Special Issue "Advances on Urban Stormwater Harvesting Strategies"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Alberto Campisano

Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Piazza Università 2, 95124 Catania CT, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Guest Editor
Dr. Chao-Hsien Liaw

Department of Harbor and River Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, No. 2, Beining Rd, Zhongzheng District, Keelung City, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to foster applied research on a diverse range of topics associated with urban rainwater/stormwater harvesting systems. Topics will include the technical design and performance of such systems, with specific references to strategies for water saving and reuse, quality aspects of rainwater, runoff control in urban catchments, urban agriculture/landscape, restoration of urban stream patterns and of healthy urban water cycle. Socio-economic aspects, as well as policies and strategies, aiming to promote system implementation will be included.

Dr. Alberto Campisano
Dr. Chao-Hsien Liaw
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • rainwater harvesting
  • water saving
  • runoff control
  • low impact development
  • implementation strategies and policies

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Design and Modeling of an Adaptively Controlled Rainwater Harvesting System
Water 2017, 9(12), 974; doi:10.3390/w9120974
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
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Abstract
Management of urban stormwater to mitigate Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) is a priority for many cities; yet, few truly innovative approaches have been proposed to address the problem. Recent advances in information technology are now, however, providing cost-effective opportunities to achieve better performance
[...] Read more.
Management of urban stormwater to mitigate Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) is a priority for many cities; yet, few truly innovative approaches have been proposed to address the problem. Recent advances in information technology are now, however, providing cost-effective opportunities to achieve better performance of conventional stormwater infrastructure through a Continuous Monitoring and Adaptive Control (CMAC) approach. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate that a CMAC approach can be applied to a conventional rainwater harvesting system in New York City to improve performance by minimizing discharge to the combined sewer during rainfall events, reducing water use for irrigation of local vegetation, and optimizing vegetation health. To achieve this objective, a hydrologic and hydraulic model was developed for a planned and designed rainwater harvesting system to explore multiple potential scenarios prior to the system’s actual construction. Model results indicate that the CMAC rainwater harvesting system is expected to provide significant performance improvements over conventional rainwater harvesting systems. The CMAC system is expected to capture and retain 76.6% of roof runoff per year on average, as compared to just 14.8% and 41.3% for conventional moisture and timer based systems, respectively. Similarly, the CMAC system is expected to use 81.4% and 18.0% less harvested rainwater than conventional moisture and timer based irrigation approaches, respectively. The flexibility of the CMAC approach to meet competing objectives is promising for widespread implementation in New York City and other heavily urbanized areas challenged by stormwater management issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Urban Stormwater Harvesting Strategies)
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Open AccessArticle Stormwater Biofilters as Barriers against Campylobacter jejuni, Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Adenoviruses; Results from a Laboratory Trial
Water 2017, 9(12), 949; doi:10.3390/w9120949
Received: 24 September 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract
Biofilters are a widely used stormwater treatment technology. However; other than some evidence regarding non-pathogenic indicator microorganisms; there are significant knowledge gaps in the capacity of stormwater biofilters to remove actual pathogens and how this removal is impacted by biofilter design elements and
[...] Read more.
Biofilters are a widely used stormwater treatment technology. However; other than some evidence regarding non-pathogenic indicator microorganisms; there are significant knowledge gaps in the capacity of stormwater biofilters to remove actual pathogens and how this removal is impacted by biofilter design elements and operational conditions. In this study; we explored the capacity of stormwater biofilters to remove three reference pathogens (Campylobacter spp.; adenovirus and Cryptosporidium oocysts) and compared these to commonly used indicator microorganisms (E. coli; FRNA coliphages and Clostridium perfringens). Two different biofilter designs; each having a submerged zone (SZ); were tested under extended dry weather periods (up to 4 weeks) and different event volumes (the equivalent of 1–2 pore volumes) in a laboratory trial. These systems were able to consistently reduce the concentrations of all tested reference pathogens (average log reduction in Campylobacter spp. = 0.7; adenovirus = 1.0 and Cryptosporidium oocysts = 1.7) and two of the indicators (average log reduction in E. coli = 1.2 and C. perfringens = 2.1). However; none of the tested indicators consistently mimicked the removal performance of their corresponding reference pathogens after extended dry weather periods and during larger simulated storm events. This indicates that the behaviour of these pathogens in stormwater biofilters are not adequately represented by their corresponding indicator microorganisms and that to optimise biofilter designs for pathogen removal it is critical to further study pathogen removal processes in these systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Urban Stormwater Harvesting Strategies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Quality of Roof-Harvested Rainwater as a Function of Environmental and Air Pollution Factors in a Coastal Mediterranean City (Haifa, Israel)
