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Special Issue "Meat Consumption and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Dominik D. Alexander, MSPH

EpidStat Institute, 2100 Commonwealth Blvd, Suite 203, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
E-Mail
Phone: 6303908190

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For this Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Meat Consumption and Human Health”, we welcome submission of manuscripts for this timely topic area of public health importance. Submissions may include original analytical research (cohort and case-control studies; randomized clinical trials), descriptive surveys (cross-sectional studies), and systematic reviews and quantitative meta-analyses. Because the relationship between meat consumption, including specific types of meat, and health outcomes is a broad topic area, manuscripts may cover an array of scientific hypotheses related to meat intake. In addition, studies and/or reviews may update the state-of-the-science on meat intake and chronic disease outcomes by helping to clarify the complex methodological, analytical, and generalizability issues in studies of diet and health.

Potential topics may include, but are not limited to:

Evaluations of the associations between meat type, such as poultry, fish, fresh red meat, and processed meat and chronic disease outcomes that may include cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.

  • These evaluations should advance on the current body of literature by performing sub-group stratifications on characteristics that may influence patterns of associations. For example, analysis of fresh red meat and colorectal cancer risk among individuals with varying levels of physical activity or dietary fiber intake.

Correlations between dietary (non-meat) factors and lifestyle, socioeconomic, and clinical characteristics by type of meat consumption

  • For example, evaluate whether persons who may consume fish vs. processed meat have a different constellation of other factors, such as lifestyle or socioeconomic status, that may help explain the findings in the published observational studies.
  • Do these differences vary by gender, age, and study country?

The role of protein from meat sources and its effect on human health outcomes.

  • Protein needs in aging populations
  • Protein needs in adolescent populations

Why is meat consumption an area of scientific controversy and confusion?

Improving the methodology of evaluating the relationship between complex dietary factors and intake of whole foods, such as meat, and chronic disease outcomes.

The role of meat, including fresh red meat, in a healthful dietary pattern.

The challenges of evaluating health outcomes in the context of the variability in meat definitions, consumption preferences, and cooking style and methods.

Dominik D. Alexander, PhD, MSPH
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Red meat
  • Processed meat
  • Poultry
  • Fish
  • Cancer
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Diabetes
  • Diet
  • Nutrition
  • Protein
  • Dietary Patterns

