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Special Issue "Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Carlo Brera

Italian National Institute of Health (ISS), 00161 Rome, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +390649902377
Fax: +390649902363
Interests: risk/exposure assessment of mycotoxins; biomonitoring studies; monitoring plans on mycotoxins

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In accordance with the concept of “One Health” and “Exposome”, the protection of public health is becoming more and more important.

In this context, risk assessment, as a science-led process for establishing the likelihood of adverse effects to human health and the environment from exposure to risk sources, is facing new challenges, derived from emerging and re-emerging risks, as in the case of mycotoxins, which represent a real burden, worldwide, for both food security and food safety.

In the frame of risk assessment, exposure assessment represents a relevant issue in quantifying risks. In order to refer to reliable outputs, uncertainties, and variability, such as the restricted number of observations, the lack of consumption data and/or the use of improper consumption and occurrence databases, and other sources of error leading to the wrong conclusions for at-risk groups, such as infants, toddlers, children and adolescents, pregnant women, vegetarians, and immunodeficient subjects, have to be considered carefully.

In performing risk and exposure assessment studies, multiple approaches can be followed, such as deterministic vs. probabilistic (modeling), monitoring and/or surveillance programs, Total Diet Studies (TDS), and to continue the development of, and updating of, bio-monitoring studies. The use of biomarkers is proving to be very helpful in the assessment of dietary intakes and occupational exposure. All these issues need to be stressed and highlighted in an even more comprehensive way in order to attempt to associate the intake of mycotoxins with specific pathologies, emphasizing the ones occurring in developed countries where concomitant confounding factors are more present.

The focus of this Special Issue of Toxins will be on epidemiological evidence related to mycotoxin intake, the consideration of modified forms of mycotoxins in exposure assessment and risk characterization, the occupational risk related to mycotoxin-contaminated dust inhalation, the exposure of vulnerable population groups, and the outputs from TDS.

Dr. Carlo Brera
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • (re)emerging risks
  • modified mycotoxins
  • risk assessment, total diet studies
  • biomonitoring studies
  • occupational exposure
  • exposure of vulnerable groups
  • modeling approaches
  • food intake
  • monitoring/surveillance plans

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Study on the Association among Mycotoxins and other Variables in Children with Autism
Toxins 2017, 9(7), 203; doi:10.3390/toxins9070203
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
Environmental factors and genetic susceptibility are implicated in the increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mycotoxins are agricultural contaminants of fungal origin that represent real risk factors for human health and especially for children. Thus, the main hypothesis of this work is
[...] Read more.
Environmental factors and genetic susceptibility are implicated in the increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mycotoxins are agricultural contaminants of fungal origin that represent real risk factors for human health and especially for children. Thus, the main hypothesis of this work is that the deterioration of the clinical manifestation of autism in children may result from the exposure to mycotoxins through the consumption of contaminated food. Within a cross-sectional study, a group of autistic children (n = 172) and a group of controls (n = 61) (siblings and non-parental) were recruited in North and South Italy. All children had blood and urine samples taken, for testing some mycotoxins by a LC–MS/MS validated method. Blood samples were also tested for assessing specific IgG against food and fungal antigens and cytokines. The analyses outputs highlighted statistically significant differences comparing mycotoxins levels between (i) children groups both in urine (deoxynivalenol and de-epoxydeoxynivalenol, p = 0.0141 and p = 0.0259, respectively) and serum (aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1, p = 0.0072, p = 0.0141 and p = 0.0061, respectively); (ii) a group of selected fungal IgGs, and IgGs against wheat and gluten and (iii) cytokines. These results suggest the need for a deeper examination of the role that mycotoxins may have on the etiology of ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
Open AccessArticle Survey on Urinary Levels of Aflatoxins in Professionally Exposed Workers
Toxins 2017, 9(4), 117; doi:10.3390/toxins9040117
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 24 March 2017
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Abstract
Feed mill workers may handle or process maize contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs). This condition may lead to an unacceptable intake of toxins deriving from occupational exposure. This study assessed the serological and urinary levels of AFs in workers exposed to potentially contaminated dusts
[...] Read more.
