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Special Issue "I3S 2017 Selected Papers"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault

Institute of Analytical Sciences, UMR CNRS 5280, Department LSA, 5 Rue de La Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne, France
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +33472448306
Fax: +33 472 43 12 06
Interests: biosensors; impedance; immunosensors; conductometric sensors; enzymatic sensors; affinity sensors
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Evgeny Katz

Department of Chemistry & Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Box 5810, Potsdam, New York 13699-5810, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 1-315-268-4421
Fax: +1 315 268 6610
Interests: bioelectronics; bionanotechnology; bioelectrochemistry; biosensors; enzymes; self-assembling; monolayers; modified electrodes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue was created in collaboration with the 5th International Symposium on Sensor Science (I3S 2017), held from 27 to 29 September 2017 in Barcelona, Spain. It comprises 5 topical sessions that covers the most exciting aspects of sensor science (see below for a list of topics). The conference participants are cordially invited to contribute a full manuscript to this special issue.

Session 1: Biosensors
Session Chair: Prof. Dr. Evgeny Katz, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA

Session 2: Chemosensors
Session Chair: Prof. Dr. Vladimir M. Mirsky, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus, Senftenberg, Germany

Session 3: Bio-inspired and Bio-based Strategies for Sensing and Fluidics
Session Chair: Prof. Dr. Dermot Diamond, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland

Session 4: Sensors for Structures
Session Chair: Prof. Dr. Jandro L. Abot, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC, USA

Session 5: Sensor Applications
Session Chair: Dr. Stefano Mariani, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy

Prof. Dr. Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault
Prof. Dr. Evgeny Katz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (27 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle UAV Visual and Laser Sensors Fusion for Detection and Positioning in Industrial Applications
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2071; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072071
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 24 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
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Abstract
This work presents a solution to localize Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles with respect to pipes and other cylindrical elements found in inspection and maintenance tasks both in industrial and civilian infrastructures. The proposed system exploits the different features of vision and laser based sensors,
[...] Read more.
This work presents a solution to localize Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles with respect to pipes and other cylindrical elements found in inspection and maintenance tasks both in industrial and civilian infrastructures. The proposed system exploits the different features of vision and laser based sensors, combining them to obtain accurate positioning of the robot with respect to the cylindrical structures. A probabilistic (RANSAC-based) procedure is used to segment possible cylinders found in the laser scans, and this is used as a seed to accurately determine the robot position through a computer vision system. The priors obtained from the laser scan registration help to solve the problem of determining the apparent contour of the cylinders. In turn this apparent contour is used in a degenerate quadratic conic estimation, enabling to visually estimate the pose of the cylinder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Multivariate Analysis as a Tool to Identify Concentrations from Strongly Overlapping Gas Spectra
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1562; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051562
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
We applied a multivariate analysis (MVA) to spectroscopic data of gas mixtures in the mid-IR in order to calculate the concentrations of the single components which exhibit strongly overlapping absorption spectra. This is a common challenge in broadband spectroscopy. Photoacoustic (PA) measurements of
[...] Read more.
We applied a multivariate analysis (MVA) to spectroscopic data of gas mixtures in the mid-IR in order to calculate the concentrations of the single components which exhibit strongly overlapping absorption spectra. This is a common challenge in broadband spectroscopy. Photoacoustic (PA) measurements of different volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the wavelength region of 3250 nm to 3550 nm served as the exemplary detection technique. Partial least squares regression (PLS) was used to calculate concentrations from the PA spectra. After calibration, the PLS model was able to determine concentrations of single VOCs with a relative accuracy of 2.60%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Self-Tuning Method for Increased Obstacle Detection Reliability Based on Internet of Things LiDAR Sensor Models
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051508
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (36479 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On-chip LiDAR sensors for vehicle collision avoidance are a rapidly expanding area of research and development. The assessment of reliable obstacle detection using data collected by LiDAR sensors has become a key issue that the scientific community is actively exploring. The design of
[...] Read more.
On-chip LiDAR sensors for vehicle collision avoidance are a rapidly expanding area of research and development. The assessment of reliable obstacle detection using data collected by LiDAR sensors has become a key issue that the scientific community is actively exploring. The design of a self-tuning methodology and its implementation are presented in this paper, to maximize the reliability of LiDAR sensors network for obstacle detection in the ‘Internet of Things’ (IoT) mobility scenarios. The Webots Automobile 3D simulation tool for emulating sensor interaction in complex driving environments is selected in order to achieve that objective. Furthermore, a model-based framework is defined that employs a point-cloud clustering technique, and an error-based prediction model library that is composed of a multilayer perceptron neural network, and k-nearest neighbors and linear regression models. Finally, a reinforcement learning technique, specifically a Q-learning method, is implemented to determine the number of LiDAR sensors that are required to increase sensor reliability for obstacle localization tasks. In addition, a IoT driving assistance user scenario, connecting a five LiDAR sensor network is designed and implemented to validate the accuracy of the computational intelligence-based framework. The results demonstrated that the self-tuning method is an appropriate strategy to increase the reliability of the sensor network while minimizing detection thresholds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Application of a Portable Multi-Analyte Biosensor for Organic Acid Determination in Silage
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051470
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2728 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multi-analyte biosensors may offer the opportunity to perform cost-effective and rapid analysis with reduced sample volume, as compared to electrochemical biosensing of each analyte individually. This work describes the development of an enzyme-based biosensor system for multi-parametric determination of four different organic acids.
