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Special Issue "Policy and Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge and Water Banking"

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A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 September 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sharon B. Megdal

Water Resources Research Center, The University of Arizona 350 N. Campbell Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1 520 792-8518
Interests: water management; water policy; ecosystem restoration; groundwater recharge; water supplies for growing regions; water transactions; trans-border water assessments and management
Guest Editor
Dr. Peter Dillon

Stream Leader, Sustainable Water Systems, CSIRO, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +61 8 8303 8714
Interests: aquifer recharge; stormwater harvesting; urban groundwater; groundwater quality

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) and water banking is a growing field of endeavor in water resources management. It is used to buffer against drought, changing climate and demand growth by making use of  excess surface water supplies and recycled waters. Institutions that perform the necessary permitting and monitoring are required so that a region’s groundwater quantity and/or quality management can be furthered through MAR. While several jurisdictions have frameworks in place, many do not. Lack of an enabling policy and governance frameworks limits the realization of MAR benefits. Limited analysis of the economics of MAR has also inhibited development of and investment in MAR programs. This special edition of the ‘Water’ Journal is designed to fill the analysis void by including papers on the policy and economics of MAR and water banking. The information and analyses are intended to contribute to the development and implementation of effective MAR programs.

Prof. Dr. Sharon B. Megdal
Dr. Peter Dillon
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • recharge
  • aquifers
  • MAR
  • water banking
  • economics
  • policy

 

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessEditorial Policy and Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge and Water Banking
Water 2015, 7(2), 592-598; doi:10.3390/w7020592
Received: 6 January 2015 / Revised: 26 January 2015 / Accepted: 29 January 2015 / Published: 9 February 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (186 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) and water banking are of increasing importance to water resources management. MAR can be used to buffer against drought and changing or variable climate, as well as provide water to meet demand growth, by making use of excess surface
[...] Read more.
Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) and water banking are of increasing importance to water resources management. MAR can be used to buffer against drought and changing or variable climate, as well as provide water to meet demand growth, by making use of excess surface water supplies and recycled waters. Along with hydrologic and geologic considerations, economic and policy analyses are essential to a complete analysis of MAR and water banking opportunities. The papers included in this Special Issue fill a gap in the literature by revealing the range of economic and policy considerations relevant to the development and implementation of MAR programs. They illustrate novel techniques that can be used to select MAR locations and the importance and economic viability of MAR in semi-arid to arid environments. The studies explain how MAR can be utilized to meet municipal and agricultural water demands in water-scarce regions, as well as assist in the reuse of wastewater. Some papers demonstrate how stakeholder engagement, ranging from consideration of alternatives to monitoring, and multi-disciplinary analyses to support decision-making are of high value to development and implementation of MAR programs. The approaches discussed in this collection of papers, along with the complementary and necessary hydrologic and geologic analyses, provide important inputs to water resource managers. Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

Open AccessArticle Impact Assessment and Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Alternative Managed Aquifer Recharge Strategies Based on Treated Wastewater in Northern Gaza
Water 2014, 6(12), 3807-3827; doi:10.3390/w6123807
Received: 6 June 2014 / Revised: 19 November 2014 / Accepted: 27 November 2014 / Published: 8 December 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1168 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For better planning of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) project, the most promising strategies should analyze the environmental impact, socio-economic efficiency, and their contribution to the existing or future water resource conditions in the region. The challenge of such studies is to combine
[...] Read more.
