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Special Issue "Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 June 2017

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Jacqui Webster

The George Institute for Global Health, POB M201, Missenden Rd, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts either describing original research or reviewing scientific literature related to salt reduction. Manuscripts should focus on population interventions for reducing dietary sodium and we are particularly interested in innovative approaches to changing the food environment and/or consumer behaviour. Manuscripts that discuss theoretical models informing the design of interventions for reducing dietary sodium are also welcome, as are studies from low or lower middle income countries.

Potential topics may include, but are not limited to:

  • Development/evaluation of regional or national strategies to reduce population salt intake
  • Methodological issues related to measuring salt consumption patterns
  • Use of policy or legislative approaches to reduce salt consumption
  • Design and/or assessment of impact of behavioural change programs
  • Modelling of the impact of interventions on salt intake and health outcomes

Dr. Jacqui Webste
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • salt
  • sodium
  • population interventions
  • behaviour change
  • food environment
  • evaluation
  • health outcomes
  • policy

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Sodium and Potassium Intake in Healthy Adults in Thessaloniki Greater Metropolitan Area—The Salt Intake in Northern Greece (SING) Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 417; doi:10.3390/nu9040417
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
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Abstract
A reduction in population sodium (as salt) consumption is a global health priority, as well as one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. High potassium intake is also recommended to reduce cardiovascular disease. To establish effective policies
[...] Read more.
A reduction in population sodium (as salt) consumption is a global health priority, as well as one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. High potassium intake is also recommended to reduce cardiovascular disease. To establish effective policies for setting targets and monitoring effectiveness within each country, the current level of consumption should be known. Greece lacks data on actual sodium and potassium intake. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess dietary salt (using sodium as biomarker) and potassium intakes in a sample of healthy adults in northern Greece, and to determine whether adherence to a Mediterranean diet is related to different sodium intakes or sodium-to-potassium ratio. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Thessaloniki greater metropolitan area (northern Greece) (n = 252, aged 18–75 years, 45.2% males). Participants’ dietary sodium and potassium intakes were determined by 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretions. In addition, we estimated their adherence to Mediterranean diet by the use of an 11-item MedDietScore (range 0–55). The mean sodium excretion was 175 (SD 72) mmol/day, equivalent to 4220 (1745) mg of sodium or 10.7 (4.4) g of salt per day, and the potassium excretion was 65 (25) mmol/day, equivalent to 3303 (1247) mg per day. Men had higher sodium and potassium excretions compared to women. Only 5.6% of the sample had salt intake <5 g/day, which is the target intake recommended by the World Health Organization. Mean sodium-to-potassium excretion ratio was 2.82 (1.07). There was no significant difference in salt or potassium intake or their ratio across MedDietScore quartiles. No significant relationships were found between salt intake and adherence to a Mediterranean diet, suggesting that the perception of the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet does not hold when referring to salt consumption. These results suggest the need for a larger, nation-wide survey on salt intake in Greece and underline the importance of continuation of salt reduction initiatives in Greece. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Sodium Content of Processed Foods in South Africa during the Introduction of Mandatory Sodium Limits
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 404; doi:10.3390/nu9040404
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Abstract
Background: In June 2016, the Republic of South Africa introduced legislation for mandatory limits for the upper sodium content permitted in a wide range of processed foods. We assessed the sodium levels of packaged foods in South Africa during the one-year period leading
[...] Read more.