[...] Read more.
Multi-analyte biosensors may offer the opportunity to perform cost-effective and rapid analysis with reduced sample volume, as compared to electrochemical biosensing of each analyte individually. This work describes the development of an enzyme-based biosensor system for multi-parametric determination of four different organic acids. The biosensor array comprises five working electrodes for simultaneous sensing of ethanol, formate, d-lactate, and l-lactate, and an integrated counter electrode. Storage stability of the biosensor was evaluated under different conditions (stored at +4 °C in buffer solution and dry at −21 °C, +4 °C, and room temperature) over a period of 140 days. After repeated and regular application, the individual sensing electrodes exhibited the best stability when stored at −21 °C. Furthermore, measurements in silage samples (maize and sugarcane silage) were conducted with the portable biosensor system. Comparison with a conventional photometric technique demonstrated successful employment for rapid monitoring of complex media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Feasibility Study on S-Band Microwave Radiation and 3D-Thermal Infrared Imaging Sensor-Aided Recognition of Polymer Materials from End-of-Life Vehicles
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1355; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051355
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
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Abstract
With the increase the worldwide consumption of vehicles, end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) have kept rapidly increasing in the last two decades. Metallic parts and materials of ELVs can be easily reused and recycled, but the automobile shredder residues (ASRs), of which elastomer and plastic
[...] Read more.
With the increase the worldwide consumption of vehicles, end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) have kept rapidly increasing in the last two decades. Metallic parts and materials of ELVs can be easily reused and recycled, but the automobile shredder residues (ASRs), of which elastomer and plastic materials make up the vast majority, are difficult to recycle. ASRs are classified as hazardous materials in the main industrial countries, and are required to be materially recycled up to 85–95% by mass until 2020. However, there is neither sufficient theoretical nor practical experience for sorting ASR polymers. In this research, we provide a novel method by using S-Band microwave irradiation together with 3D scanning as well as infrared thermal imaging sensors for the recognition and sorting of typical plastics and elastomers from the ASR mixture. In this study, an industrial magnetron array with 2.45 GHz irradiation was utilized as the microwave source. Seven kinds of ELV polymer (PVC, ABS, PP, EPDM, NBR, CR, and SBR) crushed scrap residues were tested. After specific power microwave irradiation for a certain time, the tested polymer materials were heated up to different extents corresponding to their respective sensitivities to microwave irradiation. Due to the variations in polymer chemical structure and additive agents, polymers have different sensitivities to microwave radiation, which leads to differences in temperature rises. The differences of temperature increase were obtained by a thermal infrared sensor, and the position and geometrical features of the tested scraps were acquired by a 3D imaging sensor. With this information, the scrap material could be recognized and then sorted. The results showed that this method was effective when the tested polymer materials were heated up to more than 30 °C. For full recognition of the tested polymer scraps, the minimum temperature variations of 5 °C and 10.5 °C for plastics and elastomers were needed, respectively. The sorting efficiency was independent of particle sizes but depended on the power and time of the microwave irradiation. Generally, more than 75% (mass) of the tested polymer materials could be successfully recognized and sorted under an irradiation power of 3 kW. Plastics were much more insensitive to microwave irradiation than elastomers. With this method, the tested mixture of the plastic group (PVC, ABS, PP) and the mixture of elastomer group (EPDM, NBR, CR, and SBR) could be fully separated with an efficiency of 100%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Cooperative Monocular-Based SLAM for Multi-UAV Systems in GPS-Denied Environments
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1351; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051351
Received: 21 January 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents a cooperative monocular-based SLAM approach for multi-UAV systems that can operate in GPS-denied environments. The main contribution of the work is to show that, using visual information obtained from monocular cameras mounted onboard aerial vehicles flying in formation, the observability
[...] Read more.