For better planning of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) project, the most promising strategies should analyze the environmental impact, socio-economic efficiency, and their contribution to the existing or future water resource conditions in the region. The challenge of such studies is to combine and quantify a wide range of criteria from the environment and society. This necessity leads to an integrated concept and analysis. This paper outlines an integrated approach considering environmental, health, social and economic aspects to support in the decision-making process to implement a managed aquifer recharge project as a potential response to water resource problems. In order to demonstrate the approach in detail, this paper analysed several water resources management strategies based on MAR implementation, by using treated wastewater in the Northern Gaza Strip and the potential impacts of the strategies on groundwater resources, agriculture, environment, health, economy and society. Based on the Palestinian water policy (Year 2005–2025) on wastewater reuse, three MAR strategies were developed in close cooperation with the local decision makers. The strategies were compared with a base line strategy referred to as the so-called “Do Nothing Approach”. The results of the study show that MAR project implementation with treated wastewater at a maximum rate, considered together with sustainable development of groundwater, is the best and most robust strategy amongst those analyzed. The analysis shows the defined MAR strategies contribute to water resources development and environmental protection or improvement including an existing eutrophic lake. The integrated approach used in this paper may be applicable not only to MAR project implementation but also to other water resources and environmental development projects. Full article
Open AccessArticle Policy Preferences about Managed Aquifer Recharge for Securing Sustainable Water Supply to Chennai City, India
Water 2014, 6(12), 3739-3757; doi:10.3390/w6123739
Received: 4 July 2014 / Revised: 20 November 2014 / Accepted: 26 November 2014 / Published: 3 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study is to bring out the policy changes with respect to managed aquifer recharge (focusing on infiltration ponds), which in the view of relevant stakeholders may ease the problem of groundwater depletion in the context of Chennai City; Tamil
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to bring out the policy changes with respect to managed aquifer recharge (focusing on infiltration ponds), which in the view of relevant stakeholders may ease the problem of groundwater depletion in the context of Chennai City; Tamil Nadu; India. Groundwater is needed for the drinking water security of Chennai and overexploitation has resulted in depletion and seawater intrusion. Current policies at the municipal; state and national level all support recharge of groundwater and rainwater harvesting to counter groundwater depletion. However, despite such favorable policies, the legal framework and the administrative praxis do not support systematic approaches towards managed aquifer recharge in the periphery of Chennai. The present study confirms this, considering the mandates of governmental key-actors and a survey of the preferences and motives of stakeholder representatives. There are about 25 stakeholder groups with interests in groundwater issues, but they lack a common vision. For example, conflicting interest of stakeholders may hinder implementation of certain types of managed aquifer recharge methods. To overcome this problem, most stakeholders support the idea to establish an authority in the state for licensing groundwater extraction and overseeing managed aquifer recharge. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Application of Hydrologic Tools and Monitoring to Support Managed Aquifer Recharge Decision Making in the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, USA
Water 2014, 6(11), 3495-3527; doi:10.3390/w6113495
Received: 17 June 2014 / Revised: 5 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7025 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The San Pedro River originates in Sonora, Mexico, and flows north through Arizona, USA, to its confluence with the Gila River. The 92-km Upper San Pedro River is characterized by interrupted perennial flow, and serves as a vital wildlife corridor through this semiarid
[...] Read more.
The San Pedro River originates in Sonora, Mexico, and flows north through Arizona, USA, to its confluence with the Gila River. The 92-km Upper San Pedro River is characterized by interrupted perennial flow, and serves as a vital wildlife corridor through this semiarid to arid region. Over the past century, groundwater pumping in this bi-national basin has depleted baseflows in the river. In 2007, the United States Geological Survey published the most recent groundwater model of the basin. This model served as the basis for predictive simulations, including maps of stream flow capture due to pumping and of stream flow restoration due to managed aquifer recharge. Simulation results show that ramping up near-stream recharge, as needed, to compensate for downward pumping-related stress on the water table, could sustain baseflows in the Upper San Pedro River at or above 2003 levels until the year 2100 with less than 4.7 million cubic meters per year (MCM/yr). Wet-dry mapping of the river over a period of 15 years developed a body of empirical evidence which, when combined with the simulation tools, provided powerful technical support to decision makers struggling to manage aquifer recharge to support baseflows in the river while also accommodating the economic needs of the basin. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Role of Transdisciplinary Approach and Community Participation in Village Scale Groundwater Management: Insights from Gujarat and Rajasthan, India
Water 2014, 6(11), 3386-3408; doi:10.3390/w6113386
Received: 5 September 2014 / Revised: 3 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 11 November 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1418 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainable use of groundwater is becoming critical in India and requires effective participation from local communities along with technical, social, economic, policy and political inputs. Access to groundwater for farming communities is also an emotional and complex issue as their livelihood and survival
[...] Read more.
