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Special Issue "Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Rezaul Begg

Leader: Gait and Balance Research Group, Director: Biomechanics Research Laboratory, College of Sport and Exercise Science (SES) and Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living (ISEAL), Victoria University, PO Box 14428, Melbourne, Vic 8001, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +61 3 9919 1116
Interests: gait analysis; biomechanics; computational intelligence; sensor technology; biomedical instrumentation; biosignal processing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, there has developed a considerable research interest in biomechanical and biomedical sensors and their inherent information processing techniques. This has led to many innovative applications in biomedicine and biomedical engineering. Such developments have also created exciting opportunities for solving a variety of complex problems in healthcare. The aim of this special issue is to present recent research findings on developments in the application of sensor- technologies to healthcare and human performance. In particular, the special issue will report on various sensor applications for measuring either the whole body or individual limbs. Authors are encouraged to submit manuscripts for publication on the following (but not limited to) areas:

  • Biosensors, sensor design, sensor fusion for improved diagnosis
  • Biomechanical sensors for health, human performance and biometrics
  • Smart sensors
  • Sensor signals and associated signal processing

Application areas (but not limited to):

  • Disease diagnosis e.g. Cardiovascular, neurological, musculoskeletal, gait, sleep apnea
  • Ageing healthcare e.g. Falls and injury prevention, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, dementia
  • Patient tracking and monitoring
  • Movement analysis and sports performance
  • Human computer interface

Prof. Dr. Rezaul K. Begg
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • biosensors
  • biomechanics
  • bioinstrumentation
  • movement analysis
  • signal processing
  • locomotion
  • rehabilitation
  • healthcare

Published Papers (36 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Energy-Efficiency Analysis of a Distributed Queuing Medium Access Control Protocol for Biomedical Wireless Sensor Networks in Saturation Conditions
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1277-1296; doi:10.3390/s110201277
Received: 15 December 2010 / Revised: 4 January 2011 / Accepted: 19 January 2011 / Published: 25 January 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aging population and the high quality of life expectations in our society lead to the need of more efficient and affordable healthcare solutions. For this reason, this paper aims for the optimization of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for biomedical wireless sensor
[...] Read more.
The aging population and the high quality of life expectations in our society lead to the need of more efficient and affordable healthcare solutions. For this reason, this paper aims for the optimization of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for biomedical wireless sensor networks or wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs). The hereby presented schemes always have in mind the efficient management of channel resources and the overall minimization of sensors’ energy consumption in order to prolong sensors’ battery life. The fact that the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC does not fully satisfy BSN requirements highlights the need for the design of new scalable MAC solutions, which guarantee low-power consumption to the maximum number of body sensors in high density areas (i.e., in saturation conditions). In order to emphasize IEEE 802.15.4 MAC limitations, this article presents a detailed overview of this de facto standard for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which serves as a link for the introduction and initial description of our here proposed Distributed Queuing (DQ) MAC protocol for BSN scenarios. Within this framework, an extensive DQ MAC energy-consumption analysis in saturation conditions is presented to be able to evaluate its performance in relation to IEEE 802.5.4 MAC in highly dense BSNs. The obtained results show that the proposed scheme outperforms IEEE 802.15.4 MAC in average energy consumption per information bit, thus providing a better overall performance that scales appropriately to BSNs under high traffic conditions. These benefits are obtained by eliminating back-off periods and collisions in data packet transmissions, while minimizing the control overhead. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
Open AccessArticle A New Tissue Resonator Indenter Device and Reliability Study
Sensors 2011, 11(1), 1212-1228; doi:10.3390/s110101212
Received: 29 November 2010 / Revised: 31 December 2010 / Accepted: 18 January 2011 / Published: 20 January 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Knowledge of tissue mechanical properties is widely required by medical applications, such as disease diagnostics, surgery operation, simulation, planning, and training. A new portable device, called Tissue Resonator Indenter Device (TRID), has been developed for measurement of regional viscoelastic properties of soft tissues
[...] Read more.
Knowledge of tissue mechanical properties is widely required by medical applications, such as disease diagnostics, surgery operation, simulation, planning, and training. A new portable device, called Tissue Resonator Indenter Device (TRID), has been developed for measurement of regional viscoelastic properties of soft tissues at the Bio-instrument and Biomechanics Lab of the University of Toronto. As a device for soft tissue properties in-vivo measurements, the reliability of TRID is crucial. This paper presents TRID’s working principle and the experimental study of TRID’s reliability with respect to inter-reliability, intra-reliability, and the indenter misalignment effect as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
Open AccessArticle Inference of the Activity Timeline of Cattle Foraging on a Mediterranean Woodland Using GPS and Pedometry
Sensors 2011, 11(1), 362-383; doi:10.3390/s110100362
Received: 10 November 2010 / Revised: 13 December 2010 / Accepted: 20 December 2010 / Published: 31 December 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (474 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) has transformed our ability to track livestock on rangelands. However, GPS data use would be greatly enhanced if we could also infer the activity timeline of an animal. We tested how well animal activity could
[...] Read more.
The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) has transformed our ability to track livestock on rangelands. However, GPS data use would be greatly enhanced if we could also infer the activity timeline of an animal. We tested how well animal activity could be inferred from data provided by Lotek GPS collars, alone or in conjunction with IceRobotics IceTag pedometers. The collars provide motion and head position data, as well as location. The pedometers count steps, measure activity levels, and differentiate between standing and lying positions. We gathered synchronized data at 5-min resolution, from GPS collars, pedometers, and human observers, for free-grazing cattle (n = 9) at the Hatal Research Station in northern Israel. Equations for inferring activity during 5-min intervals (n = 1,475), classified as Graze, Rest (or Lie and Stand separately), and Travel were derived by discriminant and partition (classification tree) analysis of data from each device separately and from both together. When activity was classified as Graze, Rest and Travel, the lowest overall misclassification rate (10%) was obtained when data from both devices together were subjected to partition analysis; separate misclassification rates were 8, 12, and 3% for Graze, Rest and Travel, respectively. When Rest was subdivided into Lie and Stand, the lowest overall misclassification rate (10%) was again obtained when data from both devices together were subjected to partition analysis; misclassification rates were 6, 1, 26, and 17% for Graze, Lie, Stand, and Travel, respectively. The primary problem was confusion between Rest (or Stand) and Graze. Overall, the combination of Lotek GPS collars with IceRobotics IceTag pedometers was found superior to either device alone in inferring animal activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle Sensory System for Implementing a Human—Computer Interface Based on Electrooculography
Sensors 2011, 11(1), 310-328; doi:10.3390/s110100310
Received: 7 November 2010 / Revised: 19 December 2010 / Accepted: 20 December 2010 / Published: 29 December 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes a sensory system for implementing a human–computer interface based on electrooculography. An acquisition system captures electrooculograms and transmits them via the ZigBee protocol. The data acquired are analysed in real time using a microcontroller-based platform running the Linux operating system.