This work presents a cooperative monocular-based SLAM approach for multi-UAV systems that can operate in GPS-denied environments. The main contribution of the work is to show that, using visual information obtained from monocular cameras mounted onboard aerial vehicles flying in formation, the observability properties of the whole system are improved. This fact is especially notorious when compared with other related visual SLAM configurations. In order to improve the observability properties, some measurements of the relative distance between the UAVs are included in the system. These relative distances are also obtained from visual information. The proposed approach is theoretically validated by means of a nonlinear observability analysis. Furthermore, an extensive set of computer simulations is presented in order to validate the proposed approach. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed system is able to provide a good position and orientation estimation of the aerial vehicles flying in formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Label-Free QCM Immunosensor for the Detection of Ochratoxin A
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1161; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041161
Received: 3 February 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3459 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent mycotoxin that poses a risk in food and feed moieties and subject to worldwide regulation. Laboratory-based analytical methods are traditionally employed for reliable OTA quantification, but these methods cannot provide rapid and on-site analysis, where biosensors fill
[...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent mycotoxin that poses a risk in food and feed moieties and subject to worldwide regulation. Laboratory-based analytical methods are traditionally employed for reliable OTA quantification, but these methods cannot provide rapid and on-site analysis, where biosensors fill this gap. In this study a label-free quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based immunosensor for the detection of OTA, which is one of the most important small molecule contaminants, was developed by direct immobilization of OTA to amine-bearing sensor surfaces using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)/N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry. The protein-free sensor surface enabled regeneration of sensor surface with 50 mM NaOH and 1% SDS up to 13 times without loss of performance, which would disrupt a protein-containing sensor surface. We developed a QCM immunosensor using the developed sensor surface with a 17.2–200 ng/mL detection range which can be used for on-site detection of feedstuffs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Micro-Capillary Coatings Based on Spiropyran Polymeric Brushes for Metal Ion Binding, Detection, and Release in Continuous Flow
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041083
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
Micro-capillaries, capable of light-regulated binding and qualitative detection of divalent metal ions in continuous flow, have been realised through functionalisation with spiropyran photochromic brush-type coatings. Upon irradiation with UV light, the coating switches from the passive non-binding spiropyran form to the active merocyanine
[...] Read more.
Micro-capillaries, capable of light-regulated binding and qualitative detection of divalent metal ions in continuous flow, have been realised through functionalisation with spiropyran photochromic brush-type coatings. Upon irradiation with UV light, the coating switches from the passive non-binding spiropyran form to the active merocyanine form, which binds different divalent metal ions (Zn2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Cd2+), as they pass through the micro-capillary. Furthermore, the merocyanine visible absorbance spectrum changes upon metal ion binding, enabling the ion uptake to be detected optically. Irradiation with white light causes reversion of the merocyanine to the passive spiropyran form, with simultaneous release of the bound metal ion from the micro-capillary coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Sensor-Based Optimized Control of the Full Load Instability in Large Hydraulic Turbines
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041038
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
Hydropower plants are of paramount importance for the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources in the power grid. In order to match the energy generated and consumed, Large hydraulic turbines have to work under off-design conditions, which may lead to dangerous unstable operating
[...] Read more.
Hydropower plants are of paramount importance for the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources in the power grid. In order to match the energy generated and consumed, Large hydraulic turbines have to work under off-design conditions, which may lead to dangerous unstable operating points involving the hydraulic, mechanical and electrical system. Under these conditions, the stability of the grid and the safety of the power plant itself can be compromised. For many Francis Turbines one of these critical points, that usually limits the maximum output power, is the full load instability. Therefore, these machines usually work far away from this unstable point, reducing the effective operating range of the unit. In order to extend the operating range of the machine, working closer to this point with a reasonable safety margin, it is of paramount importance to monitor and to control relevant parameters of the unit, which have to be obtained with an accurate sensor acquisition strategy. Within the framework of a large EU project, field tests in a large Francis Turbine located in Canada (rated power of 444 MW) have been performed. Many different sensors were used to monitor several working parameters of the unit for all its operating range. Particularly for these tests, more than 80 signals, including ten type of different sensors and several operating signals that define the operating point of the unit, were simultaneously acquired. The present study, focuses on the optimization of the acquisition strategy, which includes type, number, location, acquisition frequency of the sensors and corresponding signal analysis to detect the full load instability and to prevent the unit from reaching this point. A systematic approach to determine this strategy has been followed. It has been found that some indicators obtained with different types of sensors are linearly correlated with the oscillating power. The optimized strategy has been determined based on the correlation characteristics (linearity, sensitivity and reactivity), the simplicity of the installation and the acquisition frequency necessary. Finally, an economic and easy implementable protection system based on the resulting optimized acquisition strategy is proposed. This system, which can be used in a generic Francis turbine with a similar full load instability, permits one to extend the operating range of the unit by working close to the instability with a reasonable safety margin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Printing and Folding: A Solution for High-Throughput Processing of Organic Thin-Film Thermoelectric Devices
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18040989
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (37663 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wearable electronics are rapidly expanding, especially in applications like health monitoring through medical sensors and body area networks (BANs). Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) have been the main candidate among the different types of energy harvesting methods for body-mounted or even implantable sensors. Introducing new
[...] Read more.