Sustainable use of groundwater is becoming critical in India and requires effective participation from local communities along with technical, social, economic, policy and political inputs. Access to groundwater for farming communities is also an emotional and complex issue as their livelihood and survival depends on it. In this article, we report on transdisciplinary approaches to understanding the issues, challenges and options for improving sustainability of groundwater use in States of Gujarat and Rajasthan, India. In this project, called Managed Aquifer Recharge through Village level Intervention (MARVI), the research is focused on developing a suitable participatory approach and methodology with associated tools that will assist in improving supply and demand management of groundwater. The study was conducted in the Meghraj watershed in Aravalli district, Gujarat, and the Dharta watershed in Udaipur district, Rajasthan, India. The study involved the collection of hydrologic, agronomic and socio-economic data and engagement of local village and school communities through their role in groundwater monitoring, field trials, photovoice activities and education campaigns. The study revealed that availability of relevant and reliable data related to the various aspects of groundwater and developing trust and support between local communities, NGOs and government agencies are the key to moving towards a dialogue to decide on what to do to achieve sustainable use of groundwater. The analysis of long-term water table data indicated considerable fluctuation in groundwater levels from year to year or a net lowering of the water table, but the levels tend to recover during wet years. This provides hope that by improving management of recharge structures and groundwater pumping, we can assist in stabilizing the local water table. Our interventions through Bhujal Jankaars (BJs), (a Hindi word meaning “groundwater informed” volunteers), schools, photovoice workshops and newsletters have resulted in dialogue within the communities about the seriousness of the groundwater issue and ways to explore options for situation improvement. The BJs are now trained to understand how local recharge and discharge patterns are influenced by local rainfall patterns and pumping patterns and they are now becoming local champions of groundwater and an important link between farmers and project team. This study has further strengthened the belief that traditional research approaches to improve the groundwater situation are unlikely to be suitable for complex groundwater issues in the study areas. The experience from the study indicates that a transdisciplinary approach is likely to be more effective in enabling farmers, other village community members and NGOs to work together with researchers and government agencies to understand the groundwater situation and design interventions that are holistic and have wider ownership. Also, such an approach is expected to deliver longer-term sustainability of groundwater at a regional level. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessing the Feasibility of Managed Aquifer Recharge for Irrigation under Uncertainty
Water 2014, 6(9), 2748-2769; doi:10.3390/w6092748
Received: 13 June 2014 / Revised: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Additional storage of water is a potential option to meet future water supply goals. Financial comparisons are needed to improve decision making about whether to store water in surface reservoirs or below ground, using managed aquifer recharge (MAR). In some places, the results
[...] Read more.
Additional storage of water is a potential option to meet future water supply goals. Financial comparisons are needed to improve decision making about whether to store water in surface reservoirs or below ground, using managed aquifer recharge (MAR). In some places, the results of cost-benefit analysis show that MAR is financially superior to surface storage. However, uncertainty often exists as to whether MAR systems will remain operationally effective and profitable in the future, because the profitability of MAR is dependent on many uncertain technical and financial variables. This paper introduces a method to assess the financial feasibility of MAR under uncertainty. We assess such uncertainties by identification of cross-over points in break-even analysis. Cross-over points are the thresholds where MAR and surface storage have equal financial returns. Such thresholds can be interpreted as a set of minimum requirements beyond which an investment in MAR may no longer be worthwhile. Checking that these thresholds are satisfied can improve confidence in decision making. Our suggested approach can also be used to identify areas that may not be suitable for MAR, thereby avoiding expensive hydrogeological and geophysical investigations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development of a Shared Vision for Groundwater Management to Protect and Sustain Baseflows of the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, USA
Water 2014, 6(8), 2519-2538; doi:10.3390/w6082519
Received: 17 June 2014 / Revised: 14 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2502 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Groundwater pumping along portions of the binational San Pedro River has depleted aquifer storage that supports baseflow in the San Pedro River. A consortium of 23 agencies, business interests, and non-governmental organizations pooled their collective resources to develop the scientific understanding and technical
[...] Read more.
