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Special Issue "New Developments in Methods for Hydrological Process Understanding"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Keith Smettem

School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, 6009, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: water and solute transport in the vadose zone; ecohydrology; impacts of land use change on hydrological processes; behaviour of hydrophobic soils; environmental sensor development
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Scott W. Tyler

Department of Geological Sciences and Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, MS 172, Reno, NV 89503, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Groundwater surface water interactions; Distributed temperature sensing
Guest Editor
Dr. Josie Geris

Northern Rivers Institute, School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, St Mary's Building, Room B35, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Multiscale catchment hydrology; land and water management impacts on (eco)hydrological processes; tracer hydrology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Understanding the complex patterns, interactions and feedbacks between water and ecosystems is a fundamental challenge for ecohydrology and for process hydrology generally. Our current perceptions of these processes are typically limited by our inability to observe everything, everywhere, all of the time. In recent years there has been considerable development in hydrological and ecological field observation, analyses, and remote sensing methods. These developments offer new ‘spectacles’ for observing hydrological systems, leading to new insights into their functioning and new approaches to process modelling. These include, for example: opportunities for high spatio/temporal resolution monitoring, use of tracer techniques, new proxies for hydrological processes, and advances in spatial imagery collection and processing.

This Special Issue aims to assess the latest developments and applications of these methods to improve our understanding of hydrological systems. We invite contributions that consider: (i) innovative measurement and analysis techniques; (ii) novel combinations of existing techniques; (iii) new approaches to explore existing datasets; and (iv) new approaches to spatially distributed modelling of hydrological systems. Topics may include, but are not limited to soil-vegetation water interlinkages, spatial patterns and heterogeneities in ecosystems, process understanding at different scales, and hydrological applications of distributed sensor systems.