Wearable electronics are rapidly expanding, especially in applications like health monitoring through medical sensors and body area networks (BANs). Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) have been the main candidate among the different types of energy harvesting methods for body-mounted or even implantable sensors. Introducing new semiconductor materials like organic thermoelectric materials and advancing manufacturing techniques are paving the way to overcome the barriers associated with the bulky and inflexible nature of the common TEGs and are making it possible to fabricate flexible and biocompatible modules. Yet, the lower efficiency of these materials in comparison with bulk-inorganic counterparts as well as applying them mostly in the form of thin layers on flexible substrates limits their applications. This research aims to improve the functionality of thin and flexible organic thermoelectric generators (OTEs) by utilizing a novel design concept inspired by origami. The effects of critical geometric parameters are investigated using COMSOL Multiphysics to further prove the concept of printing and folding as an approach for the system level optimization of printed thin film TEGs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Novel Laser and Video-Based Displacement Transducer to Monitor Bridge Deflections
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18040970
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 25 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The measurement of static vertical deflections on bridges continues to be a first-level technological challenge. These data are of great interest, especially for the case of long-term bridge monitoring; in fact, they are perhaps more valuable than any other measurable parameter. This is
[...] Read more.
The measurement of static vertical deflections on bridges continues to be a first-level technological challenge. These data are of great interest, especially for the case of long-term bridge monitoring; in fact, they are perhaps more valuable than any other measurable parameter. This is because material degradation processes and changes of the mechanical properties of the structure due to aging (for example creep and shrinkage in concrete bridges) have a direct impact on the exhibited static vertical deflections. This paper introduces and evaluates an approach to monitor displacements and rotations of structures using a novel laser and video-based displacement transducer (LVBDT). The proposed system combines the use of laser beams, LED lights, and a digital video camera, and was especially designed to capture static and slow-varying displacements. Contrary to other video-based approaches, the camera is located on the bridge, hence allowing to capture displacements at one location. Subsequently, the sensing approach and the procedure to estimate displacements and the rotations are described. Additionally, laboratory and in-service field testing carried out to validate the system are presented and discussed. The results demonstrate that the proposed sensing approach is robust, accurate, and reliable, and also inexpensive, which are essential for field implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Gas Sensing Properties of p-Co3O4/n-TiO2 Nanotube Heterostructures
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18040956
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (46764 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we fabricated p-Co3O4/n-TiO2 heterostructures and investigated their gas sensing properties. The structural and morphological characterization were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS). The electrical properties of
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we fabricated p-Co3O4/n-TiO2 heterostructures and investigated their gas sensing properties. The structural and morphological characterization were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS). The electrical properties of the heterostructure were studied within the temperature range from 293 K to 423 K. Changes in electrical properties and sensing behavior against reducing and oxidizing gases were attributed to the formation of p–n heterojunctions at the Co3O4 and TiO2 interface. In comparison with sensing performed with pristine TiO2 nanotubes (NTs), a significant improvement in H2 sensing at 200 °C was observed, while the sensing response against NO2 decreased for the heterostructures. Additionally, a response against toluene gas, in contrast to pristine TiO2 NTs, appeared in the Co3O4/TiO2 heterostructure samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle A Study on the Impact of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Chain Length and Other Applied Side-Chains on the NO2 Sensing Properties of Conducting Graft Copolymers
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030928
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4002 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The detection and concentration measurements of low concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are important because of its negative effects on human health and its application in many fields of industry and safety systems. In our approach, conducting graft copolymers based on
[...] Read more.
The detection and concentration measurements of low concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are important because of its negative effects on human health and its application in many fields of industry and safety systems. In our approach, conducting graft copolymers based on the poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) conducting polymer and other side-chains, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dodec-1-en, grafted on a poly(methylhydrosiloxane) backbone, were investigated. The grafts containing PEG (PEGSil) and dodec-1-en (DodecSil) in two variants, namely, fractions with shorter (hexane fraction -H) and longer (chloroform fraction -CH) side-chains of P3HT, were tested as receptor structures in NO2 gas sensors. Their responses to NO2, within the concentration range of 1–20 ppm, were investigated in an nitrogen atmosphere at different operating temperatures—room temperature (RT) = 25 °C, 50 °C, and 100 °C. The results indicated that both of the copolymers with PEG side-chains had higher responses to NO2 than the materials with dodec-1-en side-chains. Furthermore, the results indicated that, in both cases, H fractions were more sensitive than CH fractions. The highest response to 1 ppm of NO2, from the investigated graft copolymers, had PEGSil H, which indicated a response of 1330% at RT and 1980% at 100 °C. The calculated lower-limit of the detection of this material is lower than 300 ppb of NO2 at 100 °C. This research indicated that graft copolymers of P3HT had great potential for low temperature NO2 sensing, and that the proper choice of other side-chains in graft copolymers can improve their gas sensing properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle A Low-Cost Tracking System for Running Race Applications Based on Bluetooth Low Energy Technology
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030922
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
Timing points used in running races and other competition events are generally based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology. Athletes’ times are calculated via passive RFID tags and reader kits. Specifically, the reader infrastructure needed is complex and requires the deployment of a mat
[...] Read more.
