:10.3390/nu5093461
Received: 2 August 2013 / Revised: 26 August 2013 / Accepted: 27 August 2013 / Published: 3 September 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We retrospectively examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN) to clarify the validity of early EN compared with delayed EN. A total of 103 patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer were entered. Patients were divided [...] Read more.
We retrospectively examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN) to clarify the validity of early EN compared with delayed EN. A total of 103 patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer were entered. Patients were divided into two groups; Group E received EN within postoperative day 3, and Group L received EN after postoperative day 3. The clinical factors such as days for first fecal passage, the dose of postoperative albumin infusion, differences of serum albumin value between pre- and postoperation, duration of systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), incidence of postoperative infectious complication, and use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were compared between the groups. The statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Chi square test. The statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Group E showed fewer days for the first fecal passage (p < 0.01), lesser dose of postoperative albumin infusion (p < 0.01), less use of TPN (p < 0.01), and shorter duration of SIRS (p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in postoperative complications between the two groups. Early EN started within 3 days after esophagectomy. It is safe and valid for reduction of albumin infusion and TPN, for promoting early recovery of intestinal movement, and for early recovery from systemic inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteral Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Enteral Nutrition for Feeding Severely Underfed Patients with Anorexia Nervosa
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1293-1303; doi:10.3390/nu4091293
Received: 3 July 2012 / Revised: 31 August 2012 / Accepted: 4 September 2012 / Published: 14 September 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (367 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Severe undernutrition nearly always leads to marked changes in body spaces (e.g., alterations of intra-extracellular water) and in body masses and composition (e.g., overall and compartmental stores of phosphate, potassium, and magnesium). In patients with severe undernutrition it is almost always necessary to use oral nutrition support and/or artificial nutrition, besides ordinary food; enteral nutrition should be a preferred route of feeding if there is a functional accessible gastrointestinal tract. Refeeding of severely malnourished patients represents two very complex and conflicting tasks: (1) to avoid “refeeding syndrome” caused by a too fast correction of malnutrition; (2) to avoid “underfeeding” caused by a too cautious rate of refeeding. The aim of this paper is to discuss the modality of refeeding severely underfed patients and to present our experience with the use of enteral tube feeding for gradual correction of very severe undernutrition whilst avoiding refeeding syndrome, in 10 patients aged 22 ± 11.4 years and with mean initial body mass index (BMI) of 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2. The mean BMI increased from 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2 to 17.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2 and the mean body weight from 27.9 ± 3.3 to 43.0 ± 5.7 kg after 90 days of intensive in-patient treatment (p < 0.0001). Caloric intake levels were established after measuring resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, and nutritional support was performed with enteral feeding. Vitamins, phosphate, and potassium supplements were administered during refeeding. All patients achieved a significant modification of BMI; none developed refeeding syndrome. In conclusion, our findings show that, even in cases of extreme undernutrition, enteral feeding may be a well-tolerated way of feeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteral Nutrition)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in the Perioperative Period: State of the Art
Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 608-623; doi:10.3390/nu5020608
Received: 19 December 2012 / Revised: 17 January 2013 / Accepted: 4 February 2013 / Published: 21 February 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nutritional support of surgical and critically ill patients has undergone significant advances since 1936 when Studley demonstrated a direct relationship between pre-operative weight loss and operative mortality. The advent of total parenteral nutrition followed by the extraordinary progress in parenteral and enteral [...] Read more.
Nutritional support of surgical and critically ill patients has undergone significant advances since 1936 when Studley demonstrated a direct relationship between pre-operative weight loss and operative mortality. The advent of total parenteral nutrition followed by the extraordinary progress in parenteral and enteral feedings, in addition to the increased knowledge of cellular biology and biochemistry, have allowed clinicians to treat malnutrition and improve surgical patient’s outcomes. We reviewed the literature for the current status of perioperative nutrition comparing parenteral nutrition with enteral nutrition. In a surgical patient with established malnutrition, nutritional support should begin at least 7–10 days prior to surgery. Those patients in whom eating is not anticipated beyond the first five days following surgery should receive the benefits of early enteral or parenteral feeding depending on whether the gut can be used. Compared to parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition is associated with fewer complications, a decrease in the length of hospital stay, and a favorable cost-benefit analysis. In addition, many patients may benefit from newer enteral formulations such as Immunonutrition as well as disease-specific formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteral Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Nutrition of the Critically Ill — A 21st-Century Perspective
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 162-207; doi:10.3390/nu5010162
Received: 16 November 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 24 December 2012 / Published: 14 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2022 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Health care-induced diseases constitute a fast-increasing problem. Just one type of these health care-associated infections (HCAI) constitutes the fourth leading cause of death in Western countries. About 25 million individuals worldwide are estimated each year to undergo major surgery, of which approximately [...] Read more.