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Satiating Properties of Pork are not Affected by Cooking Methods, Sousvide Holding Time or Mincing in Healthy Men—A Randomized Cross-Over Meal Test Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 941; doi:10.3390/nu9090941
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 26 August 2017
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Abstract
Low temperature long time (LTLT) sous-vide cooking may modify meat proteins in a way that could promote satiety. We investigated the effects of (1) cooking method (LTLT 58 °C vs. oven 160 °C), (2) LTLT holding time (17 h vs. 72 min), and
[...] Read more.
Low temperature long time (LTLT) sous-vide cooking may modify meat proteins in a way that could promote satiety. We investigated the effects of (1) cooking method (LTLT 58 °C vs. oven 160 °C), (2) LTLT holding time (17 h vs. 72 min), and (3) pork structure, LTLT 58 °C for 17 h (minced vs. roast) on appetite regulation and in vitro protein digestibility. In a cross-over study, 37 healthy men consumed four meals containing pork: LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 72 min; LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 17 h; and, oven-cooked roast, 160 °C to a core temperature of 58 °C and LTLT-cooked minced patties, 58 °C, 17 h. Ad libitum energy intake (EI) after three hours was the primary endpoint. Moreover, subjective appetite sensations were assessed. Protein digestibility was determined in an in vitro simulated digestion model. Ad libitum EI did not differ between the meals. Furthermore, appetite ratings were not clearly affected. LTLT cooking for 72 min increased the proteolytic rate in the early gastric phase during digestion as compared to LTLT cooking for 17 h or oven cooking. In conclusion, LTLT cooking, LTLT holding time, and pork structure did not affect ad libitum EI. However, LTLT cooking at 58 °C for 72 min seemed to enhance in vitro protein digestibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Red Meat and Flavonoid Consumption on Cancer Prevention: The Korean Cancer Screening Examination Cohort
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 938; doi:10.3390/nu9090938
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 5 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Markedly increased red meat consumption is a cancer risk factor, while dietary flavonoids may help prevent the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of red meat and flavonoid consumption with cancer risk, based on data from 8024 subjects,
[...] Read more.
Markedly increased red meat consumption is a cancer risk factor, while dietary flavonoids may help prevent the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of red meat and flavonoid consumption with cancer risk, based on data from 8024 subjects, drawn from the 2004–2008 Cancer Screening Examination Cohort of the Korean National Cancer Center. Hazard ratios (HRs) were obtained by using a Cox proportional hazard model. During the mean follow-up period of 10.1 years, 443 cases were newly diagnosed with cancer. After adjusting for age, there was a significant correlation between cancer risk and the daily intake of ≥43 g of red meat per day (HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.01, 1.71; p = 0.045), and total flavonoid intake tended to decrease cancer risk (HR 0.70; 95% CI 0.49, 0.99; highest vs. lowest quartile; p-trend = 0.073) in men. Following multivariable adjustment, there were no statistically significant associations between flavonoid intake and overall cancer risk in individuals with high levels of red meat intake. Men with low daily red meat intake exhibited an inverse association between flavonoid consumption and cancer incidence (HR 0.41; 95% CI 0.21, 0.80; highest vs. lowest; p-trend = 0.017). Additional research is necessary to clarify the effects of flavonoid consumption on specific cancer incidence, relative to daily red meat intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Omega–3 Long-Chain Fatty Acids in the Heart, Kidney, Liver and Plasma Metabolite Profiles of Australian Prime Lambs Supplemented with Pelleted Canola and Flaxseed Oils
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 893; doi:10.3390/nu9080893
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 30 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
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Abstract
The objective of the study was to ascertain whether human health beneficial omega–3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in heart, kidney and liver can be enhanced by supplementing prime lambs with graded levels of canola and
[...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to ascertain whether human health beneficial omega–3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in heart, kidney and liver can be enhanced by supplementing prime lambs with graded levels of canola and flaxseed oil. Health status of the lambs, as a consequence of the supplementation, was also investigated by examining their plasma metabolites. Sixty purebred and first-cross lambs were allocated to one of five treatments of lucerne hay basal diet supplemented with isocaloric and isonitrogenous wheat-based pellets without oil inclusion (Control) or graded levels of canola oil at 2.5% (2.5C), 5% (5C), flaxseed oil at 2.5% (2.5F) and 5% (5F) in a completely randomised design. Pre-slaughter blood, post-slaughter kidney, liver and heart samples were analysed for plasma metabolite and fatty acid profiles. Summations of docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 LC-PUFA were enhanced in the liver and kidney of 5F supplemented lambs with a marked decrease in n-6/n-3 ratio and significant breed differences detected. There were generally no deleterious impacts on animal health status. A combination of 5% oil supplementation and lamb genetics is an effective and strategic management tool for enhancing n-3 LC-PUFA contents of heart, kidney and liver without compromising lamb health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Lipids and Inflammatory Markers after Consuming Diets High in Red Meat or Dairy for Four Weeks
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 886; doi:10.3390/nu9080886
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
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Abstract
There is a body of evidence linking inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Our previous research found that insulin sensitivity decreased after a four-week diet high in dairy compared to a control diet and to one high in red meat. Our aim
[...] Read more.