Timing points used in running races and other competition events are generally based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology. Athletes’ times are calculated via passive RFID tags and reader kits. Specifically, the reader infrastructure needed is complex and requires the deployment of a mat or ramps which hide the receiver antennae under them. Moreover, with the employed tags, it is not possible to transmit additional and dynamic information such as pulse or oximetry monitoring, alarms, etc. In this paper we present a system based on two low complex schemes allowed in Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE): the non-connectable undirected advertisement process and a modified version of scannable undirected advertisement process using the new capabilities present in Bluetooth 5. After fully describing the system architecture, which allows full real-time position monitoring of the runners using mobile phones on the organizer side and BLE sensors on the participants’ side, we derive the mobility patterns of runners and capacity requirements, which are determinant for evaluating the performance of the proposed system. They have been obtained from the analysis of the real data measured in the last Barcelona Marathon. By means of simulations, we demonstrate that, even under disadvantageous conditions (50% error ratio), both schemes perform reliably and are able to detect the 100% of the participants in all the cases. The cell coverage of the system needs to be adjusted when non-connectable process is considered. Nevertheless, through simulation and experimental, we show that the proposed scheme based on the new events available in Bluetooth 5 is clearly the best implementation alternative for all the cases, no matter the coverage area and the runner speed. The proposal widely exceeds the detection requirements of the real scenario, surpassing the measured peaks of 20 sensors per second incoming in the coverage area, moving at speeds that range from 1.5 m/s to 6.25 m/s. The designed real test-bed shows that the scheme is able to detect 72 sensors below 600 ms, fulfilling comfortably the requirements determined for the intended application. The main disadvantage of this system would be that the sensors are active, but we have proved that its consumption can be so low (9.5 µA) that, with a typical button cell, the sensor battery life would be over 10,000 h of use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Access Control Mechanism for IoT Environments Based on Modelling Communication Procedures as Resources
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030917
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 18 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
PDF Full-text (665 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Internet growth has generated new types of services where the use of sensors and actuators is especially remarkable. These services compose what is known as the Internet of Things (IoT). One of the biggest current challenges is obtaining a safe and easy access
[...] Read more.
Internet growth has generated new types of services where the use of sensors and actuators is especially remarkable. These services compose what is known as the Internet of Things (IoT). One of the biggest current challenges is obtaining a safe and easy access control scheme for the data managed in these services. We propose integrating IoT devices in an access control system designed for Web-based services by modelling certain IoT communication elements as resources. This would allow us to obtain a unified access control scheme between heterogeneous devices (IoT devices, Internet-based services, etc.). To achieve this, we have analysed the most relevant communication protocols for these kinds of environments and then we have proposed a methodology which allows the modelling of communication actions as resources. Then, we can protect these resources using access control mechanisms. The validation of our proposal has been carried out by selecting a communication protocol based on message exchange, specifically Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT). As an access control scheme, we have selected User-Managed Access (UMA), an existing Open Authorization (OAuth) 2.0 profile originally developed for the protection of Internet services. We have performed tests focused on validating the proposed solution in terms of the correctness of the access control system. Finally, we have evaluated the energy consumption overhead when using our proposal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Method of the Determination of Exterior Orientation of Sensors in Hilbert Type Space
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030891
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
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Abstract
The following article presents a new isometric transformation algorithm based on the transformation in the newly normed Hilbert type space. The presented method is based on so-called virtual translations, already known in advance, of two relative oblique orthogonal coordinate systems—interior and exterior orientation
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The following article presents a new isometric transformation algorithm based on the transformation in the newly normed Hilbert type space. The presented method is based on so-called virtual translations, already known in advance, of two relative oblique orthogonal coordinate systems—interior and exterior orientation of sensors—to a common, known in both systems, point. Each of the systems is translated along its axis (the systems have common origins) and at the same time the angular relative orientation of both coordinate systems is constant. The translation of both coordinate systems is defined by the spatial norm determining the length of vectors in the new Hilbert type space. As such, the displacement of two relative oblique orthogonal systems is reduced to zero. This makes it possible to directly calculate the rotation matrix of the sensor. The next and final step is the return translation of the system along an already known track. The method can be used for big rotation angles. The method was verified in laboratory conditions for the test data set and measurement data (field data). The accuracy of the results in the laboratory test is on the level of 10−6 of the input data. This confirmed the correctness of the assumed calculation method. The method is a further development of the author’s 2017 Total Free Station (TFS) transformation to several centroids in Hilbert type space. This is the reason why the method is called Multi-Centroid Isometric Transformation—MCIT. MCIT is very fast and enables, by reducing to zero the translation of two relative oblique orthogonal coordinate systems, direct calculation of the exterior orientation of the sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Single-Step Incubation Determination of miRNAs in Cancer Cells Using an Amperometric Biosensor Based on Competitive Hybridization onto Magnetic Beads