[...] Read more.
This paper describes a sensory system for implementing a human–computer interface based on electrooculography. An acquisition system captures electrooculograms and transmits them via the ZigBee protocol. The data acquired are analysed in real time using a microcontroller-based platform running the Linux operating system. The continuous wavelet transform and neural network are used to process and analyse the signals to obtain highly reliable results in real time. To enhance system usability, the graphical interface is projected onto special eyewear, which is also used to position the signal-capturing electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle Sensing Pressure Distribution on a Lower-Limb Exoskeleton Physical Human-Machine Interface
Sensors 2011, 11(1), 207-227; doi:10.3390/s110100207
Received: 1 November 2010 / Revised: 22 November 2010 / Accepted: 24 December 2010 / Published: 28 December 2010
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (1299 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A sensory apparatus to monitor pressure distribution on the physical human-robot interface of lower-limb exoskeletons is presented. We propose a distributed measure of the interaction pressure over the whole contact area between the user and the machine as an alternative measurement method of
[...] Read more.
A sensory apparatus to monitor pressure distribution on the physical human-robot interface of lower-limb exoskeletons is presented. We propose a distributed measure of the interaction pressure over the whole contact area between the user and the machine as an alternative measurement method of human-robot interaction. To obtain this measure, an array of newly-developed soft silicone pressure sensors is inserted between the limb and the mechanical interface that connects the robot to the user, in direct contact with the wearer’s skin. Compared to state-of-the-art measures, the advantage of this approach is that it allows for a distributed measure of the interaction pressure, which could be useful for the assessment of safety and comfort of human-robot interaction. This paper presents the new sensor and its characterization, and the development of an interaction measurement apparatus, which is applied to a lower-limb rehabilitation robot. The system is calibrated, and an example its use during a prototypical gait training task is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle Biosensors for Brain Trauma and Dual Laser Doppler Flowmetry: Enoxaparin Simultaneously Reduces Stroke-Induced Dopamine and Blood Flow while Enhancing Serotonin and Blood Flow in Motor Neurons of Brain, In Vivo
Sensors 2011, 11(1), 138-161; doi:10.3390/s11010013
Received: 26 October 2010 / Revised: 18 November 2010 / Accepted: 6 December 2010 / Published: 24 December 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neuromolecular Imaging (NMI) based on adsorptive electrochemistry, combined with Dual Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is presented herein to investigate the brain neurochemistry affected by enoxaparin (Lovenox®), an antiplatelet/antithrombotic medication for stroke victims. NMI with miniature biosensors enables neurotransmitter and neuropeptide (NT)
[...] Read more.
Neuromolecular Imaging (NMI) based on adsorptive electrochemistry, combined with Dual Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is presented herein to investigate the brain neurochemistry affected by enoxaparin (Lovenox®), an antiplatelet/antithrombotic medication for stroke victims. NMI with miniature biosensors enables neurotransmitter and neuropeptide (NT) imaging; each NT is imaged with a response time in milliseconds. A semiderivative electronic reduction circuit images several NT’s selectively and separately within a response time of minutes. Spatial resolution of NMI biosensors is in the range of nanomicrons and electrochemically-induced current ranges are in pico- and nano-amperes. Simultaneously with NMI, the LDF technology presented herein operates on line by illuminating the living brain, in this example, in dorso-striatal neuroanatomic substrates via a laser sensor with low power laser light containing optical fiber light guides. NMI biotechnology with BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors has a distinct advantage over conventional electrochemical methodologies both in novelty of biosensor formulations and on-line imaging capabilities in the biosensor field. NMI with unique biocompatible biosensors precisely images NT in the body, blood and brain of animals and humans using characteristic experimentally derived half-wave potentials driven by oxidative electron transfer. Enoxaparin is a first line clinical treatment prescribed to halt the progression of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). In the present studies, BRODERICK PROBE® laurate biosensors and LDF laser sensors are placed in dorsal striatum (DStr) dopaminergic motor neurons in basal ganglia of brain in living animals; basal ganglia influence movement disorders such as those correlated with AIS. The purpose of these studies is to understand what is happening in brain neurochemistry and cerebral blood perfusion after causal AIS by middle cerebral artery occlusion in vivo as well as to understand consequent enoxaparin and reperfusion effects actually while enoxaparin is inhibiting blood clots to alleviate AIS symptomatology. This research is directly correlated with the medical and clinical needs of stroke victims. The data are clinically relevant, not only to movement dysfunction but also to the depressive mood that stroke patients often endure. These are the first studies to image brain neurotransmitters while any stroke medications, such as anti-platelet/ anti-thrombotic and/or anti-glycoprotein are working in organ systems to alleviate the debilitating consequences of brain trauma and stroke/brain attacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle Myocardial Motion Analysis for Determination of Tei-Index of Human Heart
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 11428-11439; doi:10.3390/s101211428
Received: 4 November 2010 / Revised: 24 November 2010 / Accepted: 8 December 2010 / Published: 13 December 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (675 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Tei index, an important indicator of heart function, lacks a direct method to compute because it is difficult to directly evaluate the isovolumic contraction time (ICT) and isovolumic relaxation time (IRT) from which the Tei index can be obtained. In this paper,
[...] Read more.
The Tei index, an important indicator of heart function, lacks a direct method to compute because it is difficult to directly evaluate the isovolumic contraction time (ICT) and isovolumic relaxation time (IRT) from which the Tei index can be obtained. In this paper, based on the proposed method of accurately measuring the cardiac cycle physical phase, a direct method of calculating the Tei index is presented. The experiments based on real heart medical images show the effectiveness of this method. Moreover, a new method of calculating left ventricular wall motion amplitude is proposed and the experiments show its satisfactory performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle Man-Machine Interface System for Neuromuscular Training and Evaluation Based on EMG and MMG Signals
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 11100-11125; doi:10.3390/s101211100
Received: 19 October 2010 / Revised: 22 November 2010 / Accepted: 25 November 2010 / Published: 7 December 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1060 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the UVa-NTS (University of Valladolid Neuromuscular Training System), a multifunction and portable Neuromuscular Training System. The UVa-NTS is designed to analyze the voluntary control of severe neuromotor handicapped patients, their interactive response, and their adaptation to neuromuscular interface systems, such
[...] Read more.