Prof. Dr. Keith Smettem
Prof. Dr. Scott W. Tyler
Dr. Josie Geris
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Exploring Streamwater Mixing Dynamics via Handheld Thermal Infrared Imagery
Water 2017, 9(5), 358; doi:10.3390/w9050358
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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Abstract
Stream confluences are important hotspots of aquatic ecological processes. Water mixing dynamics at stream confluences influence physio-chemical characteristics of the stream as well as sediment mobilisation and pollutant dispersal. In this study, we investigated the potential for handheld thermal infrared (TIR) imagery to
[...] Read more.
Stream confluences are important hotspots of aquatic ecological processes. Water mixing dynamics at stream confluences influence physio-chemical characteristics of the stream as well as sediment mobilisation and pollutant dispersal. In this study, we investigated the potential for handheld thermal infrared (TIR) imagery to provide rapid information on stream water mixing dynamics at small scales. In-situ visualisation of water mixing patterns can help reduce analytical errors related to stream water sampling locations and improve our understanding of how confluences and tributaries influence aquatic ecological communities. We compared TIR-inferred stream temperature distributions with water electrical conductivity and temperature (measured with a submerged probe) data from cross-channel transects. We show that the use of a portable TIR camera can enhance the visualisation of mixing dynamics taking place at stream confluences, identify the location of the mixing front between two different water sources and the degree of mixing. Interpretation of handheld TIR observations also provided information on how stream morphology and discharge can influence mixing dynamics in small streams. Overall, this study shows that TIR imagery is a valuable support technique for eco-hydrological investigation at small stream confluences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Methods for Hydrological Process Understanding)
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Open AccessArticle Characterizing the Impact of River Barrage Construction on Stream-Aquifer Interactions, Korea
Water 2016, 8(4), 137; doi:10.3390/w8040137
Received: 4 November 2015 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 1 April 2016 / Published: 7 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3141 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated changes in stream–aquifer interactions during the period shortly after the construction of the Changnyeong-Haman River barrage (CHRB) on the Nakdong River in South Korea. The hydraulic diffusivity (α) and river resistance (R) values at the semipervious
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This study investigated changes in stream–aquifer interactions during the period shortly after the construction of the Changnyeong-Haman River barrage (CHRB) on the Nakdong River in South Korea. The hydraulic diffusivity (α) and river resistance (R) values at the semipervious stream–aquifer interface were estimated by using a one-dimensional (1-D) analytical solution with Fourier transform (FT). Prior to the application of the 1-D analytical solution, the noise effects on the groundwater levels were removed by using fast Fourier transform and low-pass filtering techniques. Sinusoidal variation of the river stages was applied to the 1-D analytical solution. For the study period, the R values showed a decreasing trend, while the α values showed an increasing trend, and results showed that the average of the median values of flood duration times (td) and flood amplitudes were reduced to 78% and 59%, respectively. Moreover, the ratio of flood peak time to td demonstrated a decreasing tendency after the construction of the CHRB. Hence, it is concluded that the dredging and increase of river-water storage due to CHRB construction enhanced stream–aquifer interactions during the period shortly after the construction of the CHRB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Methods for Hydrological Process Understanding)
Open AccessArticle Quantifying the Response Time of a Lake–Groundwater Interacting System to Climatic Perturbation
Water 2015, 7(11), 6598-6615; doi:10.3390/w7116598
Received: 6 September 2015 / Revised: 5 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 17 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Response time, describing how quickly a disturbed system would reach a new equilibrium, has been helpful to hydrogeologists in characterizing and understanding the hydrogeological systems. This study examined the complex response times associated with lake–groundwater perturbed by climate. Simulated hydraulic heads and lake
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Response time, describing how quickly a disturbed system would reach a new equilibrium, has been helpful to hydrogeologists in characterizing and understanding the hydrogeological systems. This study examined the complex response times associated with lake–groundwater perturbed by climate. Simulated hydraulic heads and lake stage values derived from a 3-D, MODFLOW-based model were used to calculate the response times for a closed, groundwater-fed lake system. Although obviously coupled, the response times of the lake and groundwater systems were different from one another. Typically, the adjustments in hydraulic heads occurred more rapidly than lake stage. Response times for groundwaters close to the lake were controlled by the lake because of the slow transient response in stage. However, the influence of the lake declined toward the basin boundaries. This behavior occurred because critical parameters controlling the response-time behavior of the groundwater system (e.g., recharge rate) differed from those controlling the response-time behavior of the lake (e.g., bed leakance). An improved understanding of lake–groundwater behaviors have the potential to evaluate how lakes function as systems for recording paleoclimates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Methods for Hydrological Process Understanding)
Open AccessArticle Obtaining the Thermal Structure of Lakes from the Air
Water 2015, 7(11), 6467-6482; doi:10.3390/w7116467
