Special Issue "Biomedical Optics and Optical Imaging"

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A special issue of Photonics (ISSN 2304-6732).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Huabei Jiang

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, JG56 BMS Building, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Interests: biomedical optics; biophotonics; diffuse optical tomography/spectroscopy; fluorescence molecular tomography; photoacoustic tomography/microscopy
Guest Editor
Dr. Changqing Li

School of Engineering, University of California, Merced, Merced, CA 95343, USA
Interests: biomedical optics; fluorescence molecular tomography; x-ray luminescence optical tomography; Cerenkov luminescence imaging/tomography; x-ray computerized tomography; positron emission tomography; multimodality imaging.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomedical optical imaging has been used widely in biomedical research and life science, at different scales from nanometers such as stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) to centimeters such as diffuse optical tomography (DOT). It has attracted intense research interest due to its numerous advantages including high sensitivity/specificity, non-ionization, portability, and low cost.

However, the applications of biomedical optical imaging have been limited by the intrinsic optical scattering, especially for deep tissue imaging. Nowadays, large efforts have been made to overcome the limit for improved tissue penetration and spatial resolution. These efforts include the developments of photon transport models, reconstruction methods, targeted fluorescent probes or nanoparticles, and hybrid imaging methods such as photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and x-ray luminescence computerized tomography (XLCT).

This Special Issue is therefore intended to encourage researchers worldwide to report their new results in research and development that focus on the most recent advances and overview in biomedical optical imaging for basic research, and preclinical and clinical applications along with their relevant features and technological aspects. Original research papers are welcome (but not limited) on all aspects that focus on the most recent advances in: (i) basic principles of biomedical optics; (ii) diffuse optical tomography; (iii) fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) or fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT); (iv) coherent optical tomography (OCT); (v) photoaccoustic tomography (PAT); (vi) Cerenkov luminescence imaging; (vii) contrast agents based on fluorescent probes or nanoparticles.

Prof. Dr. Huabei Jiang
Dr. Changqing Li
Guest Editor
s

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Photonics is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. For the first couple of issues the Article Processing Charge (APC) will be waived for well-prepared manuscripts. English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • fluorescence molecular tomography
  • diffuse optical tomography
  • coherent optical tomography
  • photoacoustic tomography
  • Cerenkov luminescence imaging/tomography
  • x-ray luminescence computerized tomography
  • molecular imaging agents