This paper presents the UVa-NTS (University of Valladolid Neuromuscular Training System), a multifunction and portable Neuromuscular Training System. The UVa-NTS is designed to analyze the voluntary control of severe neuromotor handicapped patients, their interactive response, and their adaptation to neuromuscular interface systems, such as neural prostheses or domotic applications. Thus, it is an excellent tool to evaluate the residual muscle capabilities in the handicapped. The UVa-NTS is composed of a custom signal conditioning front-end and a computer. The front-end electronics is described thoroughly as well as the overall features of the custom software implementation. The software system is composed of a set of graphical training tools and a processing core. The UVa-NTS works with two classes of neuromuscular signals: the classic myoelectric signals (MES) and, as a novelty, the myomechanic signals (MMS). In order to evaluate the performance of the processing core, a complete analysis has been done to classify its efficiency and to check that it fulfils with the real-time constraints. Tests were performed both with healthy and selected impaired subjects. The adaptation was achieved rapidly, applying a predefined protocol for the UVa-NTS set of training tools. Fine voluntary control was demonstrated to be reached with the myoelectric signals. And the UVa-NTS demonstrated to provide a satisfactory voluntary control when applying the myomechanic signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle A Low Cost Device for Monitoring the Urine Output of Critical Care Patients
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 10714-10732; doi:10.3390/s101210714
Received: 17 October 2010 / Revised: 20 November 2010 / Accepted: 23 November 2010 / Published: 2 December 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1053 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In critical care units most of the patients’ physiological parameters are sensed by commercial monitoring devices. These devices can also supervise whether the values of the parameters lie within a pre-established range set by the clinician. The automation of the sensing and supervision
[...] Read more.
In critical care units most of the patients’ physiological parameters are sensed by commercial monitoring devices. These devices can also supervise whether the values of the parameters lie within a pre-established range set by the clinician. The automation of the sensing and supervision tasks has discharged the healthcare staff of a considerable workload and avoids human errors, which are common in repetitive and monotonous tasks. Urine output is very likely the most relevant physiological parameter that has yet to be sensed or supervised automatically. This paper presents a low cost patent-pending device capable of sensing and supervising urine output. The device uses reed switches activated by a magnetic float in order to measure the amount of urine collected in two containers which are arranged in cascade. When either of the containers fills, it is emptied automatically using a siphon mechanism and urine begins to collect again. An electronic unit sends the state of the reed switches via Bluetooth to a PC that calculates the urine output from this information and supervises the achievement of therapeutic goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle Upper Limb Portable Motion Analysis System Based on Inertial Technology for Neurorehabilitation Purposes
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 10733-10751; doi:10.3390/s101210733
Received: 8 October 2010 / Revised: 22 November 2010 / Accepted: 29 November 2010 / Published: 2 December 2010
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Here an inertial sensor-based monitoring system for measuring and analyzing upper limb movements is presented. The final goal is the integration of this motion-tracking device within a portable rehabilitation system for brain injury patients. A set of four inertial sensors mounted on a
[...] Read more.
Here an inertial sensor-based monitoring system for measuring and analyzing upper limb movements is presented. The final goal is the integration of this motion-tracking device within a portable rehabilitation system for brain injury patients. A set of four inertial sensors mounted on a special garment worn by the patient provides the quaternions representing the patient upper limb’s orientation in space. A kinematic model is built to estimate 3D upper limb motion for accurate therapeutic evaluation. The human upper limb is represented as a kinematic chain of rigid bodies with three joints and six degrees of freedom. Validation of the system has been performed by co-registration of movements with a commercial optoelectronic tracking system. Successful results are shown that exhibit a high correlation among signals provided by both devices and obtained at the Institut Guttmann Neurorehabilitation Hospital. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle Ultra-Wideband Sensors for Improved Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cardiovascular Monitoring and Tumour Diagnostics
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 10778-10802; doi:10.3390/s101210778
Received: 20 October 2010 / Revised: 22 November 2010 / Accepted: 25 November 2010 / Published: 2 December 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The specific advantages of ultra-wideband electromagnetic remote sensing (UWB radar) make it a particularly attractive technique for biomedical applications. We partially review our activities in utilizing this novel approach for the benefit of high and ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other
[...] Read more.
The specific advantages of ultra-wideband electromagnetic remote sensing (UWB radar) make it a particularly attractive technique for biomedical applications. We partially review our activities in utilizing this novel approach for the benefit of high and ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other applications, e.g., for intensive care medicine and biomedical research. We could show that our approach is beneficial for applications like motion tracking for high resolution brain imaging due to the non-contact acquisition of involuntary head motions with high spatial resolution, navigation for cardiac MRI due to our interpretation of the detected physiological mechanical contraction of the heart muscle and for MR safety, since we have investigated the influence of high static magnetic fields on myocardial mechanics. From our findings we could conclude, that UWB radar can serve as a navigator technique for high and ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging and can be beneficial preserving the high resolution capability of this imaging modality. Furthermore it can potentially be used to support standard ECG analysis by complementary information where sole ECG analysis fails. Further analytical investigations have proven the feasibility of this method for intracranial displacements detection and the rendition of a tumour’s contrast agent based perfusion dynamic. Beside these analytical approaches we have carried out FDTD simulations of a complex arrangement mimicking the illumination of a human torso model incorporating the geometry of the antennas applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle A Server-Based Mobile Coaching System
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 10640-10662; doi:10.3390/s101210640
Received: 16 October 2010 / Revised: 16 November 2010 / Accepted: 25 November 2010 / Published: 30 November 2010
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (833 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A prototype system for monitoring, transmitting and processing performance data in sports for the purpose of providing feedback has been developed. During training, athletes are equipped with a mobile device and wireless sensors using the ANT protocol in order to acquire biomechanical, physiological
[...] Read more.
