Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Molecules, Volume 17, Issue 2 (February 2012), Pages 1138-2270

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-79
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Structure-Odor Relationships of α­Santalol Derivatives with Modified Side Chains
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 2259-2270; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17022259
Received: 20 December 2011 / Revised: 16 February 2012 / Accepted: 20 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (503 KB) | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
(Z)-α-Santalol, which has a unique woody odor, is a main constituent of sandalwood essential oil. We investigated the structure-odor relationship of (Z)-α-santalol and its derivatives, focusing on the relationship between the structure of the side chain and the odor
[...] Read more.
(Z)-α-Santalol, which has a unique woody odor, is a main constituent of sandalwood essential oil. We investigated the structure-odor relationship of (Z)-α-santalol and its derivatives, focusing on the relationship between the structure of the side chain and the odor of the compounds. Various α-santalol derivatives (aldehydes, formates, and acetates) were synthesized from (Z)- and (E)-α-santalol, which were prepared from (+)-3-bromocamphor through modifications of a reported synthetic route. The Z- and E-isomers of α-santalols have different double-bond configurations in the side chain. Analogues with saturated side chains were also prepared from the corresponding α-santalols, and the odors of the all the prepared compounds were evaluated. We found that the odors of the Z-isomers (woody) were similar to those of the corresponding saturated compounds, but clearly different from the odors of the corresponding E-isomers (odorless, fresh, or fatty). These results indicate that the relative configuration of the side chain with respect to the santalane frame plays an important role in the odor of α-santalol. E-configuration in the side chain eliminates the woody odor character of α-santalol and its examined derivatives, whereas the Z-configuration or saturation of the carbon side chain does not. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-(3-Fluoro-4-nitro phenoxy)-N-phenylacetamide Derivatives as Novel Potential Affordable Antitubercular Agents
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 2248-2258; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17022248
Received: 3 February 2012 / Revised: 20 February 2012 / Accepted: 20 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (285 KB)
Abstract
A novel series of 2-(3-fluoro-4-nitrophenoxy)-N-phenylacetamide compounds were designed, synthesized and in vitro assessed for their antitubercular activities by a microdilution method. All the novel derivatives exerted potent or moderate active against M. tuberculosis H37Rv, with MIC values ranging from
[...] Read more.
A novel series of 2-(3-fluoro-4-nitrophenoxy)-N-phenylacetamide compounds were designed, synthesized and in vitro assessed for their antitubercular activities by a microdilution method. All the novel derivatives exerted potent or moderate active against M. tuberculosis H37Rv, with MIC values ranging from 4 to 64 μg/mL. The most potent derivative 3m showed an identical MIC value of 4 μg/mL for both M. tuberculosis H37Rv and rifampin-resistant M. tuberculosis 261. It demonstrated no inhibitory effects against six different tumor cell lines by a MTT assay and had a good safety profile in a vero cell line, providing a good lead for subsequent optimization in search of novel affordable antitubercular agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessCommunication 2,3,5,4′- Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glycoside Biosynthesis by Suspension Cells Cultures of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb and Production Enhancement by Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 2240-2247; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17022240
Received: 9 January 2012 / Revised: 9 February 2012 / Accepted: 13 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (279 KB)
Abstract
Friable calli of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb have been induced in MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and kinetin (KT). Suspension cultures were initiated from friable calli by inoculating calli in liquid MS medium in shake flasks in the dark and 25 °C on
[...] Read more.
Friable calli of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb have been induced in MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and kinetin (KT). Suspension cultures were initiated from friable calli by inoculating calli in liquid MS medium in shake flasks in the dark and 25 °C on an orbital shaker at 100 rpm. The maximum dry weight (DW, 7.85 g/L) and 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glycoside (THSG, 56.39 mg/L) of suspension cells was obtained in MS medium after 16 days culture. Both methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) could increase THSG production. The most appropriate concentration of MeJA was 100 μmol/L in MS medium, in which concentration THSG content reached the maximum value of 147.79 mg/L, which represented a 162.36% increase compared to that of the control (56.33 mg/L). The most appropriate concentration of SA was 125 μmol/L in MS medium, at which concentration THSG content reached its maximum value of 116.43 mg/L, a 106.69% increase compared to that of the control (56.33 mg/L). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Open AccessCommunication Preparation and Physical Properties of Chitosan Benzoic Acid Derivatives Using a Phosphoryl Mixed Anhydride System
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 2231-2239; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17022231
Received: 1 January 2012 / Revised: 15 February 2012 / Accepted: 16 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (358 KB)
Abstract
Direct benzoylation of the two hydroxyl groups on chitosan was achieved using a phosphoryl mixed anhydride system, derived from trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA), benzoic acids (BAs), and phosphoric acid (PA). The reaction is operated as a one pot process under mild conditions that does
[...] Read more.