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle X-Optogenetics and U-Optogenetics: Feasibility and Possibilities
Photonics 2015, 2(1), 23-39; doi:10.3390/photonics2010023
Received: 22 November 2014 / Accepted: 30 December 2014 / Published: 7 January 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (860 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Optogenetics is an established technique that uses visible light to modulate membrane voltage in neural cells. Although optogenetics allows researchers to study parts of the brain like never before, it is limited because it is invasive, and visible light cannot travel very [...] Read more.
Optogenetics is an established technique that uses visible light to modulate membrane voltage in neural cells. Although optogenetics allows researchers to study parts of the brain like never before, it is limited because it is invasive, and visible light cannot travel very deeply into tissue. This paper proposes two new techniques that remedy these challenges. The first is x-optogenetics, which uses visible light-emitting nanophosphors stimulated by focused x-rays. X-rays can penetrate much more deeply than infrared light and allow for nerve cell stimulation in any part of the brain. The second is u-optogenetics, which is an application of sonoluminescence to optogenetics. Such a technique uses ultrasound waves instead of x-rays to induce light emission, so there would be no introduction of radiation. However, the tradeoff is that the penetration depth of ultrasound is less than that of x-ray. The key issues affecting feasibility are laid out for further investigation into both x-optogenetics and u-optogenetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Optics and Optical Imaging)
Open AccessArticle Single-Fiber Reflectance Spectroscopy of Isotropic-Scattering Medium: An Analytic Perspective to the Ratio-of-Remission in Steady-State Measurements
Photonics 2014, 1(4), 565-585; doi:10.3390/photonics1040565
Received: 28 October 2014 / Revised: 4 December 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 16 December 2014
PDF Full-text (883 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent focused Monte Carlo and experimental studies on steady-state single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy (SfRS) from a biologically relevant scattering medium have revealed that, as the dimensionless reduced scattering of the medium increases, the SfRS intensity increases monotonically until reaching a plateau. The SfRS [...] Read more.
Recent focused Monte Carlo and experimental studies on steady-state single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy (SfRS) from a biologically relevant scattering medium have revealed that, as the dimensionless reduced scattering of the medium increases, the SfRS intensity increases monotonically until reaching a plateau. The SfRS signal is semi-empirically decomposed to the product of three contributing factors, including a ratio-of-remission (RoR) term that refers to the ratio of photons remitting from the medium and crossing the fiber-medium interface over the total number of photons launched into the medium. The RoR is expressed with respect to the dimensionless reduced scattering parameter , where  is the reduced scattering coefficient of the medium and  is the diameter of the probing fiber. We develop in this work, under the assumption of an isotropic-scattering medium, a method of analytical treatment that will indicate the pattern of RoR as a function of the dimensionless reduced scattering of the medium. The RoR is derived in four cases, corresponding to in-medium (applied to interstitial probing of biological tissue) or surface-based (applied to contact-probing of biological tissue) SfRS measurements using straight-polished or angle-polished fiber. The analytically arrived surface-probing RoR corresponding to single-fiber probing using a 15° angle-polished fiber over the range of  agrees with previously reported similarly configured experimental measurement from a scattering medium that has a Henyey–Greenstein scattering phase function with an anisotropy factor of 0.8. In cases of a medium scattering light anisotropically, we propose how the treatment may be furthered to account for the scattering anisotropy using the result of a study of light scattering close to the point-of-entry by Vitkin et al. (Nat. Commun. 2011, doi:10.1038/ncomms1599). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Optics and Optical Imaging)
Open AccessArticle Design and Performance of a Multi-Point Scan Confocal Microendoscope
Photonics 2014, 1(4), 421-431; doi:10.3390/photonics1040421
Received: 14 October 2014 / Revised: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 20 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (421 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy provides high-resolution cellular-level imaging via a minimally invasive procedure, but requires fast scanning to achieve real-time imaging in vivo. Ideal confocal imaging performance is obtained with a point scanning system, but the scan rates required for in vivo [...] Read more.
Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy provides high-resolution cellular-level imaging via a minimally invasive procedure, but requires fast scanning to achieve real-time imaging in vivo. Ideal confocal imaging performance is obtained with a point scanning system, but the scan rates required for in vivo biomedical imaging can be difficult to achieve. By scanning a line of illumination in one direction in conjunction with a stationary confocal slit aperture, very high image acquisition speeds can be achieved, but at the cost of a reduction in image quality. Here, the design, implementation, and experimental verification of a custom multi-point aperture modification to a line-scanning multi-spectral confocal microendoscope is presented. This new design improves the axial resolution of a line-scan system while maintaining high imaging rates. In addition, compared to the line-scanning configuration, previously reported simulations predicted that the multi-point aperture geometry greatly reduces the effects of tissue scatter on image quality. Experimental results confirming this prediction are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Optics and Optical Imaging)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Fiber-Based Polarization Diversity Detection for Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography
Photonics 2014, 1(4), 283-295; doi:10.3390/photonics1040283