Feed mill workers may handle or process maize contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs). This condition may lead to an unacceptable intake of toxins deriving from occupational exposure. This study assessed the serological and urinary levels of AFs in workers exposed to potentially contaminated dusts in two mills. From March to April 2014, blood and urine samples were collected, on Monday and Friday morning of the same working week from 29 exposed workers and 30 non-exposed controls. AFs (M1, G2, G1, B1, B2) and aflatoxicol (AFOH) A were analyzed. Each subject filled in a questionnaire to evaluate potential food-borne exposures to mycotoxins. AFs contamination in environmental dust was measured in both plants. No serum sample was found to be positive. Seventy four percent of urine samples (73.7%) revealed AFM1 presence. AFM1 mean concentration was 0.035 and 0.027 ng/mL in exposed and non-exposed workers, respectively (p = 0.432); the concentration was slightly higher in Friday’s than in Monday’s samples, in exposed workers, 0.040 versus (vs.) 0.031 and non-exposed controls (0.030 vs. 0.024, p = 0.437). Environmental AFs contamination ranged from 7.2 to 125.4 µg/kg. The findings of this study reveal the presence of higher AFs concentration in exposed workers than in non-exposed controls, although these differences are to be considered consistent with random fluctuations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
Open AccessArticle Nitrate Increased Cucumber Tolerance to Fusarium Wilt by Regulating Fungal Toxin Production and Distribution
Toxins 2017, 9(3), 100; doi:10.3390/toxins9030100
Received: 10 August 2016 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
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Abstract
Cucumber Fusarium wilt, induced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC), causes severe losses in cucumber yield and quality. Nitrogen (N), as the most important mineral nutrient for plants, plays a critical role in plant–pathogen interactions. Hydroponic assays were conducted to investigate the
[...] Read more.
Cucumber Fusarium wilt, induced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC), causes severe losses in cucumber yield and quality. Nitrogen (N), as the most important mineral nutrient for plants, plays a critical role in plant–pathogen interactions. Hydroponic assays were conducted to investigate the effects of different N forms (NH4+ vs. NO3) and supply levels (low, 1 mM; high, 5 mM) on cucumber Fusarium wilt. The NO3-fed cucumber plants were more tolerant to Fusarium wilt compared with NH4+-fed plants, and accompanied by lower leaf temperature after FOC infection. The disease index decreased as the NO3 supply increased but increased with the NH4+ level supplied. Although the FOC grew better under high NO3 in vitro, FOC colonization and fusaric acid (FA) production decreased in cucumber plants under high NO3 supply, associated with lower leaf membrane injury. There was a positive correlation between the FA content and the FOC number or relative membrane injury. After the exogenous application of FA, less FA accumulated in the leaves under NO3 feeding, accompanied with a lower leaf membrane injury. In conclusion, higher NO3 supply protected cucumber plants against Fusarium wilt by suppressing FOC colonization and FA production in plants, and increasing the plant tolerance to FA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
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Open AccessArticle Individual and Combined Cytotoxic Effects of   Co‐Occurring Deoxynivalenol Family Mycotoxins on  Human Gastric Epithelial Cells
Toxins 2017, 9(3), 96; doi:10.3390/toxins9030096
Received: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
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Abstract Mycotoxin contamination is a significant health concern for human beings, but health risk assessments are usually based on one single mycotoxin, which might neglect the additive or competitive interactions between co‐occurring mycotoxins [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
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Open AccessArticle Multi‐Mycotoxin Analysis in Durum Wheat Pasta by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry
Toxins 2017, 9(2), 59; doi:10.3390/toxins9020059
Received: 27 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 9 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A simple and rapid multi‐mycotoxin method for the determination of 17 mycotoxins simultaneously is described in the present survey on durum and soft wheat pasta samples. Mycotoxins included in the study were those mainly reported in cereal samples: ochratoxin‐A (OTA), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1),
[...] Read more.
A simple and rapid multi‐mycotoxin method for the determination of 17 mycotoxins simultaneously is described in the present survey on durum and soft wheat pasta samples. Mycotoxins included in the study were those mainly reported in cereal samples: ochratoxin‐A (OTA), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZON), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3‐and 15‐acetyl‐deoxynivalenol (3‐AcDON and 15‐AcDON), nivalenol (NIV), neosolaniol (NEO), fusarenon‐X, (FUS‐X), T‐2 toxin (T‐2) and HT‐2 toxin (HT‐2), fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2), and four emerging mycotoxins: three enniatins (ENA, ENA1, and ENB), and beauvericin (BEA). Twenty‐nine samples were analyzed to provide an overview on mycotoxin presence: 27 samples of durum wheat pasta, and two samples of baby food. Analytical results concluded that trichothecenes showed the highest incidence, mainly DON, NIV, and HT‐2 toxin, followed by ZON and ENB, while NEO, FUS‐X, OTA, AFB1, and FUM were not detected in any sample. The highest contents corresponded to ENB and ranged from 91.15μg/kg to 710.90 μg/kg.
Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
Open AccessArticle A Survey of Aflatoxin-Producing Aspergillus sp. from Peanut Field Soils in Four Agroecological Zones of China
Toxins 2017, 9(1), 40; doi:10.3390/toxins9010040
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
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Abstract
Peanut pods are easily infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp.ecies from field soil. To assess the aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp. in different peanut field soils, 344 aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus strains were isolated from 600 soil samples of four agroecological zones in China (the Southeast coastal zone
[...] Read more.
Peanut pods are easily infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp.ecies from field soil. To assess the aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp. in different peanut field soils, 344 aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus strains were isolated from 600 soil samples of four agroecological zones in China (the Southeast coastal zone (SEC), the Yangtze River zone (YZR), the Yellow River zone (YR) and the Northeast zone (NE)). Nearly 94.2% (324/344) of strains were A. flavus and 5.8% (20/344) of strains were A. parasiticus. YZR had the highest population density of Aspergillus sp. and positive rate of aflatoxin production in isolated strains (1039.3 cfu·g−1, 80.7%), the second was SEC (191.5 cfu·g−1, 48.7%), the third was YR (26.5 cfu·g−1, 22.7%), and the last was NE (2.4 cfu·g−1, 6.6%). The highest risk of AFB1 contamination on peanut was in YZR which had the largest number of AFB1 producing isolates in 1g soil, followed by SEC and YR, and the lowest was NE. The potential risk of AFB1 contamination in peanuts can increase with increasing population density and a positive rate of aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp. in field soils, suggesting that reducing aflatoxigenic Aspergillus sp. in field soils could prevent AFB1 contamination in peanuts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
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Open AccessArticle Gestational Zearalenone Exposure Causes Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity in Pregnant Rats and Female Offspring
Toxins 2017, 9(1), 21; doi:10.3390/toxins9010021
Received: 3 December 2016 / Revised: 29 December 2016 / Accepted: 30 December 2016 / Published: 5 January 2017
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Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEN) is an oestrogenic mycotoxin commonly found in food and feed products and can affect reproduction and development in both humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the toxic effects of ZEN on maternal SD rats and the F1 female offspring.
[...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEN) is an oestrogenic mycotoxin commonly found in food and feed products and can affect reproduction and development in both humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the toxic effects of ZEN on maternal SD rats and the F1 female offspring. Sixty-four pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups and exposed to feed contaminated with ZEN (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg feed) on gestational days (GDs) 0–21. Compared with the controls, the groups exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN showed significantly decreased feed intake and body weight of pregnant rats and/or female offspring. Meanwhile, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly decreased the birth weight and viability of F1 newborn rats. Moreover, 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN diets increased follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations but decreased oestradiol in both maternal and F1 adult rats. In the F1 generation, ZEN caused no pathological changes in ovaries and uterus in weaned rats, but significant follicular atresia and a thinning uterine layer were found in F1 female adult rats in the 20 mg/kg ZEN group. These impairments concurred with the inhibited mRNA and protein levels of oestrogen receptor-alpha (Esr1) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) in the adult uterus and/or ovaries. Furthermore, 10 and/or 20 mg/kg ZEN exposure significantly reduced Esr1, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHr), and ATP binding cassette transporters b1 and c1 (ABCb1 and ABCc1) in the placenta and foetal and weaned F1 brains, and also produced a dose-dependent increase in 3β-HSD in the placenta. Additionally, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly upregulated ABCc5 expression in the placenta and ovaries of weaned rats. These results suggested that prenatal ZEN exposure in rats affected maternal and foetal development and may lead to long-term reproductive impairment in F1 adult females. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
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Open AccessArticle Are Treated Celiac Patients at Risk for Mycotoxins? An Italian Case-Study
Toxins 2017, 9(1), 11; doi:10.3390/toxins9010011
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
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Abstract
Urinary biomarkers of mycotoxin exposure were evaluated in a group of celiac patients (n = 55) and in a control group of healthy subjects (n = 50) following their habitual diet. Deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and fumonisin B1 (FB1) were monitored
[...] Read more.