Groundwater pumping along portions of the binational San Pedro River has depleted aquifer storage that supports baseflow in the San Pedro River. A consortium of 23 agencies, business interests, and non-governmental organizations pooled their collective resources to develop the scientific understanding and technical tools required to optimize the management of this complex, interconnected groundwater-surface water system. A paradigm shift occurred as stakeholders first collaboratively developed, and then later applied, several key hydrologic simulation and monitoring tools. Water resources planning and management transitioned from a traditional water budget-based approach to a more strategic and spatially-explicit optimization process. After groundwater modeling results suggested that strategic near-stream recharge could reasonably sustain baseflows at or above 2003 levels until the year 2100, even in the presence of continued groundwater development, a group of collaborators worked for four years to acquire 2250 hectares of land in key locations along 34 kilometers of the river specifically for this purpose. These actions reflect an evolved common vision that considers the multiple water demands of both humans and the riparian ecosystem associated with the San Pedro River. Full article
Open AccessArticle A System Dynamics Model to Conserve Arid Region Water Resources through Aquifer Storage and Recovery in Conjunction with a Dam
Water 2014, 6(8), 2300-2321; doi:10.3390/w6082300
Received: 15 May 2014 / Revised: 22 July 2014 / Accepted: 29 July 2014 / Published: 7 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Groundwater depletion poses a significant threat in arid and semi-arid areas where rivers are usually ephemeral and groundwater is the major source of water. The present study investigated whether an effective water resources management strategy, capable of minimizing evaporative water losses and groundwater
[...] Read more.
Groundwater depletion poses a significant threat in arid and semi-arid areas where rivers are usually ephemeral and groundwater is the major source of water. The present study investigated whether an effective water resources management strategy, capable of minimizing evaporative water losses and groundwater depletion while providing water for expanded agricultural activities, can be achieved through aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) implemented in conjunction with water storage in an ephemeral river. A regional development modeling framework, including both ASR and a dam design developed through system dynamics modeling, was validated using a case study for the Sirik region of Iran. The system dynamics model of groundwater flow and the comprehensive system dynamics model developed in this study showed that ASR was a beneficial strategy for the region’s farmers and the groundwater system, since the rate of groundwater depletion declined significantly (from 14.5 meters per 40 years to three meters over the same period). Furthermore, evaporation from the reservoir decreased by 50 million cubic meters over the simulation period. It was concluded that the proposed system dynamics model is an effective tool in helping to conserve water resources and reduce depletion in arid regions and semi-arid areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Economic Assessment of Opportunities for Managed Aquifer Recharge Techniques in Spain Using an Advanced Geographic Information System (GIS)
Water 2014, 6(7), 2021-2040; doi:10.3390/w6072021
Received: 3 January 2014 / Revised: 20 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 17 July 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates the economic aspects of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) techniques considered in the DINA-MAR (Depth Investigation of New Areas for Managed Aquifer Recharge in Spain) project. This project firstly identified the areas with potential for MAR for the whole of the
[...] Read more.