Water 2017, 9(11), 896; doi:10.3390/w9110896
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
The quality of roof-harvested rainwater in a Mediterranean climate, which is characterised by dry summers and erratic wet winters, was studied. The effects of environmental factors (rain depth, length of dry period between consecutive rain events, time since the beginning of the rainy
[...] Read more.
The quality of roof-harvested rainwater in a Mediterranean climate, which is characterised by dry summers and erratic wet winters, was studied. The effects of environmental factors (rain depth, length of dry period between consecutive rain events, time since the beginning of the rainy season, roof type, wind speed, and wind direction) and air pollution parameters (O3, SO2, NO2, NO, PM2.5, and PM2.5–10) on roof runoff quality were studied. Three roofs of three common types (concrete, steel sheets, and tiles) were constructed. Roof-generated runoff was collected over two rainy seasons (>50 rain events) and were analysed for presence of metals, chemical and physical constituents, and faecal coliforms (a total of 23 parameters). Rain depth and runoff volume from each roof were recorded for each rain event. Most parameters examined complied with the Israeli potable water regulations. A stepwise multivariate linear regression established a significant effect of roof type on runoff pollutant concentrations, especially for ones generated by the roof material itself (e.g., Ca from the concrete roof and Zn from roof tiles). A significant effect of various air pollutants on the quality of roof-runoff water was found, as explained by rain washing off pollutants that accumulated in the atmosphere during the antecedent dry period. Both O3 and PM2.5–10 affected 17 quality parameters each. Rain depth affected only four out of the 23 water quality variables. In contrast, the length of the dry period between consecutive rain events was an important factor, affecting 12 roof-runoff quality variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Urban Stormwater Harvesting Strategies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Improving the Viability of Stormwater Harvesting through Rudimentary Real Time Control
Water 2017, 9(6), 371; doi:10.3390/w9060371
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
Stormwater Harvesting (SWH) to alleviate water scarcity is often hindered by the lack of suitable available storage in urban areas. This research aimed to discover an economically viable strategy of storing runoff in existing stormwater ponds with the assistance of rudimentary Real Time
[...] Read more.
Stormwater Harvesting (SWH) to alleviate water scarcity is often hindered by the lack of suitable available storage in urban areas. This research aimed to discover an economically viable strategy of storing runoff in existing stormwater ponds with the assistance of rudimentary Real Time Control (RTC) techniques to increase the effective storage capacity. The Diep River sub-catchment situated in the southern suburbs of Cape Town, South Africa, that has several stormwater ponds that were largely constructed for the purposes of flood mitigation, was used as a case study. Six SWH scenarios utilising three distinct RTC strategies coupled with two alternative water demand alternatives were simulated with the aid of 10 years’ of historical rainfall data with a view to determining the unit cost of supplying selected developments with non-potable water. The use of RTC to increase the effective storage of the ponds was shown to improve the volumetric yield without significantly impairing the flood mitigation provided by the system at a cost that was comparable to what the local residents were already paying for potable water. This finding is important as it suggests a cost-effective way of overcoming one of the greatest limitations associated with stormwater harvesting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Urban Stormwater Harvesting Strategies)
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Open AccessArticle An Investigation of the Relationships between Rainfall Conditions and Pollutant Wash-Off from the Paved Road
Water 2017, 9(4), 232; doi:10.3390/w9040232
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stormwater runoff monitoring was carried out from 2011 to 2015 to investigate the relationships between rainfall conditions (antecedent dry days (ADDs), rainfall intensity, depth and duration), and water quality parameters of stormwater from a paved road in Korea. Factor analysis suggested that the
[...] Read more.
Stormwater runoff monitoring was carried out from 2011 to 2015 to investigate the relationships between rainfall conditions (antecedent dry days (ADDs), rainfall intensity, depth and duration), and water quality parameters of stormwater from a paved road in Korea. Factor analysis suggested that the effect of rainfall conditions on the concentrations of selected pollutants varied depending on the pollutant. As total COD (total chemical oxygen demand) concentration increased, the level of heavy metals increased and resulted in a decrease of BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand) because of their toxicity. In addition, ADDs had a significant impact on the wash-off of solids from paved road. The predominant particles in stormwater were 30 μm and smaller, and increased in concentration as ADDs increased. Thus, the initial load of accumulated particles became a major factor in the wash-off process. The mass of particle-related pollutants was also subject to the effect of ADDs due to the affinity between pollutants and predominant particles (<30 μm). However, the effect of ADDs on the mass of organic matter and nitrogen was relatively weak. ADDs contributed to the decrease of some pollutants by photo-oxidation, volatilization and natural decay over dry days, as well as desorption from solids during rainfall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Urban Stormwater Harvesting Strategies)
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