Background: In June 2016, the Republic of South Africa introduced legislation for mandatory limits for the upper sodium content permitted in a wide range of processed foods. We assessed the sodium levels of packaged foods in South Africa during the one-year period leading up to the mandatory implementation date of the legislation. Methods: Data on the nutritional composition of packaged foods was obtained from nutrition information panels on food labels through both in-store surveys and crowdsourcing by users of the HealthyFood Switch mobile phone app between June 2015 and August 2016. Summary sodium levels were calculated for 15 food categories, including the 13 categories covered by the sodium legislation. The percentage of foods that met the government’s 2016 sodium limits was also calculated. Results: 11,065 processed food items were included in the analyses; 1851 of these were subject to the sodium legislation. Overall, 67% of targeted foods had a sodium level at or below the legislated limit. Categories with the lowest percentage of foods that met legislated limits were bread (27%), potato crisps (41%), salt and vinegar flavoured snacks (42%), and raw processed sausages (45%). About half (49%) of targeted foods not meeting the legislated limits were less than 25% above the maximum sodium level. Conclusion: Sodium levels in two-thirds of foods covered by the South African sodium legislation were at or below the permitted upper levels at the mandatory implementation date of the legislation and many more were close to the limit. The South African food industry has an excellent opportunity to rapidly meet the legislated requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of 25% Sodium Reduction on Sales of a Top‐Selling Bread in Remote Indigenous Australian  Community Stores: A Controlled Intervention Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 214; doi:10.3390/nu9030214
Received: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
PDF Full-text (227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Reducing sodium in the food supply is key to achieving population salt targets, but maintaining sales is important to ensuring commercial viability and maximising clinical impact. We investigated whether 25% sodium reduction in a top‐selling bread affected sales in 26 remote Indigenous community
[...] Read more.
Reducing sodium in the food supply is key to achieving population salt targets, but maintaining sales is important to ensuring commercial viability and maximising clinical impact. We investigated whether 25% sodium reduction in a top‐selling bread affected sales in 26 remote Indigenous community stores. After a 23‐week baseline period, 11 control stores received the regular‐salt bread (400 mg Na/100 g) and 15 intervention stores received the reduced‐salt version (300 mg Na/100 g) for 12‐weeks. Sales data were collected to examine difference between groups in change from baseline to follow‐up (effect size) in sales (primary outcome) or sodium density, analysed using a mixed model. There was no significant effect on market share (−0.31%; 95% CI −0.68, 0.07; p = 0.11) or weekly dollars ($58; −149, 266; p = 0.58). Sodium density of all purchases was not significantly reduced (−8 mg Na/MJ; −18, 2; p = 0.14), but 25% reduction across all bread could significantly reduce sodium (−12; −23, −1; p = 0.03). We found 25% salt reduction in a top‐selling bread did not affect sales in remote Indigenous community stores. If achieved across all breads, estimated salt intake in remote Indigenous Australian communities would be reduced by approximately 15% of the magnitude needed to achieve population salt targets, which could lead to significant health gains at the population‐level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
Open AccessArticle The Association of Knowledge and Behaviours Related to Salt with 24-h Urinary Salt Excretion in a Population from North and South India
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 144; doi:10.3390/nu9020144
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Consumer knowledge is understood to play a role in managing risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and may be influenced by level of education. The association between population knowledge, behaviours and actual salt consumption was explored overall, and for more-educated compared to less-educated
[...] Read more.
Consumer knowledge is understood to play a role in managing risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and may be influenced by level of education. The association between population knowledge, behaviours and actual salt consumption was explored overall, and for more-educated compared to less-educated individuals. A cross-sectional survey was done in an age-and sex-stratified random sample of 1395 participants from urban and rural areas of North and South India. A single 24-h urine sample, participants’ physical measurements and questionnaire data were collected. The mean age of participants was 40 years, 47% were women and mean 24-h urinary salt excretion was 9.27 (8.87–9.69) g/day. Many participants reported favourable knowledge and behaviours to minimise risks related to salt. Several of these behaviours were associated with reduced salt intake—less use of salt while cooking, avoidance of snacks, namkeens, and avoidance of pickles (all p < 0.003). Mean salt intake was comparable in more-educated (9.21, 8.55–9.87 g/day) versus less-educated (9.34, 8.57–10.12 g/day) individuals (p = 0.82). There was no substantively different pattern of knowledge and behaviours between more-versus less-educated groups and no clear evidence that level of education influenced salt intake. Several consumer behaviours related to use of salt during food preparation and consumption of salty products were related to actual salt consumption and therefore appear to offer an opportunity for intervention. These would be a reasonable focus for a government-led education campaign targeting salt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)

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