This paper investigates the economic aspects of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) techniques considered in the DINA-MAR (Depth Investigation of New Areas for Managed Aquifer Recharge in Spain) project. This project firstly identified the areas with potential for MAR for the whole of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands of Spain using characteristics derived from 23 GIS layers of physiographic features, spanning geology, topography, land use, water sources and including existing MAR sites. The work involved evaluations for 24 different types (techniques) of MAR projects, over this whole area accounting for the physiographic features that favor each technique. The scores for each feature for each type of technique were set based on practical considerations and scores were accumulated for each location. A weighting was assigned to each feature by “training” the integrated score for each technique across all the features with the existing MAR sites overlay, so that opportunities for each technique could be more reliably predicted. It was found that there were opportunities for MAR for 16% of the area evaluated and that the additional storage capacity of aquifers in these areas was more than 2.5 times the total storage capacity of all existing surface water dams in Spain. The second part of this work, which is considered internationally unique, was to use this GIS methodology to evaluate the economics of the various MAR techniques across the region. This involved determining an economic index related to key physiographic features and applying this as an additional GIS overlay. Again this was trained by use of economic information for each of the existing MAR sites for which economic data and supply or storage volume were available. Two simpler methods were also used for comparison. Finally, the mean costs of MAR facilities and construction projects were determined based on the origin of the water. Maps of potential sites for Managed Aquifer Recharge (or “MAR zones”) in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands of Spain and the results of the previous economic studies developed at the beginning of the project were used as the foundation for the economic analysis. Based on these data, a new specific mapping of the total expected costs for all “MAR zones” (€/m3) was proposed based on the techniques that were considered most appropriate for each Spanish study case. Capital costs ranged from Euro 0.08–0.58 per m3/year. Overall, this study investigates the opportunity and economic feasibility of implementing new MAR projects and provides support to decision makers in Spain. The novel mapping provides valuable guidance for the future development of Managed Aquifer Recharge projects for water managers and practitioners. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Economics of Groundwater Replenishment for Reliable Urban Water Supply
Water 2014, 6(6), 1662-1670; doi:10.3390/w6061662
Received: 11 March 2014 / Revised: 27 May 2014 / Accepted: 29 May 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper explores the potential economic benefits of water banking in aquifers to meet drought and emergency supplies for cities where the population is growing and changing climate has reduced the availability of water. A simplified case study based on the city of
[...] Read more.
This paper explores the potential economic benefits of water banking in aquifers to meet drought and emergency supplies for cities where the population is growing and changing climate has reduced the availability of water. A simplified case study based on the city of Perth, Australia was used to estimate the savings that could be achieved by water banking. Scenarios for investment in seawater desalination plants and groundwater replenishment were considered over a 20 year period of growing demand, using a Monte Carlo analysis that embedded the Markov model. An optimisation algorithm identified the minimum cost solutions that met specified criteria for supply reliability. The impact of depreciation of recharge credits was explored. The results revealed savings of more than A$1B (~US$1B) or 37% to 33% of supply augmentation costs by including water banking in aquifers for 95% and 99.5% reliability of supply respectively. When the hypothetically assumed recharge credit depreciation rate was increased from 1% p.a. to 10% p.a. savings were still 33% to 31% for the same reliabilities. These preliminary results show that water banking in aquifers has potential to offer a highly attractive solution for efficiently increasing the security of urban water supplies where aquifers are suitable. Full article
Open AccessArticle Water Banks: Using Managed Aquifer Recharge to Meet Water Policy Objectives
Water 2014, 6(6), 1500-1514; doi:10.3390/w6061500
Received: 20 February 2014 / Revised: 20 May 2014 / Accepted: 21 May 2014 / Published: 28 May 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Innovation born of necessity to secure water for the U.S. state of Arizona has yielded a model of water banking that serves as an international prototype for effective use of aquifers for drought and emergency supplies. If understood and adapted to local hydrogeological
[...] Read more.
Innovation born of necessity to secure water for the U.S. state of Arizona has yielded a model of water banking that serves as an international prototype for effective use of aquifers for drought and emergency supplies. If understood and adapted to local hydrogeological and water supply and demand conditions, this could provide a highly effective solution for water security elsewhere. Arizona is a semi-arid state in the southwestern United States that has growing water demands, significant groundwater overdraft, and surface water supplies with diminishing reliability. In response, Arizona has developed an institutional and regulatory framework that has allowed large-scale implementation of managed aquifer recharge in the state’s deep alluvial groundwater basins. The most ambitious recharge activities involve the storage of Colorado River water that is delivered through the Central Arizona Project (CAP). The CAP system delivers more than 1850 million cubic meters (MCM) per year to Arizona’s two largest metropolitan areas, Phoenix and Tucson, along with agricultural users and sovereign Native American Nations, but the CAP supply has junior priority and is subject to reduction during declared shortages on the Colorado River. In the mid-1980s the State of Arizona established a framework for water storage and recovery; and in 1996 the Arizona Water Banking Authority was created to mitigate the impacts of Colorado River shortages; to create water management benefits; and to allow interstate storage. The Banking Authority has stored more than 4718 MCM of CAP water; including more than 740 MCM for the neighboring state of Nevada. The Nevada storage was made possible through a series of interrelated agreements involving regional water agencies and the federal government. The stored water will be recovered within Arizona; allowing Nevada to divert an equal amount of Colorado River water from Lake Mead; which is upstream of CAP’s point of diversion. This paper describes water banking in Arizona from a policy perspective and identifies reasons for its implementation. It goes on to explore conditions under which water banking could successfully be applied to other parts of the world, specifically including Australia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge
Water 2014, 6(5), 1257-1279; doi:10.3390/w6051257
Received: 2 January 2014 / Revised: 9 April 2014 / Accepted: 6 May 2014 / Published: 9 May 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) technologies can provide a variety of water resources management benefits by increasing the volume of stored water and improving water quality through natural aquifer treatment processes. Implementation of MAR is often hampered by the absence of a clear economic
[...] Read more.