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030863
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
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Abstract
This work reports an amperometric biosensor for the determination of miRNA-21, a relevant oncogene. The methodology involves a competitive DNA-target miRNA hybridization assay performed on the surface of magnetic microbeads (MBs) and amperometric transduction at screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). The target miRNA competes
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This work reports an amperometric biosensor for the determination of miRNA-21, a relevant oncogene. The methodology involves a competitive DNA-target miRNA hybridization assay performed on the surface of magnetic microbeads (MBs) and amperometric transduction at screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). The target miRNA competes with a synthetic fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-modified miRNA with an identical sequence for hybridization with a biotinylated and complementary DNA probe (b-Cp) immobilized on the surface of streptavidin-modified MBs (b-Cp-MBs). Upon labeling, the FITC-modified miRNA attached to the MBs with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-FITC Fab fragments and magnetic capturing of the MBs onto the working electrode surface of SPCEs. The cathodic current measured at −0.20 V (versus the Ag pseudo-reference electrode) was demonstrated to be inversely proportional to the concentration of the target miRNA. This convenient biosensing method provided a linear range between 0.7 and 10.0 nM and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.2 nM (5 fmol in 25 μL of sample) for the synthetic target miRNA without any amplification step. An acceptable selectivity towards single-base mismatched oligonucleotides, a high storage stability of the b-Cp-MBs, and usefulness for the accurate determination of miRNA-21 in raw total RNA (RNAt) extracted from breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Segmentation of Oil Spills on Side-Looking Airborne Radar Imagery with Autoencoders
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030797
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 4 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
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Abstract
In this work, we use deep neural autoencoders to segment oil spills from Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) imagery. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been much exploited for ocean surface monitoring, especially for oil pollution detection, but few approaches in the literature use SLAR.
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In this work, we use deep neural autoencoders to segment oil spills from Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) imagery. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been much exploited for ocean surface monitoring, especially for oil pollution detection, but few approaches in the literature use SLAR. Our sensor consists of two SAR antennas mounted on an aircraft, enabling a quicker response than satellite sensors for emergency services when an oil spill occurs. Experiments on TERMA radar were carried out to detect oil spills on Spanish coasts using deep selectional autoencoders and RED-nets (very deep Residual Encoder-Decoder Networks). Different configurations of these networks were evaluated and the best topology significantly outperformed previous approaches, correctly detecting 100% of the spills and obtaining an F 1 score of 93.01% at the pixel level. The proposed autoencoders perform accurately in SLAR imagery that has artifacts and noise caused by the aircraft maneuvers, in different weather conditions and with the presence of look-alikes due to natural phenomena such as shoals of fish and seaweed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Redox Cycling Realized in Paper-Based Biochemical Sensor for Selective Detection of Reversible Redox Molecules Without Micro/Nano Fabrication Process
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030730
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 24 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
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Abstract
This paper describes a paper-based biochemical sensor that realizes redox cycling with close interelectrode distance. Two electrodes, the generator and collector electrodes, can detect steady-state oxidation and reduction currents when suitable potential is held at each electrode. The sensor has two gold plates
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This paper describes a paper-based biochemical sensor that realizes redox cycling with close interelectrode distance. Two electrodes, the generator and collector electrodes, can detect steady-state oxidation and reduction currents when suitable potential is held at each electrode. The sensor has two gold plates on both sides of a piece of chromatography paper and defines the interelectrode distance by the thickness of the paper (180 μm) without any micro-fabrication processes. Our proposed sensor geometry has successfully exhibited signatures of redox cycling. As a result, the concentration of ferrocyanide as reversible redox molecules was successfully quantified under the interference by ascorbic acid as a strong irreversible reducing agent. This was possible because the ascorbic acids are completely consumed by the irreversible reaction, while maintaining redox cycling of reversible ferrocyanide. This suggests that a sensor based on the redox cycling method will be suitable for detecting target molecules at low concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020606
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
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Abstract
Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a
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Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO) procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Improvement in Limit of Detection of Enzymatic Biogas Sensor Utilizing Chromatography Paper for Breath Analysis
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020440
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
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Abstract