A prototype system for monitoring, transmitting and processing performance data in sports for the purpose of providing feedback has been developed. During training, athletes are equipped with a mobile device and wireless sensors using the ANT protocol in order to acquire biomechanical, physiological and other sports specific parameters. The measured data is buffered locally and forwarded via the Internet to a server. The server provides experts (coaches, biomechanists, sports medicine specialists etc.) with remote data access, analysis and (partly automated) feedback routines. In this way, experts are able to analyze the athlete’s performance and return individual feedback messages from remote locations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
Open AccessArticle Automated Detection of the Arterial Inner Walls of the Common Carotid Artery Based on Dynamic B-Mode Signals
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 10601-10619; doi:10.3390/s101210601
Received: 7 October 2010 / Revised: 12 November 2010 / Accepted: 18 November 2010 / Published: 29 November 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (796 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we propose a novel scheme able to automatically detect the intima and adventitia of both near and far walls of the common carotid artery in dynamic B-mode RF (radiofrequency) image sequences, with and without plaques. Via this automated system the
[...] Read more.
In this paper we propose a novel scheme able to automatically detect the intima and adventitia of both near and far walls of the common carotid artery in dynamic B-mode RF (radiofrequency) image sequences, with and without plaques. Via this automated system the lumen diameter changes along the heart cycle can be detected. Three image sequences have been tested and all results are compared to manual tracings made by two professional experts. The average errors for near and far wall detection are 0.058 mm and 0.067 mm, respectively. This system is able to analyze arterial plaques dynamically which is impossible to do manually due to the tremendous human workload involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle A Wearable Ground Reaction Force Sensor System and Its Application to the Measurement of Extrinsic Gait Variability
Sensors 2010, 10(11), 10240-10255; doi:10.3390/s101110240
Received: 12 October 2010 / Revised: 10 November 2010 / Accepted: 15 November 2010 / Published: 16 November 2010
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wearable sensors for gait analysis are attracting wide interest. In this paper, a wearable ground reaction force (GRF) sensor system and its application to measure extrinsic gait variability are presented. To validate the GRF and centre of pressure (CoP) measurements of the sensor
[...] Read more.
Wearable sensors for gait analysis are attracting wide interest. In this paper, a wearable ground reaction force (GRF) sensor system and its application to measure extrinsic gait variability are presented. To validate the GRF and centre of pressure (CoP) measurements of the sensor system and examine the effectiveness of the proposed method for gait analysis, we conducted an experimental study on seven volunteer subjects. Based on the assessment of the influence of the sensor system on natural gait, we found that no significant differences were found for almost all measured gait parameters (p-values < 0.05). As for measurement accuracy, the root mean square (RMS) differences for the two transverse components and the vertical component of the GRF were 7.2% ± 0.8% and 9.0% ± 1% of the maximum of each transverse component and 1.5% ± 0.9% of the maximum vertical component of GRF, respectively. The RMS distance between both CoP measurements was 1.4% ± 0.2% of the length of the shoe. The area of CoP distribution on the foot-plate and the average coefficient of variation of the triaxial GRF, are the introduced parameters for analysing extrinsic gait variability. Based on a statistical analysis of the results of the tests with subjects wearing the sensor system, we found that the proposed parameters changed according to walking speed and turning (p-values < 0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle Goniometer Crosstalk Compensation for Knee Joint Applications
Sensors 2010, 10(11), 9994-10005; doi:10.3390/s101109994
Received: 17 September 2010 / Revised: 15 October 2010 / Accepted: 20 October 2010 / Published: 9 November 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrogoniometers are prone to crosstalk errors related to endblocks rotation (general crosstalk) and to the characteristics of each sensor (individual crosstalk). The aim of this study was to assess the crosstalk errors due to endblock misalignments and to propose a procedure to compensate
[...] Read more.
Electrogoniometers are prone to crosstalk errors related to endblocks rotation (general crosstalk) and to the characteristics of each sensor (individual crosstalk). The aim of this study was to assess the crosstalk errors due to endblock misalignments and to propose a procedure to compensate for these errors in knee applications. A precision jig was used to simulate pure ±100° flexion/extension movements. A goniometer was mounted with various degrees of valgus/varus (±20°) and rotation (±30°) misalignments. For valgus/varus misalignments, although offset compensation eliminated the error in the valgus/varus recordings for 0° of flexion/extension and reduced it to a few degrees for small (±30°) flexion/extension angles (root mean square error = 1.1°), the individual crosstalk caused pronounced errors for large (±100°) angles (18.8°). Subsequent compensation for this crosstalk reduced these errors to 0.8° and 4.5°, respectively. For rotational misalignment, compensation for the general crosstalk by means of coordinate system rotation, in combination with compensation for the individual crosstalk, reduced the errors for small (±30°) and large (±100°) flexion/extension angles from 3.6° to 0.5° and from 15.5° to 2.4°, respectively. Crosstalk errors were efficiently compensated by the procedures applied, which might be useful in preprocessing of knee functional data, thereby substantially improving goniometer accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of the Intermittent Pneumatic Circulator on Blood Pressure during Hemodialysis
Sensors 2010, 10(11), 10014-10026; doi:10.3390/s101110014
Received: 12 July 2010 / Revised: 10 September 2010 / Accepted: 23 October 2010 / Published: 9 November 2010
PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hypotension is frequently reported during hemodialysis. This study aimed to examine the effect of the intermittent pneumatic circulator on blood pressure during hemodialysis. Sixteen subjects with chronic hemodialysis were recruited. Each subject randomly received two test conditions on separate days, hemodialysis with and
[...] Read more.