Received: 1 September 2015 / Revised: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 5 November 2015 / Published: 13 November 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2481 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The significance of thermal heterogeneities in small surface water bodies as drivers of mixing and for habitat provision is increasingly recognized, yet obtaining three-dimensionally-resolved observations of the thermal structure of lakes and rivers remains challenging. Remote observations of water temperature from aerial platforms
[...] Read more.
The significance of thermal heterogeneities in small surface water bodies as drivers of mixing and for habitat provision is increasingly recognized, yet obtaining three-dimensionally-resolved observations of the thermal structure of lakes and rivers remains challenging. Remote observations of water temperature from aerial platforms are attractive: such platforms do not require shoreline access; they can be quickly and easily deployed and redeployed to facilitate repeated sampling and can rapidly move between target locations, allowing multiple measurements to be made during a single flight. However, they are also subject to well-known limitations, including payload, operability and a tradeoff between the extent and density over which measurements can be made within restricted flight times. This paper introduces a novel aerial thermal sensing platform that lowers a temperature sensor into the water to record temperature measurements throughout a shallow water column and presents results from initial field experiments comparing \emph{in situ} temperature observations to those made from the UAS platform. These experiments show that with minor improvements, UASs have the potential to enable high-resolution 3D thermal mapping of a \(\sim\)1-ha lake in 2–3 flights (\textit{circa} 2 h), sufficient to resolve diurnal variations. This paper identifies operational constraints and key areas for further development, including the need for the integration of a faster temperature sensor with the aerial vehicle and better control of the sensor depth, especially when near the water surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Methods for Hydrological Process Understanding)
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Open AccessArticle Spatial Modeling of Rainfall Patterns over the Ebro River Basin Using Multifractality and Non-Parametric Statistical Techniques
Water 2015, 7(11), 6204-6227; doi:10.3390/w7116204
Received: 31 August 2015 / Revised: 27 October 2015 / Accepted: 2 November 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1794 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rainfall, one of the most important climate variables, is commonly studied due to its great heterogeneity, which occasionally causes negative economic, social, and environmental consequences. Modeling the spatial distributions of rainfall patterns over watersheds has become a major challenge for water resources management.
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Rainfall, one of the most important climate variables, is commonly studied due to its great heterogeneity, which occasionally causes negative economic, social, and environmental consequences. Modeling the spatial distributions of rainfall patterns over watersheds has become a major challenge for water resources management. Multifractal analysis can be used to reproduce the scale invariance and intermittency of rainfall processes. To identify which factors are the most influential on the variability of multifractal parameters and, consequently, on the spatial distribution of rainfall patterns for different time scales in this study, universal multifractal (UM) analysis—C1, α, and γs UM parameters—was combined with non-parametric statistical techniques that allow spatial-temporal comparisons of distributions by gradients. The proposed combined approach was applied to a daily rainfall dataset of 132 time-series from 1931 to 2009, homogeneously spatially-distributed across a 25 km × 25 km grid covering the Ebro River Basin. A homogeneous increase in C1 over the watershed and a decrease in α mainly in the western regions, were detected, suggesting an increase in the frequency of dry periods at different scales and an increase in the occurrence of rainfall process variability over the last decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Methods for Hydrological Process Understanding)
Open AccessArticle Sensitivity Analysis of Flow and Temperature Distributions of Density Currents in a River-Reservoir System under Upstream Releases with Different Durations
Water 2015, 7(11), 6244-6268; doi:10.3390/w7116244
Received: 26 August 2015 / Revised: 30 September 2015 / Accepted: 2 November 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (8221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A calibrated three-dimensional Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code model was applied to simulate unsteady flow patterns and temperature distributions in the Bankhead river-reservoir system in Alabama, USA. A series of sensitivity model runs were performed under daily repeated large releases (DRLRs) with different durations
[...] Read more.
A calibrated three-dimensional Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code model was applied to simulate unsteady flow patterns and temperature distributions in the Bankhead river-reservoir system in Alabama, USA. A series of sensitivity model runs were performed under daily repeated large releases (DRLRs) with different durations (2, 4 and 6 h) from Smith Dam Tailrace (SDT) when other model input variables were kept unchanged. The density currents in the river-reservoir system form at different reaches, are destroyed at upstream locations due to the flow momentum of the releases, and form again due to solar heating. DRLRs (140 m3/s) with longer durations push the bottom cold water further downstream and maintain a cooler bottom water temperature. For the 6-h DRLR, the momentum effect definitely reaches Cordova (~43.7 km from SDT). Positive bottom velocity (density currents moving downstream) is achieved 48.4%, 69.0% and 91.1% of the time with an average velocity of 0.017, 0.042 and 0.053 m/s at Cordova for the 2-h, 4-h and 6-h DRLR, respectively. Results show that DRLRs lasting for at least 4 h maintain lower water temperatures at Cordova. When the 4-h and 6-h DRLRs repeat for more than 6 and 10 days, respectively, bottom temperatures at Cordova become lower than those for the constant small release (2.83 m3/s). These large releases overwhelm the mixing effects due to inflow momentum and maintain temperature stratification at Cordova. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Methods for Hydrological Process Understanding)

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