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Special Issue "Advances on Urban Stormwater Harvesting Strategies"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2017

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Alberto Campisano

Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Piazza Università 2, 95124 Catania CT, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Guest Editor
Dr. Chao-Hsien Liaw

Department of Harbor and River Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, No. 2, Beining Rd, Zhongzheng District, Keelung City, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to foster applied research on a diverse range of topics associated with urban rainwater/stormwater harvesting systems. Topics will include the technical design and performance of such systems, with specific references to strategies for water saving and reuse, quality aspects of rainwater, runoff control in urban catchments, urban agriculture/landscape, restoration of urban stream patterns and of healthy urban water cycle. Socio-economic aspects, as well as policies and strategies, aiming to promote system implementation will be included.

Dr. Alberto Campisano
Dr. Chao-Hsien Liaw
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • rainwater harvesting
  • water saving
  • runoff control
  • low impact development
  • implementation strategies and policies

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Improving the Viability of Stormwater Harvesting through Rudimentary Real Time Control
Water 2017, 9(6), 371; doi:10.3390/w9060371
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
Stormwater Harvesting (SWH) to alleviate water scarcity is often hindered by the lack of suitable available storage in urban areas. This research aimed to discover an economically viable strategy of storing runoff in existing stormwater ponds with the assistance of rudimentary Real Time
[...] Read more.
Stormwater Harvesting (SWH) to alleviate water scarcity is often hindered by the lack of suitable available storage in urban areas. This research aimed to discover an economically viable strategy of storing runoff in existing stormwater ponds with the assistance of rudimentary Real Time Control (RTC) techniques to increase the effective storage capacity. The Diep River sub-catchment situated in the southern suburbs of Cape Town, South Africa, that has several stormwater ponds that were largely constructed for the purposes of flood mitigation, was used as a case study. Six SWH scenarios utilising three distinct RTC strategies coupled with two alternative water demand alternatives were simulated with the aid of 10 years’ of historical rainfall data with a view to determining the unit cost of supplying selected developments with non-potable water. The use of RTC to increase the effective storage of the ponds was shown to improve the volumetric yield without significantly impairing the flood mitigation provided by the system at a cost that was comparable to what the local residents were already paying for potable water. This finding is important as it suggests a cost-effective way of overcoming one of the greatest limitations associated with stormwater harvesting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Urban Stormwater Harvesting Strategies)
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Open AccessArticle An Investigation of the Relationships between Rainfall Conditions and Pollutant Wash-Off from the Paved Road
Water 2017, 9(4), 232; doi:10.3390/w9040232
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
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Abstract
Stormwater runoff monitoring was carried out from 2011 to 2015 to investigate the relationships between rainfall conditions (antecedent dry days (ADDs), rainfall intensity, depth and duration), and water quality parameters of stormwater from a paved road in Korea. Factor analysis suggested that the
[...] Read more.
Stormwater runoff monitoring was carried out from 2011 to 2015 to investigate the relationships between rainfall conditions (antecedent dry days (ADDs), rainfall intensity, depth and duration), and water quality parameters of stormwater from a paved road in Korea. Factor analysis suggested that the effect of rainfall conditions on the concentrations of selected pollutants varied depending on the pollutant. As total COD (total chemical oxygen demand) concentration increased, the level of heavy metals increased and resulted in a decrease of BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand) because of their toxicity. In addition, ADDs had a significant impact on the wash-off of solids from paved road. The predominant particles in stormwater were 30 μm and smaller, and increased in concentration as ADDs increased. Thus, the initial load of accumulated particles became a major factor in the wash-off process. The mass of particle-related pollutants was also subject to the effect of ADDs due to the affinity between pollutants and predominant particles (<30 μm). However, the effect of ADDs on the mass of organic matter and nitrogen was relatively weak. ADDs contributed to the decrease of some pollutants by photo-oxidation, volatilization and natural decay over dry days, as well as desorption from solids during rainfall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Urban Stormwater Harvesting Strategies)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Developing High Performance Green Infrastructure Systems to Sustain Coastal Cities: Design and Modeling of an Advanced Rainwater Harvesting System

David Roman1, Andrea Braga1, Patricia Culligan2*, Nandan Shetty2

1. Geosyntec Consultants, 1330 Beacon Street, Suite 317, Brookline, MA 02446, USA
2. Columbia University, Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, 500 West 120th Street, 610 Mudd, New York, New York 10027

* Corresponding author: pjc2104@columbia.edu

Abstract: Discharge of wastewater, sewage, and stormwater runoff from coastal cities remains the dominant source of coastal zone pollution. The impervious nature of modern cities is exacerbating this problem by increasing runoff from city surfaces, triggering combined sewer overflow events and intensifying urban flooding. A continuously monitored and controlled advanced rainwater harvesting system has been designed to demonstrate that “smart” green infrastructure can be widely distributed to maximize stormwater capture and reduce potable water usage. This paper will describe the system and will demonstrate how improvements in performance can be achieved using these types of “smart” stormwater management systems.

Title: Quality of roof-harvested rainwater as a function of environmental and air pollution factors in a coastal Mediterranean city (Haifa, Israel)
Author: Eran Friedler*, Hussain Muklada, Yael Gilboa
Affiliation: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology
* Corresponding author: email: eranf@technion.ac.il
Abstract: This research studied the quality of roof-harvested rainwater in a Mediterranean climate characterised by dry summers and erratic wet winters. The effects of environmental (rain depth, length of the dry period between consecutive rain events, date from the beginning of season, roof type, wind speed, and wind direction) and air pollution factors (O3, SO2, NO2, NO, PM2.5, PM2.5-10) on different quality parameters were studied. Three roofs of three common types (concrete, steel sheets and roof tiles) were constructed. The runoff generated by them was collected over two rainy seasons (>50 rain events) and analysed for presence of metals, chemical and physical parameters and faecal coliforms (23 parameters). For each event, rain depth and runoff volume from each roof were recorded.
Most parameters examined complied with the Israeli drinking water regulations, indicating that the harvested rainwater can be used for non-potable uses. A stepwise multivariate linear regression established a significant effect of roof type on runoff pollutants concentrations, especially for ones generated by the roofs themselves (e.g. Ca from the concrete roof and Zn from roof tiles). A significant effect of different air pollution parameters of on the quality of runoff water from roofs was found, since in fact, the rain washes pollutants accumulated in the atmosphere during the dry period. Rain depth affected only four out of the twenty-three variables (such as Si and Na). In contrast, the length of the dry period between consecutive rain events was a very important factor affecting 12 roof-runoff quality variables. Finally, a significant effect of various factors on faecal coliforms was found, among them wind speed and direction which can indicate a specific pollution source from which bacteria were transported on large particles (PM2.5-10) carried by the wind to the research roofs.

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