Direct benzoylation of the two hydroxyl groups on chitosan was achieved using a phosphoryl mixed anhydride system, derived from trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA), benzoic acids (BAs), and phosphoric acid (PA). The reaction is operated as a one pot process under mild conditions that does not require neither an inert atmosphere nor dry solvents. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by NMR and IR spectroscopy. Solubility tests on the products revealed that they were soluble in organic solvents such as N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and acetone. In the meantime, a morphological study by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evidently indicated that the chitosan benzoates underwent significant structural changes after the benzoylation. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Benefits of Combinations of Vitamin A, C and E Derivatives in the Stability of Cosmetic Formulations
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 2219-2230; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17022219
Received: 19 December 2011 / Revised: 1 February 2012 / Accepted: 16 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (294 KB)
Abstract
Chemically stable ester derivatives of vitamins A, C and E have become a focus of interest for their role in the satisfactory results in skin aging treatments. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of a
[...] Read more.
Chemically stable ester derivatives of vitamins A, C and E have become a focus of interest for their role in the satisfactory results in skin aging treatments. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of a cosmetic formulation containing 1% retinyl palmitate, ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate and tocopheryl acetate, alone or in combination. In the studies of physical stability, a Brookfield rheometer was used to determine rheological behavior of formulations containing the vitamins. Chemical stability was determined by HPLC on a Shimadzu system with UV detection. Results showed that formulations had pseudoplastic behavior and that vitamins did not alter their apparent viscosity and thixotropy. In the chemical stability studies, first-order reaction equations were used for determinations of the shelf-life of vitamins derivatives considering a remaining concentration of 85%. Combined vitamins in a single formulation had a slightly lower degradation rate as compared to different preparations containing only one of the vitamins. Considering that many cosmetic formulations contain vitamin combinations it is suggested that the present study may contribute to the development of more stable formulations containing liposoluble vitamins. Full article
Open AccessReview Mechanisms of Suppression and Enhancement of Photocurrent/Conversion Efficiency in Dye-Sensitized Solar-Cells Using Carotenoid and Chlorophyll Derivatives as Sensitizers
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 2188-2218; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17022188
Received: 10 December 2011 / Revised: 14 February 2012 / Accepted: 15 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (2252 KB)
Abstract
The mechanisms of suppression and enhancement of photocurrent/conversion efficiency (performance) in dye-sensitized solar cells, using carotenoid and chlorophyll derivatives as sensitizers, were compared systematically. The key factor to enhance the performance was found to be how to minimize interaction among the excited-state dye-sensitizer(s).
[...] Read more.
The mechanisms of suppression and enhancement of photocurrent/conversion efficiency (performance) in dye-sensitized solar cells, using carotenoid and chlorophyll derivatives as sensitizers, were compared systematically. The key factor to enhance the performance was found to be how to minimize interaction among the excited-state dye-sensitizer(s). In a set of retinoic-acid (RA) and carotenoic-acid (CA) sensitizers, having n conjugated double bonds, CA7 gave rise to the highest performance, which was reduced toward RA5 and CA13. The former was ascribed to the generation of triplet and the resultant singlet-triplet annihilation reaction, while the latter, to the intrinsic electron injection efficiency. In a set of shorter polyene sensitizers having different polarizabilities, the one with the highest polarizability (the highest trend of aggregate formation) exhibited the higher performance toward the lower dye concentration and the lower light intensity, contrary to our expectation. This is ascribed to a decrease in the singlet-triplet annihilation reaction. The performance of cosensitization, by a pair of pheophorbide sensitizers without and with the central metal, Mg or Zn, was enhanced by the light absorption (complementary rather than competitive), the transition-dipole moments (orthogonal rather than parallel) and by the pathways of electron injection (energetically independent rather than interactive). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
Open AccessCommunication A Comparative Study of Nozzle/Diffuser Micropumps with Novel Valves
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 2178-2187; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17022178
Received: 16 December 2011 / Revised: 16 February 2012 / Accepted: 17 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (550 KB)
Abstract
This study conducts an experimental study concerning the improvement of nozzle/diffuser micropump design using some novel no-moving-part valves. A total of three micropumps, including two enhancement structures having two-fin or obstacle structure and one conventional micro nozzle/diffuser design, are made and tested in
[...] Read more.