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) technologies can provide a variety of water resources management benefits by increasing the volume of stored water and improving water quality through natural aquifer treatment processes. Implementation of MAR is often hampered by the absence of a clear economic case for the investment to construct and operate the systems. Economic feasibility can be evaluated using cost benefit analysis (CBA), with the challenge of monetizing benefits. The value of water stored or treated by MAR systems can be evaluated by direct and indirect measures of willingness to pay including market price, alternative cost, value marginal product, damage cost avoided, and contingent value methods. CBAs need to incorporate potential risks and uncertainties, such as failure to meet performance objectives. MAR projects involving high value uses, such as potable supply, tend to be economically feasible provided that local hydrogeologic conditions are favorable. They need to have low construction and operational costs for lesser value uses, such as some irrigation. Such systems should therefore be financed by project beneficiaries, but dichotomies may exist between beneficiaries and payers. Hence, MAR projects in developing countries may be economically viable, but external support is often required because of limited local financial resources. Full article

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessCorrection Correction: Niazi, A., Prasher, S.O., Adamowski, J., Gleeson, T. A System Dynamics Model to Conserve Arid Region Water Resources through Aquifer Storage and Recovery in Conjunction with a Dam. Water 2014, 6, 2300–2321
Water 2014, 6(12), 3957-3959; doi:10.3390/w6123957
Received: 22 November 2014 / Revised: 22 November 2014 / Accepted: 3 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract We have recently been made aware by Prof. Sharon Megdal (The University of Arizona) and Dr. Peter Dillon (CSIRO) of some errors and omissions in our recent paper [1]. The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper:[...] Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) Economics for Wastewater Reuse in Low Population Wadi Communities, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Water 2014, 6(8), 2322-2338; doi:10.3390/w6082322
Received: 3 June 2014 / Revised: 26 July 2014 / Accepted: 29 July 2014 / Published: 7 August 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (752 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Depletion of water supplies for potable and irrigation use is a major problem in the rural wadi valleys of Saudi Arabia and other areas of the Middle East and North Africa. An economic analysis of supplying these villages with either desalinated seawater or
[...] Read more.
Depletion of water supplies for potable and irrigation use is a major problem in the rural wadi valleys of Saudi Arabia and other areas of the Middle East and North Africa. An economic analysis of supplying these villages with either desalinated seawater or treated wastewater conveyed via a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) system was conducted. In many cases, there are no local sources of water supply of any quality in the wadi valleys. The cost per cubic meter for supplying desalinated water is $2–5/m3 plus conveyance cost, and treated wastewater via an MAR system is $0–0.50/m3 plus conveyance cost. The wastewater reuse, indirect for potable use and direct use for irrigation, can have a zero treatment cost because it is discharged to waste in many locations. In fact, the economic loss caused by the wastewater discharge to the marine environment can be greater than the overall amortized cost to construct an MAR system, including conveyance pipelines and the operational costs of reuse in the rural environment. The MAR and associated reuse system can solve the rural water supply problem in the wadi valleys and reduce the economic losses caused by marine pollution, particularly coral reef destruction. Full article

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