Received: 28 August 2014 / Revised: 26 September 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 30 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (882 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a new fiber-based polarization diversity detection (PDD) scheme for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT). This implementation uses a new custom miniaturized polarization-maintaining fiber coupler with single mode (SM) fiber inputs and polarization maintaining (PM) fiber outputs. The SM fiber [...] Read more.
We present a new fiber-based polarization diversity detection (PDD) scheme for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT). This implementation uses a new custom miniaturized polarization-maintaining fiber coupler with single mode (SM) fiber inputs and polarization maintaining (PM) fiber outputs. The SM fiber inputs obviate matching the optical lengths of the two orthogonal OCT polarization channels prior to interference while the PM fiber outputs ensure defined orthogonal axes after interference. Advantages of this detection scheme over those with bulk optics PDD include lower cost, easier miniaturization, and more relaxed alignment and handling issues. We incorporate this PDD scheme into a galvanometer-scanned OCT system to demonstrate system calibration and PSOCT imaging of an achromatic quarter-wave plate, fingernail in vivo, and chicken breast, salmon, cow leg, and basa fish muscle samples ex vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Optics and Optical Imaging)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Regularization Methods in Fluorescence Molecular Tomography
Photonics 2014, 1(2), 95-109; doi:10.3390/photonics1020095
Received: 1 February 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3755 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In vivo fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) has been a popular functional imaging modality in research labs in the past two decades. One of the major difficulties of FMT lies in the ill-posed and ill-conditioned nature of the inverse problem in reconstructing the [...] Read more.
In vivo fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) has been a popular functional imaging modality in research labs in the past two decades. One of the major difficulties of FMT lies in the ill-posed and ill-conditioned nature of the inverse problem in reconstructing the distribution of fluorophores inside objects. The popular regularization methods based on L2, L1 and total variation (TV ) norms have been applied in FMT reconstructions. The non-convex Lq(0 < q < 1) semi-norm and Log function have also been studied recently. In this paper, we adopt a uniform optimization transfer framework for these regularization methods in FMT and compare their individual, as well as the combined effects on both small, localized targets, such as tumors in the early stage, and large targets, such as liver. Numerical simulation studies and phantom experiments have been carried out, and we found that Lq with q near 1/2 performs the best in reconstructing small targets, while joint L2 and Log performs the best for large targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Optics and Optical Imaging)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Time-Resolved Fluorescence in Photodynamic Therapy
Photonics 2014, 1(4), 530-564; doi:10.3390/photonics1040530
Received: 4 November 2014 / Revised: 4 December 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 9 December 2014
PDF Full-text (1205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used clinically for treating various diseases including malignant tumors. The main advantages of PDT over traditional cancer treatments are attributed to the localized effects of the photochemical reactions by selective illumination, which then generate reactive oxygen species [...] Read more.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used clinically for treating various diseases including malignant tumors. The main advantages of PDT over traditional cancer treatments are attributed to the localized effects of the photochemical reactions by selective illumination, which then generate reactive oxygen species and singlet oxygen molecules that lead to cell death. To date, over- or under-treatment still remains one of the major challenges in PDT due to the lack of robust real-time dose monitoring techniques. Time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) provides fluorescence lifetime profiles of the targeted fluorophores. It has been demonstrated that TRF offers supplementary information in drug-molecular interactions and cell responses compared to steady-state intensity acquisition. Moreover, fluorescence lifetime itself is independent of the light path; thus it overcomes the artifacts given by diffused light propagation and detection geometries. TRF in PDT is an emerging approach, and relevant studies to date are scattered. Therefore, this review mainly focuses on summarizing up-to-date TRF studies in PDT, and the effects of PDT dosimetric factors on the measured TRF parameters. From there, potential gaps for clinical translation are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Optics and Optical Imaging)
Open AccessReview Instrumentation in Diffuse Optical Imaging
Photonics 2014, 1(1), 9-32; doi:10.3390/photonics1010009
Received: 15 December 2013 / Revised: 6 January 2014 / Accepted: 7 January 2014 / Published: 20 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diffuse optical imaging is highly versatile and has a very broad range of applications in biology and medicine. It covers diffuse optical tomography, fluorescence diffuse optical tomography, bioluminescence and a number of other new imaging methods. These methods of diffuse optical imaging [...] Read more.
Diffuse optical imaging is highly versatile and has a very broad range of applications in biology and medicine. It covers diffuse optical tomography, fluorescence diffuse optical tomography, bioluminescence and a number of other new imaging methods. These methods of diffuse optical imaging have diversified instrument configurations, but share the same core physical principle: light propagation in highly diffusive media, i.e., biological tissue. In this review, the author summarizes the latest development in instrumentation and methodology available to diffuse optical imaging in terms of system architecture, light source, photo-detection, spectral separation, signal modulation and, lastly, imaging contrast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Optics and Optical Imaging)

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