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Special Issue "Coping with Climate Change in Developing Countries"

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A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yosef Jabareen

Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 3200003, Israel
Website | E-Mail
Interests: urban planning and practices; the risk city; justice and rights in cities; climate change and sustainability; and international comparative planning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Contemporary cities and their residents face phenomenal vulnerabilities stemming, inter alia, from social polarization, urban conflict, terrorism, natural disasters, and, most recently, climate change, which augments the likelihood and intensity of such disasters and, in addition, undermines the urban infrastructures on which modern life depends. Their destructive impacts, both those we can anticipate today and those which are as yet unknown, are likely to increase in the near future.  In recent years, there has thus been growing awareness among scholars and practitioners in a variety of fields of the urgent need for cities to increase their resilience to the threats they will almost certainly encounter. The proposed call for papers is seeking to address critical questions concerning the readiness of cities around the world in general and in developing countries regarding climate change risks. How resilient are our cities?  Do they have the capacity to cope with the multiplicity of climate change challenges and the threats pose?  What cities do to reduce their vulnerabilities?  What policies and measures have cities adopted to augment their coping with climate change?

Dr. Yosef Jabareen
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • climate change issues in developing countries
  • climate change issues in developing cities
  • climate change impacts
  • coping with climate change impacts
  • vulnerabilities
  • master national and local plans
  • urban planning
  • sustainability in developing cities
  • low carbon design
  • renewable energies
  • innovative technologies
  • sustainable neighborhoods and cities