Hypotension is frequently reported during hemodialysis. This study aimed to examine the effect of the intermittent pneumatic circulator on blood pressure during hemodialysis. Sixteen subjects with chronic hemodialysis were recruited. Each subject randomly received two test conditions on separate days, hemodialysis with and without the circulator. The circulator was applied to the subject on lower extremities during 0.5–1 hr, 1.5–2 hr, 2.5–3 hr, and 3.5–4 hr of hemodialysis. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP) and heart rate (HR) were analyzed at pre-dialysis, 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr of hemodialysis. Stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) were evaluated between 2.5 and 3.0 hr of hemodialysis. Blood chemicals (sodium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorous) and Kt/V before and after each hemodialysis session were analyzed. The number of episodes of hypotension was also recorded. The circulator intervention significantly improved SBP and DBP across all time points (P = 0.002 for SBP; P = 0.002 for DBP). The frequency of hypotension was significantly decreased (P = 0.028). SV and CO were significantly improved with the circulator intervention (P = 0.017 for SV; P = 0.026 for CO) and no statistical significances were found on blood chemicals or Kt/V analyses. The results suggested that the circulator intervention helps stabilize blood pressure and appears to be a practical treatment. Future studies are suggested to develop new circulator innovations with sensor feedback systems to enhance safety and maximize treatment efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
Open AccessArticle A Method for Direct Measurement of the First-Order Mass Moments of Human Body Segments
Sensors 2010, 10(10), 9155-9162; doi:10.3390/s101009155
Received: 7 July 2010 / Revised: 2 September 2010 / Accepted: 28 September 2010 / Published: 12 October 2010
PDF Full-text (188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We propose a simple and direct method for measuring the first-order mass moment of a human body segment. With the proposed method, the first-order mass moment of the body segment can be directly measured by using only one precision scale and one digital
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We propose a simple and direct method for measuring the first-order mass moment of a human body segment. With the proposed method, the first-order mass moment of the body segment can be directly measured by using only one precision scale and one digital camera. In the dummy mass experiment, the relative standard uncertainty of a single set of measurements of the first-order mass moment is estimated to be 1.7%. The measured value will be useful as a reference for evaluating the uncertainty of the body segment inertial parameters (BSPs) estimated using an indirect method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
Open AccessArticle Efficacy of a Computerized Sensor System for Evaluation and Training of Dizzy Patients
Sensors 2010, 10(8), 7602-7620; doi:10.3390/s100807602
Received: 28 May 2010 / Revised: 2 July 2010 / Accepted: 5 August 2010 / Published: 12 August 2010
PDF Full-text (527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Patients with vestibular hypofunction often experience dizziness and unsteadiness while moving their heads. Appropriate sensors can effectively detect a patient’s dynamic visual acuity and associated body balance control. Forty-one vestibular-deficit patients and 10 normal individuals were invited to participate in this study. Questionnaires,
[...] Read more.
Patients with vestibular hypofunction often experience dizziness and unsteadiness while moving their heads. Appropriate sensors can effectively detect a patient’s dynamic visual acuity and associated body balance control. Forty-one vestibular-deficit patients and 10 normal individuals were invited to participate in this study. Questionnaires, clinical assessment scales and objective measures were evaluated on participants’ first visits. After 12 sessions of training, all scales were evaluated again on vestibular-deficit patients. The computerized system was composed of sensors, including a gyro and strain gauges, data acquisition accessories and LabVIEW software. Results revealed that the system could effectively distinguish normal subjects from subjects with vestibular deficits. In addition, after a rehabilitation program, subjects’ subjective and objective performances were significantly improved. Based on our results, we concluded that the present system, which uses a gyro and strain gauges, may provide an effective method for assessing and treating vestibular-deficit patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
Open AccessArticle A Piezoelectric Plethysmograph Sensor Based on a Pt Wire Implanted Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate Bulk Ceramic
Sensors 2010, 10(8), 7146-7156; doi:10.3390/s100807146
Received: 15 June 2010 / Revised: 30 June 2010 / Accepted: 15 July 2010 / Published: 29 July 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1116 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work reports on the development of a Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate (PLZT) bulk ferroelectric poled ceramic structure as a Piezoelectric Plethysmograph (PZPG) sensor. The ceramic was implanted during its fabrication with a platinum (Pt) wire which works as an internal electrode. The
[...] Read more.
This work reports on the development of a Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate (PLZT) bulk ferroelectric poled ceramic structure as a Piezoelectric Plethysmograph (PZPG) sensor. The ceramic was implanted during its fabrication with a platinum (Pt) wire which works as an internal electrode. The ceramic was then submitted to an experimental setup in order to validate and determine the Pt-wire mechanical effects. This PZPG sensor was also mounted on a finger splint in order to measure the blood flow that results from the pulsations of blood occurring with each heartbeat. Fingertip pulses were recorded jointly with an ECG signal from a 25 year old male to compare the time shift; the PZPG sensor guarantees the electrical isolation of the patient. The proposed PZPG has several advantages: it can be adjusted for fingertip measurements, but it can easily be extended by means of spare bands, therefore making possible PZPG measurements from different body locations, e.g., forehead, forearm, knee, neck, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle Arrhythmia ECG Noise Reduction by Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition
Sensors 2010, 10(6), 6063-6080; doi:10.3390/s100606063
Received: 29 April 2010 / Revised: 20 May 2010 / Accepted: 10 June 2010 / Published: 17 June 2010
Cited by 50 | PDF Full-text (298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel noise filtering algorithm based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is proposed to remove artifacts in electrocardiogram (ECG) traces. Three noise patterns with different power—50 Hz, EMG, and base line wander – were embedded into simulated and real ECG signals. Traditional
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A novel noise filtering algorithm based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is proposed to remove artifacts in electrocardiogram (ECG) traces. Three noise patterns with different power—50 Hz, EMG, and base line wander – were embedded into simulated and real ECG signals. Traditional IIR filter, Wiener filter, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and EEMD were used to compare filtering performance. Mean square error between clean and filtered ECGs was used as filtering performance indexes. Results showed that high noise reduction is the major advantage of the EEMD based filter, especially on arrhythmia ECGs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)

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Open AccessReview Commercialisation of CMOS Integrated Circuit Technology in Multi-Electrode Arrays for Neuroscience and Cell-Based Biosensors
Sensors 2011, 11(5), 4943-4971; doi:10.3390/s110504943
Received: 17 March 2011 / Accepted: 3 May 2011 / Published: 4 May 2011
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The adaptation of standard integrated circuit (IC) technology as a transducer in cell-based biosensors in drug discovery pharmacology, neural interface systems and electrophysiology requires electrodes that are electrochemically stable, biocompatible and affordable. Unfortunately, the ubiquitous Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) IC technology does