Urinary biomarkers of mycotoxin exposure were evaluated in a group of celiac patients (n = 55) and in a control group of healthy subjects (n = 50) following their habitual diet. Deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and fumonisin B1 (FB1) were monitored in 105 urinary samples collected from the two groups. Dietary habits were also recorded through compilation of a seven-day weighed dietary diary. Biomarkers of mycotoxin exposure were detected in 21 celiac patients and in 15 control subjects, corresponding to about 34% of total participants. In particular, ZEN was the most detected mycotoxin among all the studied subjects with a total of 19 positive cases. Results did not show a statistically significant difference in mycotoxin exposure between the two groups, and the presence of specific mycotoxins was not related to the intake of any particular food category. Our findings suggest little urgency of specific regulation for gluten free products, although the prevalence of exposure observed in free-living diets of both celiac and healthy subjects underlines the need of a constant surveillance on mycotoxins occurrence at large. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
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Open AccessArticle Frequent Occupational Exposure to Fusarium Mycotoxins of Workers in the Swiss Grain Industry
Toxins 2016, 8(12), 370; doi:10.3390/toxins8120370
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 12 December 2016
PDF Full-text (1055 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Type B trichotecens such as deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV) and zearalenone (ZEN) are mycotoxins contaminating wheat and wheat dust. Mycotoxins are toxic upon ingestion and considered potentially toxic when inhaled. Whereas dietary exposure to mycotoxins is controlled in food,
[...] Read more.
Type B trichotecens such as deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV) and zearalenone (ZEN) are mycotoxins contaminating wheat and wheat dust. Mycotoxins are toxic upon ingestion and considered potentially toxic when inhaled. Whereas dietary exposure to mycotoxins is controlled in food, data on occupational exposure by inhalation by grain workers are scarce. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of DON, 3-ADON, 15-ADON, NIV and ZEN in aerosols generated during grain harvesting and unloading and the risk of exposure of grain workers. Aerosols were collected during the threshing of 78 winter wheat fields and grain unloading of 59 grain lots in six grain terminals in the Vaud region (Switzerland). The samples represented the diversity of the winter wheat cultivar and of the farming system (88 treated with fungicides, 46 untreated). Using a HPLC MS/MS method developed to quantify mycotoxins in aerosols, we report that the mycotoxin content of aerosols was not affected by the wheat cultivars or farming system, but that the incidence of the mycotoxins differed between activities. While wheat harvesting generated on average 28, 20 and 1 ng·m−3 of DON, NIV and ZEN, respectively, grain unloading generated 53, 46 and 4 ng·m−3. Personal sampling revealed that working in a cab was an efficient protective measure. However, it was not sufficient to avoid chronic exposure to multiple mycotoxins. The most exposed activity was the cleaning, exposing workers to DON, NIV and ZEN at concentrations as high as 65, 59 and 3 ng·m−3. These data provide valuable information for future studies of mycotoxin toxicity at relevant concentrations on respiratory health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
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Open AccessArticle Exposure Assessment of Infants to Aflatoxin M1 through Consumption of Breast Milk and Infant Powdered Milk in Brazil
Toxins 2016, 8(9), 246; doi:10.3390/toxins8090246
Received: 7 July 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 31 August 2016
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Abstract
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is an important biomarker that can be used to evaluate aflatoxin exposure in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure degree of infants to AFM1 through consumption of breast
[...] Read more.
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is an important biomarker that can be used to evaluate aflatoxin exposure in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure degree of infants to AFM1 through consumption of breast milk and infant powdered milk in Brazil. For this purpose, the estimated daily intake (EDI) for infants was calculated based on the AFM1 levels analyzed in 94 breast milk (BM) samples collected in Southern Brazil, and 16 infant powdered milk (IPM) samples commonly commercialized in Brazil. AFM1 was detected in 5.3% (n = 5) and 43.8% (n = 7) of BM and IPM samples, with mean levels of 0.003 ng/g and 0.011 ng/g, respectively. All the IPM samples showed AFM1 levels lower than those established by the Brazilian guidelines (5 ng/g), and in most of the samples (81.25%) levels were below the maximum limit tolerated by the European Commission (0.025 ng/g). The EDI of AFM1 for infants aged zero to 12 months old showed values from 0.018 to 0.069 ng/kg body weight/day for BM, and 0.078 to 0.306 ng/kg body weight/day for IPM. Hazard index (HI) values for BM and IPM were less than one, except for IPM intended for infants up to one month. In conclusion, the exposure of infants to AFM1 was low, but continuous monitoring of mycotoxin levels is essential to minimize infant health risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
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Open AccessArticle Occurrence of Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 Toxins in Italian Malting Barley
Toxins 2016, 8(8), 247; doi:10.3390/toxins8080247
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 20 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1006 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
T-2 and HT-2 toxins are two of the most toxic members of type-A trichothecenes, produced by a number of Fusarium species. The occurrence of these mycotoxins was studied in barley samples during a survey carried out in the 2011–2014 growing seasons in climatically
[...] Read more.