Breath analysis is considered to be an effective method for point-of-care diagnosis due to its noninvasiveness, quickness and simplicity. Gas sensors for breath analysis require detection of low-concentration substances. In this paper, we propose that reduction of the background current improves the limit
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Breath analysis is considered to be an effective method for point-of-care diagnosis due to its noninvasiveness, quickness and simplicity. Gas sensors for breath analysis require detection of low-concentration substances. In this paper, we propose that reduction of the background current improves the limit of detection of enzymatic biogas sensors utilizing chromatography paper. After clarifying the cause of the background current, we reduced the background current by improving the fabrication process of the sensors utilizing paper. Finally, we evaluated the limit of detection of the sensor with the sample vapor of ethanol gas. The experiment showed about a 50% reduction of the limit of detection compared to previously-reported sensor. This result presents the possibility of the sensor being applied in diagnosis, such as for diabetes, by further lowering the limit of detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Label-Free Aptasensor for Lysozyme Detection Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020354
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
This research develops a label-free aptamer biosensor (aptasensor) based on graphite-epoxy composite electrodes (GECs) for the detection of lysozyme protein using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The chosen immobilization technique was based on covalent bonding using carbodiimide chemistry; for this purpose, carboxylic moieties
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This research develops a label-free aptamer biosensor (aptasensor) based on graphite-epoxy composite electrodes (GECs) for the detection of lysozyme protein using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The chosen immobilization technique was based on covalent bonding using carbodiimide chemistry; for this purpose, carboxylic moieties were first generated on the graphite by electrochemical grafting. The detection was performed using [Fe(CN)6]3−/[Fe(CN)6]4− as redox probe. After recording the frequency response, values were fitted to its electric model using the principle of equivalent circuits. The aptasensor showed a linear response up to 5 µM for lysozyme and a limit of detection of 1.67 µM. The sensitivity of the established method was 0.090 µM−1 in relative charge transfer resistance values. The interference response by main proteins, such as bovine serum albumin and cytochrome c, has been also characterized. To finally verify the performance of the developed aptasensor, it was applied to wine analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical Structural Design of a MEMS-Based Piezoresistive Accelerometer for Head Injuries Monitoring: A Computational Analysis by Increments of the Sensor Mass Moment of Inertia
Sensors 2018, 18(1), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010289
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
This work focuses on the proof-mass mechanical structural design improvement of a tri-axial piezoresistive accelerometer specifically designed for head injuries monitoring where medium-G impacts are common; for example, in sports such as racing cars or American Football. The device requires the highest sensitivity
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This work focuses on the proof-mass mechanical structural design improvement of a tri-axial piezoresistive accelerometer specifically designed for head injuries monitoring where medium-G impacts are common; for example, in sports such as racing cars or American Football. The device requires the highest sensitivity achievable with a single proof-mass approach, and a very low error (<1%) as the accuracy for these types of applications is paramount. The optimization method differs from previous work as it is based on the progressive increment of the sensor proof-mass mass moment of inertia (MMI) in all three axes. Three different designs are presented in this study, where at each step of design evolution, the MMI of the sensor proof-mass gradually increases in all axes. The work numerically demonstrates that an increment of MMI determines an increment of device sensitivity with a simultaneous reduction of cross-axis sensitivity in the particular axis under study. This is due to the linkage between the external applied stress and the distribution of mass (of the proof-mass), and therefore of its mass moment of inertia. Progressively concentrating the mass on the axes where the piezoresistors are located (i.e., x- and y-axis) by increasing the MMI in the x- and y-axis, will undoubtedly increase the longitudinal stresses applied in that areas for a given external acceleration, therefore increasing the piezoresistors fractional resistance change and eventually positively affecting the sensor sensitivity. The final device shows a sensitivity increase of about 80% in the z-axis and a reduction of cross-axis sensitivity of 18% respect to state-of-art sensors available in the literature from a previous work of the authors. Sensor design, modelling, and optimization are presented, concluding the work with results, discussion, and conclusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Feasibility of Detecting Natural Frequencies of Hydraulic Turbines While in Operation, Using Strain Gauges
Sensors 2018, 18(1), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010174
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
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Abstract
Nowadays, hydropower plays an essential role in the energy market. Due to their fast response and regulation capacity, hydraulic turbines operate at off-design conditions with a high number of starts and stops. In this situation, dynamic loads and stresses over the structure are