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The adaptation of standard integrated circuit (IC) technology as a transducer in cell-based biosensors in drug discovery pharmacology, neural interface systems and electrophysiology requires electrodes that are electrochemically stable, biocompatible and affordable. Unfortunately, the ubiquitous Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) IC technology does not meet the first of these requirements. For devices intended only for research, modification of CMOS by post-processing using cleanroom facilities has been achieved. However, to enable adoption of CMOS as a basis for commercial biosensors, the economies of scale of CMOS fabrication must be maintained by using only low-cost post-processing techniques. This review highlights the methodologies employed in cell-based biosensor design where CMOS-based integrated circuits (ICs) form an integral part of the transducer system. Particular emphasis will be placed on the application of multi-electrode arrays for in vitro neuroscience applications. Identifying suitable IC packaging methods presents further significant challenges when considering specific applications. The various challenges and difficulties are reviewed and some potential solutions are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
Open AccessReview A Review of Non-Invasive Techniques to Detect and Predict Localised Muscle Fatigue
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 3545-3594; doi:10.3390/s110403545
Received: 7 January 2011 / Revised: 1 March 2011 / Accepted: 21 March 2011 / Published: 24 March 2011
Cited by 49 | PDF Full-text (2007 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Muscle fatigue is an established area of research and various types of muscle fatigue have been investigated in order to fully understand the condition. This paper gives an overview of the various non-invasive techniques available for use in automated fatigue detection, such as
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Muscle fatigue is an established area of research and various types of muscle fatigue have been investigated in order to fully understand the condition. This paper gives an overview of the various non-invasive techniques available for use in automated fatigue detection, such as mechanomyography, electromyography, near-infrared spectroscopy and ultrasound for both isometric and non-isometric contractions. Various signal analysis methods are compared by illustrating their applicability in real-time settings. This paper will be of interest to researchers who wish to select the most appropriate methodology for research on muscle fatigue detection or prediction, or for the development of devices that can be used in, e.g., sports scenarios to improve performance or prevent injury. To date, research on localised muscle fatigue focuses mainly on the clinical side. There is very little research carried out on the implementation of detecting/predicting fatigue using an autonomous system, although recent research on automating the process of localised muscle fatigue detection/prediction shows promising results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Open AccessReview Estimating Three-Dimensional Orientation of Human Body Parts by Inertial/Magnetic Sensing
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1489-1525; doi:10.3390/s110201489
Received: 15 December 2010 / Revised: 13 January 2011 / Accepted: 15 January 2011 / Published: 26 January 2011
Cited by 73 | PDF Full-text (409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
User-worn sensing units composed of inertial and magnetic sensors are becoming increasingly popular in various domains, including biomedical engineering, robotics, virtual reality, where they can also be applied for real-time tracking of the orientation of human body parts in the three-dimensional (3D) space.
[...] Read more.
User-worn sensing units composed of inertial and magnetic sensors are becoming increasingly popular in various domains, including biomedical engineering, robotics, virtual reality, where they can also be applied for real-time tracking of the orientation of human body parts in the three-dimensional (3D) space. Although they are a promising choice as wearable sensors under many respects, the inertial and magnetic sensors currently in use offer measuring performance that are critical in order to achieve and maintain accurate 3D-orientation estimates, anytime and anywhere. This paper reviews the main sensor fusion and filtering techniques proposed for accurate inertial/magnetic orientation tracking of human body parts; it also gives useful recipes for their actual implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
Open AccessReview Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies Developed for Biomedical Applications
Sensors 2011, 11(1), 1105-1176; doi:10.3390/s110101105
Received: 30 September 2010 / Revised: 8 December 2010 / Accepted: 10 December 2010 / Published: 19 January 2011
Cited by 106 | PDF Full-text (346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The
[...] Read more.
The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
Open AccessReview Sensing Movement: Microsensors for Body Motion Measurement
Sensors 2011, 11(1), 638-660; doi:10.3390/s110100638
Received: 15 November 2010 / Revised: 16 December 2010 / Accepted: 5 January 2011 / Published: 10 January 2011
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (643 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recognition of body posture and motion is an important physiological function that can keep the body in balance. Man-made motion sensors have also been widely applied for a broad array of biomedical applications including diagnosis of balance disorders and evaluation of energy expenditure.
[...] Read more.
Recognition of body posture and motion is an important physiological function that can keep the body in balance. Man-made motion sensors have also been widely applied for a broad array of biomedical applications including diagnosis of balance disorders and evaluation of energy expenditure. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art sensing components utilized for body motion measurement. The anatomy and working principles of a natural body motion sensor, the human vestibular system, are first described. Various man-made inertial sensors are then elaborated based on their distinctive sensing mechanisms. In particular, both the conventional solid-state motion sensors and the emerging non solid-state motion sensors are depicted. With their lower cost and increased intelligence, man-made motion sensors are expected to play an increasingly important role in biomedical systems for basic research as well as clinical diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
Open AccessReview In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging (BLI): Noninvasive Visualization and Interrogation of Biological Processes in Living Animals
Sensors 2011, 11(1), 180-206; doi:10.3390/s110100180
Received: 14 November 2010 / Revised: 6 December 2010 / Accepted: 23 December 2010 / Published: 28 December 2010
Cited by 51 | PDF Full-text (320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is increasingly being utilized as a method for modern biological research. This process, which involves the noninvasive interrogation of living animals using light emitted from luciferase-expressing bioreporter cells, has been applied to study a wide range of biomolecular
[...] Read more.
In vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is increasingly being utilized as a method for modern biological research. This process, which involves the noninvasive interrogation of living animals using light emitted from luciferase-expressing bioreporter cells, has been applied to study a wide range of biomolecular functions such as gene function, drug discovery and development, cellular trafficking, protein-protein interactions, and especially tumorigenesis, cancer treatment, and disease progression. This article will review the various bioreporter/biosensor integrations of BLI and discuss how BLI is being applied towards a new visual understanding of biological processes within the living organism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
Open AccessReview The Use of Wearable Inertial Motion Sensors in Human Lower Limb Biomechanics Studies: A Systematic Review
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 11556-11565; doi:10.3390/s101211556
Received: 1 November 2010 / Revised: 1 December 2010 / Accepted: 14 December 2010 / Published: 16 December 2010
Cited by 50 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wearable motion sensors consisting of accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetic sensors are readily available nowadays. The small size and low production costs of motion sensors make them a very good tool for human motions analysis. However, data processing and accuracy of the collected data
[...] Read more.