There is a body of evidence linking inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Our previous research found that insulin sensitivity decreased after a four-week diet high in dairy compared to a control diet and to one high in red meat. Our aim was to determine whether a relationship exists between changes in insulin sensitivity and inflammatory biomarkers, or with lipid species. Fasting Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor II (sTNF-RII), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lipids were measured at the end of each diet. TNF-α and the ratio TNF-α/sTNF-RII were not different between diets and TNF-α, sTNF-RII, or the ratio TNF-α/sTNF-RII showed no association with homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). A number of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) species differed between dairy and red meat and dairy and control diets, as did many phosphatidylcholine (PC) species and cholesteryl ester (CE) 14:0, CE15:0, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) 14:0, and LPC15:0. None had a significant relationship (p = 0.001 or better) with log homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), although LPC14:0 had the strongest relationship (p = 0.004) and may be the main mediator of the effect of dairy on insulin sensitivity. LPC14:0 and the whole LPC class were correlated with CRP. The correlations between dietary change and the minor plasma phospholipids PI32:1 and PE32:1 are novel and may reflect significant changes in membrane composition. Inflammatory markers were not altered by changes in protein source while the correlation of LPC with CRP confirms a relationship between changes in lipid profile and inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
Open AccessCommunication Associations between Red Meat Intakes and the Micronutrient Intake and Status of UK Females: A Secondary Analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 768; doi:10.3390/nu9070768
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
Blanket health messages to lower red meat intakes are being communicated at present. These could have adverse implications on the micronutrient quality of women’s diets. The current paper evaluates the nutritional impact of lower red meat intakes on British women’s micronutrient intakes and
[...] Read more.
Blanket health messages to lower red meat intakes are being communicated at present. These could have adverse implications on the micronutrient quality of women’s diets. The current paper evaluates the nutritional impact of lower red meat intakes on British women’s micronutrient intakes and status. A secondary analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey was undertaken using data from years 2008/2009 to 2011/2012. This was comprised of dietary and blood analyte data from 1384 and 641 females aged 11 to 64 years. Females consuming less than 40 g total red meat daily were more likely to have micronutrient intakes below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake (LRNI) for zinc, iron, vitamin B12 and potassium and have lower habitual vitamin D intakes than females consuming between 40 and 69 g daily. After adjusting data for energy intake, zinc (% below the LRNI) and vitamin D (μg/day) remained statistically significant (p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed for blood biomarkers. Females consuming diets lower in red meat, i.e., <40 g daily, appear to have reduced micronutrient intakes, especially in the case of zinc and vitamin D. This should be considered when giving blanket advice for whole populations to reduce red meat intakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Calculation of Haem Iron Intake and Its Role in the Development of Iron Deficiency in Young Women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 515; doi:10.3390/nu9050515
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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Abstract
Total iron intake is not strongly associated with iron stores, but haem iron intake may be more predictive. Haem iron is not available in most nutrient databases, so experimentally determined haem contents were applied to an Australian Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to estimate
[...] Read more.
Total iron intake is not strongly associated with iron stores, but haem iron intake may be more predictive. Haem iron is not available in most nutrient databases, so experimentally determined haem contents were applied to an Australian Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to estimate haem iron intake in a representative sample of young women (25–30 years). The association between dietary haem iron intakes and incident self-reported diagnosed iron deficiency over six years of follow-up was examined. Haem iron contents for Australian red meats, fish, and poultry were applied to haem-containing foods in the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies V2 (DQESv2) FFQ. Haem iron intakes were calculated for 9076 women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) using the DQESv2 dietary data from 2003. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between haem iron intake (2003) and the incidence of iron deficiency in 2006 and 2009. Multiple logistic regression showed baseline haem iron intake was a statistically significant predictor of iron deficiency in 2006 (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.91; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.84–0.99; p-value: 0.020) and 2009 (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.82–0.99; p-value: 0.007). Using the energy-adjusted haem intake made little difference to the associations. Higher haem iron intake is associated with reduced odds of iron deficiency developing in young adult Australian women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Unprocessed Meat Consumption and Incident Cardiovascular Diseases in Korean Adults: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 498; doi:10.3390/nu9050498
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 15 May 2017
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Abstract
Meat consumption has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Western societies; however, epidemiological data are limited on the Korean population. Therefore, we examined the associations between unprocessed meat consumption and CVD incidence in Korea. Data were derived from
[...] Read more.
Meat consumption has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Western societies; however, epidemiological data are limited on the Korean population. Therefore, we examined the associations between unprocessed meat consumption and CVD incidence in Korea. Data were derived from the Ansung-Ansan cohort (2001–2012), including 9370 adults (40–69 years) without CVD or cancer at baseline. Total unprocessed meat consumption was estimated as the sum of unprocessed red meat (beef, pork, and organ meat) and poultry consumption. In the fully adjusted Cox regression model, the relative risks of CVD across increasing quintiles of total unprocessed meat intake were 1.0 (reference), 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55, 0.95), 0.57 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.78), 0.69 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.95), and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.97), but no significant linear trend was detected (p for trend = 0.14). Frequent poultry consumption was significantly associated with a decreased CVD risk; this association showed a dose-response relationship (p for trend = 0.04). This study showed that a moderate intake of total unprocessed meat was inversely associated with CVD risk. A significant inverse association between poultry consumption and incident CVD was observed in Korean adults, requiring further confirmation in other populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)

