Special Issue "Seawater Intrusion: Simulation and Control"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (22 January 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Carole Rosier

LMPA Centre Universitaire de la Mi-Voix 50 rue F. Buisson CS80699 62228 Calais
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 03 21 46 55 83
Interests: seawater intrusion; numerical simulations

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Groundwater is a major source of water supply. In coastal zones there exist hydraulic exchanges between fresh groundwater and seawater. They are slow in ''natural conditions'' and thus are often forgotten and replaced by a quasi-equilibrium between two fluid layers (Ghyben--Herzberg assumptions). The picture fails in case of more drastic conditions due for instance to meteorological events or to human interventions. Intensive extraction of freshwater leads for instance to local water table depression causing problems of saltwater intrusion in the aquifer. We thus need efficient and accurate models to simulate the displacement of salt water front in coastal aquifer for the optimal exploitation of fresh groundwater. The existing models for seawater intrusion may be classified in three categories: The first one corresponds to the diffuse interface approach. This is the physically correct approach. Fresh and salt water are two miscible fluids. Due to density contrast they tend to separate into two layers with a transition zone characterized by the variations of the salt concentration. This approach is heavy from theoretical and numerical point of view. The second approach, called 'Sharp interface approach', is based on the hypothesis that the two fluids are immiscible. Moreover the domains occupied by each fluid are assumed to be separated by a smooth interface, no mass transfert occurs between the fresh and the salt area and capillary pressure's type effects are neglected. This approximation is often reasonable. Of course, this type of model does not describe the behavior of the real transition zone but give informations concerning the movement of the saltwater front. The other price to pay for this simplified approach is the numerical handling of free interfaces. In the third approach, this abrupt interface approach is mixed with a phase field approach, thus reinjecting in a new way the realism of diffuse interfaces models. It thus combines the advantage of respecting the physics of the problem and that of the computational efficiency. The mathematical difficulty of the analysis of the free interfaces is compensated by an upscaling procedure which allows to model the three-dimensional problem by a system of partial differential equations set in a two-dimensional domain. The aim and scope of this Special Issue is to provide relevant numerical studies derived from above approaches to provide efficient and accurate modeling of the evolution of the saltwater front in coastal aquifers in realistic situations.

Prof. Carole Rosier
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • seawater intrusion problem
  • numerical modeling
  • mathematical modeling
  • simulations

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Well Salinization Risk and Effects of Baltic Sea Level Rise on the Groundwater-Dependent Island of Öland, Sweden
Water 2018, 10(2), 141; doi:10.3390/w10020141
Received: 16 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
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Abstract
In this study, we estimate baseline conditions in terms of the current risk of well salinization on the Baltic Sea island of Öland, Sweden, and assess the effects of future sea level rise on the land area, infrastructure and cultural values. We use
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In this study, we estimate baseline conditions in terms of the current risk of well salinization on the Baltic Sea island of Öland, Sweden, and assess the effects of future sea level rise on the land area, infrastructure and cultural values. We use a multicriterion geographical information systems (GIS) approach. Geomorphological and physical parameters affect the risk of saltwater intrusion into freshwater aquifers, including their hydrology, geomorphology, and climatology; the spatial distribution of the current risk of salinization is mapped in this study. In the event of a future 2 m sea level rise, a total land area of 67 km2 will be inundated on Öland, corresponding to approximately 5% of the island’s land surface. Inundation includes urban areas, nature reserves, and animal protection areas, implying the loss of environmental and socioeconomic values. A future 2 m sea level rise will also cause direct inundation of 3% of all wells on the island. Currently, 17.5% of all wells are at a high risk of becoming saltwater contaminated. More generally, the present results add evidence showing a relatively high vulnerability of major Baltic Sea islands and their infrastructure to future sea level rise. The approach used here and related results, including salinization risk maps, may prove useful for decision-makers in the planning of infrastructure. Drilling of new wells could for instance preferably be done in areas with identified lower risk-index values, which would facilitate an overall higher freshwater withdrawal in the interest of the entire island. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seawater Intrusion: Simulation and Control)
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