Wearable motion sensors consisting of accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetic sensors are readily available nowadays. The small size and low production costs of motion sensors make them a very good tool for human motions analysis. However, data processing and accuracy of the collected data are important issues for research purposes. In this paper, we aim to review the literature related to usage of inertial sensors in human lower limb biomechanics studies. A systematic search was done in the following search engines: ISI Web of Knowledge, Medline, SportDiscus and IEEE Xplore. Thirty nine full papers and conference abstracts with related topics were included in this review. The type of sensor involved, data collection methods, study design, validation methods and its applications were reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
Open AccessReview Monitoring the Depth of Anaesthesia
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 10896-10935; doi:10.3390/s101210896
Received: 1 September 2010 / Revised: 29 September 2010 / Accepted: 22 November 2010 / Published: 3 December 2010
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (1228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the current challenges in medicine is monitoring the patients’ depth of general anaesthesia (DGA). Accurate assessment of the depth of anaesthesia contributes to tailoring drug administration to the individual patient, thus preventing awareness or excessive anaesthetic depth and improving patients’ outcomes.
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One of the current challenges in medicine is monitoring the patients’ depth of general anaesthesia (DGA). Accurate assessment of the depth of anaesthesia contributes to tailoring drug administration to the individual patient, thus preventing awareness or excessive anaesthetic depth and improving patients’ outcomes. In the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of studies on the development, comparison and validation of commercial devices that estimate the DGA by analyzing electrical activity of the brain (i.e., evoked potentials or brain waves). In this paper we review the most frequently used sensors and mathematical methods for monitoring the DGA, their validation in clinical practice and discuss the central question of whether these approaches can, compared to other conventional methods, reduce the risk of patient awareness during surgical procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Open AccessReview A Review of Direct Neck Measurement in Occupational Settings
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 10967-10985; doi:10.3390/s101210967
Received: 27 October 2010 / Revised: 20 November 2010 / Accepted: 22 November 2010 / Published: 3 December 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
No guidelines are available to orient researchers on the availability and applications of equipment and sensors for recording precise neck movements in occupational settings. In this study reports on direct measurements of neck movements in the workplace were reviewed. Using relevant keywords two
[...] Read more.
No guidelines are available to orient researchers on the availability and applications of equipment and sensors for recording precise neck movements in occupational settings. In this study reports on direct measurements of neck movements in the workplace were reviewed. Using relevant keywords two independent reviewers searched for eligible studies in the following databases: Cinahal, Cochrane, Embase, Lilacs, PubMed, MEDLINE, PEDro, Scopus and Web of Science. After applying the inclusion criteria, 13 articles on direct neck measurements in occupational settings were retrieved from among 33,666 initial titles. These studies were then methodologically evaluated according to their design characteristics, exposure and outcome assessment, and statistical analysis. The results showed that in most of the studies the three axes of neck movement (flexion-extension, lateral flexion and rotation) were not simultaneously recorded. Deficiencies in available equipment explain this flaw, demonstrating that sensors and systems need to be improved so that a true understanding of real occupational exposure can be achieved. Further studies are also needed to assess neck movement in those who perform heavy-duty work, such as nurses and electricians, since no report about such jobs was identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
Open AccessReview Detecting Vital Signs with Wearable Wireless Sensors
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 10837-10862; doi:10.3390/s101210837
Received: 18 October 2010 / Revised: 20 November 2010 / Accepted: 25 November 2010 / Published: 2 December 2010
Cited by 87 | PDF Full-text (630 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The emergence of wireless technologies and advancements in on-body sensor design can enable change in the conventional health-care system, replacing it with wearable health-care systems, centred on the individual. Wearable monitoring systems can provide continuous physiological data, as well as better information regarding
[...] Read more.
The emergence of wireless technologies and advancements in on-body sensor design can enable change in the conventional health-care system, replacing it with wearable health-care systems, centred on the individual. Wearable monitoring systems can provide continuous physiological data, as well as better information regarding the general health of individuals. Thus, such vital-sign monitoring systems will reduce health-care costs by disease prevention and enhance the quality of life with disease management. In this paper, recent progress in non-invasive monitoring technologies for chronic disease management is reviewed. In particular, devices and techniques for monitoring blood pressure, blood glucose levels, cardiac activity and respiratory activity are discussed; in addition, on-body propagation issues for multiple sensors are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Open AccessReview Application of Sensing Techniques to Cellular Force Measurement
Sensors 2010, 10(11), 9948-9962; doi:10.3390/s101109948
Received: 20 September 2010 / Revised: 22 October 2010 / Accepted: 25 October 2010 / Published: 5 November 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (541 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cell traction forces (CTFs) are the forces produced by cells and exerted on extracellular matrix or an underlying substrate. CTFs function to maintain cell shape, enable cell migration, and generate and detect mechanical signals. As such, they play a vital role in many
[...] Read more.
Cell traction forces (CTFs) are the forces produced by cells and exerted on extracellular matrix or an underlying substrate. CTFs function to maintain cell shape, enable cell migration, and generate and detect mechanical signals. As such, they play a vital role in many fundamental biological processes, including angiogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing. Therefore, a close examination of CTFs can enable better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of such processes. To this end, various force-sensing techniques for CTF measurement have been developed over the years. This article will provide a concise review of these sensing techniques and comment on the needs for improved force-sensing technologies for cell mechanics and biology research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
Open AccessReview Biomedical Use of Isothermal Microcalorimeters
Sensors 2010, 10(10), 9369-9383; doi:10.3390/s101009369
Received: 29 July 2010 / Revised: 23 August 2010 / Accepted: 30 September 2010 / Published: 18 October 2010
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Isothermal microcalorimetry is becoming widely used for monitoring biological activities in vitro. Microcalorimeters are now able to measure heat production rates of less than a microwatt. As a result, metabolism and growth of relatively small numbers of cultured bacteria, protozoans, human cells
[...] Read more.