Review

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Open AccessReview Association between Dietary Patterns of Meat and Fish Consumption with Bone Mineral Density or Fracture Risk: A Systematic Literature
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1029; doi:10.3390/nu9091029
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
This systematic review aimed to investigate the association of fish and sea fish dietary patterns (FishDiet) and meat or processed meat dietary patterns (MeatDiet) with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or risk of fractures (RF). This review includes 37 studies with a total of
[...] Read more.
This systematic review aimed to investigate the association of fish and sea fish dietary patterns (FishDiet) and meat or processed meat dietary patterns (MeatDiet) with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or risk of fractures (RF). This review includes 37 studies with a total of 432,924 subjects. The results suggest that MeatDiet and FishDiet did not affect BMD or RF in 48.2% of the subjects with MeatDiet and in 86.5% of the subjects with FishDiet. Positive effects on bone were found in 3% of subjects with MeatDiet and in 12% with FishDiet. Negative effects on bone were observed in 2.7% of FishDiet and in 47.9% of MeatDiet. Major negative effects of MeatDiet were found in subjects located in the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Italy, Norway, UK and Spain who do not sustain a Mediterranean diet (92.7%); in Korea (27.1%); in Brazil and Mexico (96.4%); and in Australia (62.5%). This study suggests that protein intake from fish or meat is not harmful to bone. Negative effects on bone linked to FishDiet are almost null. Negative effects on bone were associated to MeatDiet in the setting of a Western Diet but not in Mediterranean or Asian Diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Broad and Inconsistent Muscle Food Classification Is Problematic for Dietary Guidance in the U.S.
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1027; doi:10.3390/nu9091027
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
PDF Full-text (1723 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary recommendations regarding consumption of muscle foods, such as red meat, processed meat, poultry or fish, largely rely on current dietary intake assessment methods. This narrative review summarizes how U.S. intake values for various types of muscle foods are grouped and estimated via
[...] Read more.
Dietary recommendations regarding consumption of muscle foods, such as red meat, processed meat, poultry or fish, largely rely on current dietary intake assessment methods. This narrative review summarizes how U.S. intake values for various types of muscle foods are grouped and estimated via methods that include: (1) food frequency questionnaires; (2) food disappearance data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service; and (3) dietary recall information from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. These reported methods inconsistently classify muscle foods into groups, such as those previously listed, which creates discrepancies in estimated intakes. Researchers who classify muscle foods into these groups do not consistently considered nutrient content, in turn leading to implications of scientific conclusions and dietary recommendations. Consequentially, these factors demonstrate a need for a more universal muscle food classification system. Further specification to this system would improve accuracy and precision in which researchers can classify muscle foods in nutrition research. Future multidisciplinary collaboration is needed to develop a new classification system via systematic review protocol of current literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
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