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Nowadays, hydropower plays an essential role in the energy market. Due to their fast response and regulation capacity, hydraulic turbines operate at off-design conditions with a high number of starts and stops. In this situation, dynamic loads and stresses over the structure are high, registering some failures over time, especially in the runner. Therefore, it is important to know the dynamic response of the runner while in operation, i.e., the natural frequencies, damping and mode shapes, in order to avoid resonance and fatigue problems. Detecting the natural frequencies of hydraulic turbine runners while in operation is challenging, because they are inaccessible structures strongly affected by their confinement in water. Strain gauges are used to measure the stresses of hydraulic turbine runners in operation during commissioning. However, in this paper, the feasibility of using them to detect the natural frequencies of hydraulic turbines runners while in operation is studied. For this purpose, a large Francis turbine runner (444 MW) was instrumented with several strain gauges at different positions. First, a complete experimental strain modal testing (SMT) of the runner in air was performed using the strain gauges and accelerometers. Then, the natural frequencies of the runner were estimated during operation by means of analyzing accurately transient events or rough operating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Amplified Detection of the Aptamer–Vanillin Complex with the Use of Bsm DNA Polymerase
Sensors 2018, 18(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010049
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2022 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The electrochemical detection of interactions between aptamers and low-molecular-weight targets often lacks sensitivity. Signal amplification improves the detection of the aptamer-analyte complex; Bsm DNA polymerase was used to amplify the signal from the interaction of vanillin and its aptamer named Van_74 on an
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The electrochemical detection of interactions between aptamers and low-molecular-weight targets often lacks sensitivity. Signal amplification improves the detection of the aptamer-analyte complex; Bsm DNA polymerase was used to amplify the signal from the interaction of vanillin and its aptamer named Van_74 on an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET)-based biosensor. The aptamer was immobilized on the ISFET sensitive surface. A short DNA probe was hybridized with the aptamer and dissociated from it upon vanillin addition. A free probe interacted with a special DNA molecular beacon initiated the Bsm DNA polymerase reaction that was detected by ISFET. A buffer solution suitable for both aptamer action and Bsm DNA polymerase activity was determined. The ISFET was shown to detect the Bsm DNA polymerase reaction under the selected conditions. Vanillin at different concentrations (1 × 10−6–1 × 10−8 M) was detected using the biosensor with signal amplification. The developed detection system allowed for the determination of vanillin, starting at a 10−8 M concentration. Application of the Bsm DNA polymerase resulted in a 15.5 times lower LoD when compared to the biosensor without signal amplification (10.1007/s00604-017-2586-4). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Analytical Parameters of an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor for Fast Analysis in Food Samples
Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2620; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17112620
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1817 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Amperometric biosensors based on the use of glucose oxidase (GOx) are able to combine the robustness of electrochemical techniques with the specificity of biological recognition processes. However, very little information can be found in literature about the fundamental analytical parameters of these sensors.
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Amperometric biosensors based on the use of glucose oxidase (GOx) are able to combine the robustness of electrochemical techniques with the specificity of biological recognition processes. However, very little information can be found in literature about the fundamental analytical parameters of these sensors. In this work, the analytical behavior of an amperometric biosensor based on the immobilization of GOx using a hydrogel (Chitosan) onto highly ordered titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TiO2NTAs) has been evaluated. The GOx–Chitosan/TiO2NTAs biosensor showed a sensitivity of 5.46 μA·mM−1 with a linear range from 0.3 to 1.5 mM; its fundamental analytical parameters were studied using a commercial soft drink. The obtained results proved sufficient repeatability (RSD = 1.9%), reproducibility (RSD = 2.5%), accuracy (95–105% recovery), and robustness (RSD = 3.3%). Furthermore, no significant interferences from fructose, ascorbic acid and citric acid were obtained. In addition, the storage stability was further examined, after 30 days, the GOx–Chitosan/TiO2NTAs biosensor retained 85% of its initial current response. Finally, the glucose content of different food samples was measured using the biosensor and compared with the respective HPLC value. In the worst scenario, a deviation smaller than 10% was obtained among the 20 samples evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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Open AccessReview Direct Electron Transfer of Dehydrogenases for Development of 3rd Generation Biosensors and Enzymatic Fuel Cells
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051319
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
Dehydrogenase based bioelectrocatalysis has been increasingly exploited in recent years in order to develop new bioelectrochemical devices, such as biosensors and biofuel cells, with improved performances. In some cases, dehydrogeases are able to directly exchange electrons with an appropriately designed electrode surface, without
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Dehydrogenase based bioelectrocatalysis has been increasingly exploited in recent years in order to develop new bioelectrochemical devices, such as biosensors and biofuel cells, with improved performances. In some cases, dehydrogeases are able to directly exchange electrons with an appropriately designed electrode surface, without the need for an added redox mediator, allowing bioelectrocatalysis based on a direct electron transfer process. In this review we briefly describe the electron transfer mechanism of dehydrogenase enzymes and some of the characteristics required for bioelectrocatalysis reactions via a direct electron transfer mechanism. Special attention is given to cellobiose dehydrogenase and fructose dehydrogenase, which showed efficient direct electron transfer reactions. An overview of the most recent biosensors and biofuel cells based on the two dehydrogenases will be presented. The various strategies to prepare modified electrodes in order to improve the electron transfer properties of the device will be carefully investigated and all analytical parameters will be presented, discussed and compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue I3S 2017 Selected Papers)
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