Isothermal microcalorimetry is becoming widely used for monitoring biological activities in vitro. Microcalorimeters are now able to measure heat production rates of less than a microwatt. As a result, metabolism and growth of relatively small numbers of cultured bacteria, protozoans, human cells and even small animals can be monitored continuously and extremely accurately at any chosen temperature. Dynamic effects on these organisms of changes in the culture environment—or of additions to it—are easily assessed over periods from hours to days. In addition microcalorimetry is a non-destructive method that does not require much sample preparation. It is also completely passive and thus allows subsequent evaluations of any kind on the undisturbed sample. In this review, we present a basic description of current microcalorimetry instruments and an overview of their use for various biomedical applications. These include detecting infections, evaluating effects of pharmaceutical or antimicrobial agents on cells, monitoring growth of cells harvested for tissue eingineering, and assessing medical and surgical device material physico-chemical stability and cellular biocompatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
Open AccessReview Wearable Systems for Monitoring Mobility-Related Activities in Chronic Disease: A Systematic Review
Sensors 2010, 10(10), 9026-9052; doi:10.3390/s101009026
Received: 15 August 2010 / Revised: 2 September 2010 / Accepted: 20 September 2010 / Published: 8 October 2010
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of wearable motion sensing technology offers important advantages over conventional methods for obtaining measures of physical activity and/or physical functioning in individuals with chronic diseases. This review aims to identify the actual state of applying wearable systems for monitoring mobility-related activity
[...] Read more.
The use of wearable motion sensing technology offers important advantages over conventional methods for obtaining measures of physical activity and/or physical functioning in individuals with chronic diseases. This review aims to identify the actual state of applying wearable systems for monitoring mobility-related activity in individuals with chronic disease conditions. In this review we focus on technologies and applications, feasibility and adherence aspects, and clinical relevance of wearable motion sensing technology. PubMed (Medline since 1990), PEdro, and reference lists of all relevant articles were searched. Two authors independently reviewed randomised trials systematically. The quality of selected articles was scored and study results were summarised and discussed. 163 abstracts were considered. After application of inclusion criteria and full text reading, 25 articles were taken into account in a full text review. Twelve of these papers evaluated walking with pedometers, seven used uniaxial accelerometers to assess physical activity, six used multiaxial accelerometers, and two papers used a combination approach of a pedometer and a multiaxial accelerometer for obtaining overall activity and energy expenditure measures. Seven studies mentioned feasibility and/or adherence aspects. The number of studies that use movement sensors for monitoring of activity patterns in chronic disease (postural transitions, time spent in certain positions or activities) is nonexistent on the RCT level of study design. Although feasible methods for monitoring human mobility are available, evidence-based clinical applications of these methods in individuals with chronic diseases are in need of further development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Open AccessReview Automated Three-Dimensional Microbial Sensing and Recognition Using Digital Holography and Statistical Sampling
Sensors 2010, 10(9), 8437-8451; doi:10.3390/s100908437
Received: 18 June 2010 / Revised: 30 August 2010 / Accepted: 3 September 2010 / Published: 9 September 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (852 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We overview an approach to providing automated three-dimensional (3D) sensing and recognition of biological micro/nanoorganisms integrating Gabor digital holographic microscopy and statistical sampling methods. For 3D data acquisition of biological specimens, a coherent beam propagates through the specimen and its transversely and longitudinally
[...] Read more.
We overview an approach to providing automated three-dimensional (3D) sensing and recognition of biological micro/nanoorganisms integrating Gabor digital holographic microscopy and statistical sampling methods. For 3D data acquisition of biological specimens, a coherent beam propagates through the specimen and its transversely and longitudinally magnified diffraction pattern observed by the microscope objective is optically recorded with an image sensor array interfaced with a computer. 3D visualization of the biological specimen from the magnified diffraction pattern is accomplished by using the computational Fresnel propagation algorithm. For 3D recognition of the biological specimen, a watershed image segmentation algorithm is applied to automatically remove the unnecessary background parts in the reconstructed holographic image. Statistical estimation and inference algorithms are developed to the automatically segmented holographic image. Overviews of preliminary experimental results illustrate how the holographic image reconstructed from the Gabor digital hologram of biological specimen contains important information for microbial recognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
Open AccessReview A Review of Accelerometry-Based Wearable Motion Detectors for Physical Activity Monitoring
Sensors 2010, 10(8), 7772-7788; doi:10.3390/s100807772
Received: 15 July 2010 / Revised: 2 August 2010 / Accepted: 16 August 2010 / Published: 20 August 2010
Cited by 227 | PDF Full-text (278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Characteristics of physical activity are indicative of one’s mobility level, latent chronic diseases and aging process. Accelerometers have been widely accepted as useful and practical sensors for wearable devices to measure and assess physical activity. This paper reviews the development of wearable accelerometry-based
[...] Read more.
Characteristics of physical activity are indicative of one’s mobility level, latent chronic diseases and aging process. Accelerometers have been widely accepted as useful and practical sensors for wearable devices to measure and assess physical activity. This paper reviews the development of wearable accelerometry-based motion detectors. The principle of accelerometry measurement, sensor properties and sensor placements are first introduced. Various research using accelerometry-based wearable motion detectors for physical activity monitoring and assessment, including posture and movement classification, estimation of energy expenditure, fall detection and balance control evaluation, are also reviewed. Finally this paper reviews and compares existing commercial products to provide a comprehensive outlook of current development status and possible emerging technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
Open AccessReview Molecular Biosensing Mechanisms in the Spleen for the Removal of Aged and Damaged Red Cells from the Blood Circulation
Sensors 2010, 10(8), 7099-7121; doi:10.3390/s100807099
Received: 5 June 2010 / Revised: 25 June 2010 / Accepted: 10 July 2010 / Published: 27 July 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heinz bodies are intraerythrocytic inclusions of hemichrome formed as a result of hemoglobin (Hb) oxidation. They typically develop in aged red cells. Based on the hypothesis that hemichrome formation is an innate characteristic of physiologically normal Hb molecules, we present an overview of
[...] Read more.
Heinz bodies are intraerythrocytic inclusions of hemichrome formed as a result of hemoglobin (Hb) oxidation. They typically develop in aged red cells. Based on the hypothesis that hemichrome formation is an innate characteristic of physiologically normal Hb molecules, we present an overview of our previous findings regarding the molecular instability of Hb and the formation of hemichrome, as well as recent findings on Heinz body formation within normal human erythrocytes. Human adult Hb (HbO2 A) prepared from healthy donors showed a tendency to produce hemichrome, even at close to physiological temperature and pH. Recent studies found that the number of Heinz bodies formed in red cells increased with increasing temperature when freshly drawn venous blood from healthy donors was subjected to mild heating above 37 °C. These findings suggest that Hb molecules control the removal of non-functional erythrocytes from the circulation via hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering. In this review, we discuss the molecular biosensing mechanisms in the spleen, where hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering within erythrocytes play a key role in the removal of aged and damaged red cells from the blood circulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)

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