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle The Distributional Impact of Developed Countries’ Climate Change Policies on Senegal: A Macro-Micro CGE Application
Sustainability 2013, 5(6), 2727-2750; doi:10.3390/su5062727
Received: 1 May 2013 / Revised: 23 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 June 2013 / Published: 20 June 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we present a distributional impact analysis of climate change policies envisaged or implemented to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Senegal. We consider policies implemented in developed countries and their impact on a developing country. Moreover, we simulate the diminishing productivity
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In this paper, we present a distributional impact analysis of climate change policies envisaged or implemented to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Senegal. We consider policies implemented in developed countries and their impact on a developing country. Moreover, we simulate the diminishing productivity of agricultural land as a potential result of climate change (CC) for Senegal. This country is exposed to the direct consequences of CC and is vulnerable to changes in world prices of energy, given its lack of substitution capacity. Past researches have shown that countries with this profile will bear the greatest burden of CC and its mitigation policies. Our results reveal slight increases in poverty when the world price of fossil fuels increases and the negative impact is further amplified with decreases in land productivity. However, subsidizing electricity consumption to protect consumers from world price increases in fossil fuels is shown to provide a weak cushion to poverty increase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coping with Climate Change in Developing Countries)
Open AccessArticle The Second-Image Reversed and Climate Policy: How International Influences Helped Changing Brazil’s Positions on Climate Change
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1049-1066; doi:10.3390/su5031049
Received: 6 November 2012 / Revised: 8 February 2013 / Accepted: 12 February 2013 / Published: 6 March 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (581 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
International climate policy over the last 7–8 years has been characterized by the increasing involvement of developing countries. While COP-13 at Bali marked a stronger willingness to participate in mitigation efforts in principle, there are now numerous examples of domestic programs for mitigation
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International climate policy over the last 7–8 years has been characterized by the increasing involvement of developing countries. While COP-13 at Bali marked a stronger willingness to participate in mitigation efforts in principle, there are now numerous examples of domestic programs for mitigation by this group of countries. Brazil has gone furthest among developing countries, with a substantial voluntary commitment to reduce its emissions proclaimed in 2009. The dynamics behind the change in Brazil’s position are discussed, with a particular eye to the effects of international influences. In conjunction with important domestic changes, a set of interacting influences through a variety of pathways both changed preferences among important interest groups in Brazilian society towards favoring some kind of commitments and helped to change the structure of government forums and decision-making rules in a way that empowered reform-minded ministries. It is argued that this perspective, drawn from Peter Gourevitch’s idea of the “second image reversed”, is increasingly relevant for understanding the influence of the broad “regime complex” on climate change on politics in developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coping with Climate Change in Developing Countries)
Open AccessArticle Enabling Eco-Friendly Choices by Relying on the Proportional-Thinking Heuristic
Sustainability 2013, 5(1), 357-371; doi:10.3390/su5010357
Received: 11 October 2012 / Revised: 25 December 2012 / Accepted: 9 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ecological (eco) taxes are promising mechanisms to enable eco-friendly decisions, but few people prefer them. In this study, we present a way in which eco-tax options may be communicated to general public to encourage their payment. Our implementation (called “information presentation”) takes advantage
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Ecological (eco) taxes are promising mechanisms to enable eco-friendly decisions, but few people prefer them. In this study, we present a way in which eco-tax options may be communicated to general public to encourage their payment. Our implementation (called “information presentation”) takes advantage of the non-linear relationship between eco-tax payments and CO2 emissions and the human reliance on the proportional-thinking heuristic. According to the proportional-thinking heuristic, people are likely to prefer a small eco-tax increase and judge larger eco-tax increases to cause proportionally greater CO2 emissions reductions. In an online study, participants were asked to choose between eco-tax increases in two problems: In one, a smaller eco-tax increase resulted in greater CO2 emissions reduction, while in the other, a smaller tax increase resulted in lesser CO2 emissions reduction. Although the larger eco-tax increase did not reduce CO2 emissions the most, across both problems, people judged larger eco-tax increases to cause proportionally greater reductions in CO2 emissions and preferred smaller tax increases. Thus, eco-tax policies would benefit by presenting information in terms of eco-tax increases, such that smaller eco-tax increases (which are more attractive and are likely to be chosen by people) cause greater CO2 emissions reductions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coping with Climate Change in Developing Countries)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Resilience of Outdoor Spaces in an Era of Climate Change: The Problem of Developing Countries
Sustainability 2013, 5(1), 90-99; doi:10.3390/su5010090
Received: 9 October 2012 / Revised: 23 December 2012 / Accepted: 25 December 2012 / Published: 4 January 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper recommends expanding research on the interrelations between climate change, cities, culture and the way climate change influences participants’ thermal, emotional and perceptual well-being in public spaces as a key step in developing contextual design codes for outdoor public spaces. Proposing a
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This paper recommends expanding research on the interrelations between climate change, cities, culture and the way climate change influences participants’ thermal, emotional and perceptual well-being in public spaces as a key step in developing contextual design codes for outdoor public spaces. Proposing a general framework to address climate challenges in developing countries, the paper advocates focusing on the developing world, where outdoor spaces are extremely vulnerable and available studies are scarce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coping with Climate Change in Developing Countries)
Open AccessArticle 2050 Scenarios for Long-Haul Tourism in the Evolving Global Climate Change Regime
Sustainability 2013, 5(1), 1-51; doi:10.3390/su5010001
Received: 1 November 2012 / Revised: 3 December 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 27 December 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2954 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tourism and its “midwife”, aviation, are transnational sectors exposed to global uncertainties. This scenario-building exercise considers a specific subset of these uncertainties, namely the impact of the evolving global climate change regime on long-haul tourism (LHT), with a 2050 horizon. The basic problematique
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Tourism and its “midwife”, aviation, are transnational sectors exposed to global uncertainties. This scenario-building exercise considers a specific subset of these uncertainties, namely the impact of the evolving global climate change regime on long-haul tourism (LHT), with a 2050 horizon. The basic problematique is that unconstrained growth in aviation emissions will not be compatible with 2050 climate stabilisation goals, and that the stringency and timing of public policy interventions could have far-reaching impacts — either on the market for future growth of LHT, or the natural ecosystem on which tourism depends. Following an intuitive-logic approach to scenario-building, three meta-level scenarios that can be regarded as “possible” futures for the evolution of LHT are described. Two of these, i.e., the “grim reaper” and the “fallen angel” scenarios, are undesirable. The “green lantern” scenario represents the desired future. Long-haul tourist destinations should heed the early warning signals identified in the scenario narratives, and contribute towards realising the desired future. They should further guard against being passive victims if the feared scenarios materialise, by adapting, repositioning early upon reading the signposts, hedging against risks, and seizing new opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coping with Climate Change in Developing Countries)
Open AccessArticle Local Perceptions and Responses to Climate Change and Variability: The Case of Laikipia District, Kenya
Sustainability 2012, 4(12), 3302-3325; doi:10.3390/su4123302
Received: 18 September 2012 / Revised: 21 November 2012 / Accepted: 22 November 2012 / Published: 5 December 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (369 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Agricultural policies in Kenya aim to improve farmers’ livelihoods. With projected climate change, these policies are short of mechanisms that promote farmers’ adaptation. As a result, smallholders are confronted with a variety of challenges including climate change, which hinders their agricultural production. Local
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Agricultural policies in Kenya aim to improve farmers’ livelihoods. With projected climate change, these policies are short of mechanisms that promote farmers’ adaptation. As a result, smallholders are confronted with a variety of challenges including climate change, which hinders their agricultural production. Local knowledge can be instrumental in assisting smallholders to cope with climate change and variability. In this paper, we present empirical evidence that demonstrates local knowledge, perceptions and adaptations to climate change and variability amongst smallholders of Laikipia district of Kenya. A Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) calculated for one station is compared with smallholders’ perceptions. Data was collected using qualitative and quantitative methods in Umande and Muhonia sub-locations. Qualitative data included 46 transcripts from focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Quantitative data is derived from 206 interviewees. We analyzed qualitative and quantitative data using Atlas-ti and SPSS respectively. According to smallholders’ perceptions, climatic variability is increasingly changing. Local perceptions include decreasing rainfalls, increasing temperatures, increasing frosts and increasing hunger. The PDSI shows a trend towards severe droughts in the last four decades, which is in accordance with farmers’ perceptions. Smallholders use a combination of coping and adaptation strategies to respond to variability, including, among others, diversification of crop varieties, migration and sale of livestock. Significant relationships exist between drought perceptions and some adaptations such as migration and sale of livestock. Farmers have an in-depth knowledge of climatic variability, which they use to inform their coping and adaptation strategies. Knowledge of climatic perceptions and adaptations are vital entry points for decision makers and policy makers to learn how and where to enhance the adaptive capacity of smallholders in rainy and drought periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coping with Climate Change in Developing Countries)

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