Health care-induced diseases constitute a fast-increasing problem. Just one type of these health care-associated infections (HCAI) constitutes the fourth leading cause of death in Western countries. About 25 million individuals worldwide are estimated each year to undergo major surgery, of which approximately 3 million will never return home from the hospital. Furthermore, the quality of life is reported to be significantly impaired for the rest of the lives of those who, during their hospital stay, suffered life-threatening infections/sepsis. Severe infections are strongly associated with a high degree of systemic inflammation in the body, and intimately associated with significantly reduced and malfunctioning GI microbiota, a condition called dysbiosis. Deranged composition and function of the gastrointestinal microbiota, occurring from the mouth to the anus, has been found to cause impaired ability to maintain intact mucosal membrane functions and prevent leakage of toxins — bacterial endotoxins, as well as whole bacteria or debris of bacteria, the DNA of which are commonly found in most cells of the body, often in adipocytes of obese individuals or in arteriosclerotic plaques. Foods rich in proteotoxins such as gluten, casein and zein, and proteins, have been observed to have endotoxin-like effects that can contribute to dysbiosis. About 75% of the food in the Western diet is of limited or no benefit to the microbiota in the lower gut. Most of it, comprised specifically of refined carbohydrates, is already absorbed in the upper part of the GI tract, and what eventually reaches the large intestine is of limited value, as it contains only small amounts of the minerals, vitamins and other nutrients necessary for maintenance of the microbiota. The consequence is that the microbiota of modern humans is greatly reduced, both in terms of numbers and diversity when compared to the diets of our paleolithic forebears and the individuals living a rural lifestyle today. It is the artificial treatment provided in modern medical care — unfortunately often the only alternative provided — which constitute the main contributors to a poor outcome. These treatments include artificial ventilation, artificial nutrition, hygienic measures, use of skin-penetrating devices, tubes and catheters, frequent use of pharmaceuticals; they are all known to severely impair the microbiomes in various locations of the body, which, to a large extent, are ultimately responsible for a poor outcome. Attempts to reconstitute a normal microbiome by supply of probiotics have often failed as they are almost always undertaken as a complement to — and not as an alternative to — existing treatment schemes, especially those based on antibiotics, but also other pharmaceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteral Nutrition)
Open AccessReview The Impact of Changes in Health and Social Care on Enteral Feeding in the Community
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1709-1722; doi:10.3390/nu4111709
Received: 14 September 2012 / Revised: 1 November 2012 / Accepted: 7 November 2012 / Published: 13 November 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper examines the impact of the changes to health and social care on enteral feeding in the community, outlines implications for practice and offers recommendations to ameliorate the challenges. It is now clear that there have been significant changes especially in [...] Read more.
This paper examines the impact of the changes to health and social care on enteral feeding in the community, outlines implications for practice and offers recommendations to ameliorate the challenges. It is now clear that there have been significant changes especially in the last 10 years in health and social care provisions in the UK with an overarching effect on enteral nutrition in the community. Advances in technology, increasing demand and treatment costs, the need for improvement in quality, economic challenges, market forces, political influences and more choices for patients are some of the factors driving the change. Government’s vision of a modern system of health and social care is based on initiatives such as clinically led commissioning, establishment of Monitor, shifting care from acute hospitals to community settings, integrating health and social care provisions, Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Prevention (QIPP) program and the concept of “Big Society”. These strategies which are encapsulated in various guidelines, policies and legislation, including the health and social care Act, 2012 are clarified. The future challenges and opportunities brought on by these changes for healthcare professionals and patients who access enteral nutrition in the community are discussed and recommendations to improve practice are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteral Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Enteral Nutrition Support in Burn Care: A Review of Current Recommendations as Instituted in the Ross Tilley Burn Centre
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1554-1565; doi:10.3390/nu4111554
Received: 6 August 2012 / Revised: 16 October 2012 / Accepted: 22 October 2012 / Published: 29 October 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Failure to adequately address the increased levels of inflammatory mediators, catecholamines and corticosteroids central to the hypermetabolic response post burn injury can lead to catastrophic results. One of the most important perturbations is provision of adequate and early nutrition. The provision of [...] Read more.
Failure to adequately address the increased levels of inflammatory mediators, catecholamines and corticosteroids central to the hypermetabolic response post burn injury can lead to catastrophic results. One of the most important perturbations is provision of adequate and early nutrition. The provision of the right balance of macro and micronutrients, along with additional antioxidants is essential to mitigating the hypermetabolic and hypercatabolic state that results following a burn injury. As it is now widely accepted that enteral feeding is best practice for the burn population research has been more closely examining the individual components of enteral nutrition support. Recently fat to carbohydrate ratios, glutamine and antioxidants have made up the balance of this focus. This paper provides a review of the most recent literature examining each of these components and discusses the practices adopted in the Ross Tilley Burn Centre at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteral Nutrition)
Open AccessReview The Role of the Enteral Route and the Composition of Feeds in the Nutritional Support of Malnourished Surgical Patients
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1230-1236; doi:10.3390/nu4091230
Received: 24 July 2012 / Revised: 21 August 2012 / Accepted: 27 August 2012 / Published: 5 September 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In surgical patients, malnutrition is an important risk factor for post-operative complications. In undernourished patients undergoing major gastrointestinal procedures, preoperative enteral nutrition (EN) should be preferred whenever feasible. It may be given either orally or by feeding tubes, depending on patient compliance. [...] Read more.
In surgical patients, malnutrition is an important risk factor for post-operative complications. In undernourished patients undergoing major gastrointestinal procedures, preoperative enteral nutrition (EN) should be preferred whenever feasible. It may be given either orally or by feeding tubes, depending on patient compliance. Early oral intake after surgery should be encouraged, but if an insufficient postoperative oral intake is anticipated, tube feeding should be initiated as soon as possible. The use of immunomodulating formulas offers significant advantages when compared to standard feeds and the positive results on postoperative complications seem independent from the baseline nutritional status. In malnourished patients, the optimal timing and dose of immunonutrition is unclear, but consistent data suggest that they should be treated peri-operatively for at least two weeks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteral Nutrition)

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