T-2 and HT-2 toxins are two of the most toxic members of type-A trichothecenes, produced by a number of Fusarium species. The occurrence of these mycotoxins was studied in barley samples during a survey carried out in the 2011–2014 growing seasons in climatically different regions in Italy. The percentage of samples found positive ranges from 22% to 53%, with values included between 26 and 787 μg/kg. The percentage of samples with a T-2 and HT-2 content above the EU indicative levels for barley of 200 μg/kg ranges from 2% to 19.6% in the 2011–2014 period. The fungal species responsible for the production of these toxins in 100% of positive samples has been identified as Fusarium langsethiae, a well-known producer of T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A positive correlation between the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and of the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxins was found. This is the first report on the occurrence of F. langsethiae—and of its toxic metabolites T-2 and HT-2—in malting barley grown in Italy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrolytic Fate of 3/15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol in Humans: Specific Deacetylation by the Small Intestine and Liver Revealed Using in Vitro and ex Vivo Approaches
Toxins 2016, 8(8), 232; doi:10.3390/toxins8080232
Received: 19 June 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 28 July 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (6713 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In addition to deoxynivalenol (DON), acetylated derivatives, i.e., 3-acetyl and 15-acetyldexynivalenol (or 3/15ADON), are present in cereals leading to exposure to these mycotoxins. Animal and human studies suggest that 3/15ADON are converted into DON after their ingestion through hydrolysis of the acetyl moiety,
[...] Read more.
In addition to deoxynivalenol (DON), acetylated derivatives, i.e., 3-acetyl and 15-acetyldexynivalenol (or 3/15ADON), are present in cereals leading to exposure to these mycotoxins. Animal and human studies suggest that 3/15ADON are converted into DON after their ingestion through hydrolysis of the acetyl moiety, the site(s) of such deacetylation being still uncharacterized. We used in vitro and ex vivo approaches to study the deacetylation of 3/15ADON by enzymes and cells/tissues present on their way from the food matrix to the blood in humans. We found that luminal deacetylation by digestive enzymes and bacteria is limited. Using human cells, tissues and S9 fractions, we were able to demonstrate that small intestine and liver possess strong deacetylation capacity compared to colon and kidneys. Interestingly, in most cases, deacetylation was more efficient for 3ADON than 15ADON. Although we initially thought that carboxylesterases (CES) could be responsible for the deacetylation of 3/15ADON, the use of pure human CES1/2 and of CES inhibitor demonstrated that CES are not involved. Taken together, our original model system allowed us to identify the small intestine and the liver as the main site of deacetylation of ingested 3/15ADON in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups
Toxins 2017, 9(2), 46; doi:10.3390/toxins9020046
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 22 January 2017 / Accepted: 23 January 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
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Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for
[...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
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Open AccessReview Worldwide Mycotoxins Exposure in Pig and Poultry Feed Formulations
Toxins 2016, 8(12), 350; doi:10.3390/toxins8120350
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 24 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based on mycotoxin contamination levels of the raw materials with different diet formulations, to highlight the important role the stage of production and the raw materials used can have on mycotoxins levels in diets. Our analysis focuses on mycotoxins for which maximum tolerated levels or regulatory guidelines exist, and for which sufficient contamination data are available. Raw materials used in feed formulation vary considerably depending on the species of animal, and the stage of production. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites whose frequency and levels also vary considerably depending on the raw materials used and on the geographic location where they were produced. Although several reviews of existing data and of the literature on worldwide mycotoxin contamination of food and feed are available, the impact of the different raw materials used on feed formulation has not been widely studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
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