This study conducts an experimental study concerning the improvement of nozzle/diffuser micropump design using some novel no-moving-part valves. A total of three micropumps, including two enhancement structures having two-fin or obstacle structure and one conventional micro nozzle/diffuser design, are made and tested in this study. It is found that dramatic increase of the pressure drops across the designed micro nozzles/diffusers are seen when the obstacle or fin structure is added. The resultant maximum flow rates are 47.07 mm3/s and 53.39 mm3/s, respectively, for the conventional micro nozzle/diffuser and the added two-fin structure in micro nozzle/diffuser operated at a frequency of 400 Hz. Yet the mass flow rate for two-fin design surpasses that of conventional one when the frequency is below 425 Hz but the trend is reversed with a further increase of frequency. This is because the maximum efficiency ratio improvement for added two-fin is appreciably higher than the other design at a lower operating frequency. In the meantime, despite the efficiency ratio of the obstacle structure also reveals a similar trend as that of two-fin design, its significant pressure drop (flow resistance) had offset its superiority at low operating frequency, thereby leading to a lesser flow rate throughout the test range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Botulinum Toxin Type A on Collagen Deposition in Hypertrophic Scars
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 2169-2177; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17022169
Received: 16 December 2011 / Revised: 14 February 2012 / Accepted: 17 February 2012 / Published: 21 February 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (304 KB)
Abstract
A recent study reported that Botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) could inhibit the growth of hypertrophic scars and improve their appearance. However, the mechanism of BTXA’s action on hypertrophic scars is still unknown. Some in vitro studies had shown BTXA could alleviate hypertrophic
[...] Read more.
A recent study reported that Botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) could inhibit the growth of hypertrophic scars and improve their appearance. However, the mechanism of BTXA’s action on hypertrophic scars is still unknown. Some in vitro studies had shown BTXA could alleviate hypertrophic scars by acting on the biological behavior of fibroblasts, but there are few in vivo experiments, especially animal model experiments, supporting these findings. The aim of the study reported herein was to investigate the effect of BTXA on collagen deposition on hypertrophic scars in a rabbit ear model and partially clarify the mechanism of BTXA on the hypertrophy of scars. The rabbit hypertrophic scar model was used and eight rabbits were employed. BTXA was injected into the hypertrophic scar tissue of one ear; and the other ear in the same rabbit was the control without BTXA injection. The scar thickness and deposition of collagen was examined through immune histochemistry including haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome staining. The thicknesses of hypertrophic scars in the BTXA treatment group were obviously lower than in the control groups (P < 0.01). H&E and Masson staining showed that collagen fibers were stained blue. Compared with the treatment group, the collagen fibers were thicker and the arrangement of collagen fibers were disordered in the control group. This study used the rabbit ear model of hypertrophic scars to assess the effects of BTXA on scar hypertrophy. The application of BTXA may be useful for inhibiting hypertrophic scars. Full article
Open AccessArticle Contribution of Cation-π Interactions in Iminium Catalysis
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 2161-2168; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17022161
Received: 12 January 2012 / Revised: 9 February 2012 / Accepted: 15 February 2012 / Published: 21 February 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (281 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ab initio calculations were carried out for a benzyl-substituted iminium cation derived from (E)-crotonaldehyde and a chiral imidazolidinone that was developed as an organocatalyst by MacMillan et al. At the MP2 level of theory it is predicted that the phenyl group
[...] Read more.
Ab initio calculations were carried out for a benzyl-substituted iminium cation derived from (E)-crotonaldehyde and a chiral imidazolidinone that was developed as an organocatalyst by MacMillan et al. At the MP2 level of theory it is predicted that the phenyl group is close to the iminium moiety in the most stable conformer, suggesting that the cation-π interaction contributes to the stabilization of this conformer. Energy decomposition analyses on model systems indicate that the electrostatic and polarization terms make significant contribution to the attractive interactions between the benzene ring and the iminium cation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organocatalysis)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview Reaction Dynamics of Flavonoids and Carotenoids as Antioxidants
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 2140-2160; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17022140
Received: 4 January 2012 / Revised: 30 January 2012 / Accepted: 3 February 2012 / Published: 21 February 2012
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (410 KB)
Abstract
Flavonoids and carotenoids with rich structural diversity are ubiquitously present in the plant kingdom. Flavonoids, and especially their glycosides, are more hydrophilic than most carotenoids. The interaction of flavonoids with carotenoids occurs accordingly at water/lipid interfaces and has been found important for the
[...] Read more.
Flavonoids and carotenoids with rich structural diversity are ubiquitously present in the plant kingdom. Flavonoids, and especially their glycosides, are more hydrophilic than most carotenoids. The interaction of flavonoids with carotenoids occurs accordingly at water/lipid interfaces and has been found important for the functions of flavonoids as antioxidants in the water phase and especially for the function of carotenoids as antioxidants in the lipid phase. Based on real-time kinetic methods for the fast reactions between (iso)flavonoids and radicals of carotenoids, antioxidant synergism during protection of unsaturated lipids has been found to depend on: (i) the appropriate distribution of (iso)flavonoids at water/lipid interface, (ii) the difference between the oxidation potentials of (iso)flavonoid and carotenoid and, (iii) the presence of electron-withdrawing groups in the carotenoid for facile electron transfer. For some (unfavorable) combinations of (iso)flavonoids and carotenoids, antioxidant synergism is replaced by antagonism, despite large potential differences. For contact with the lipid phase, the lipid/water partition coefficient is of importance as a macroscopic property for the flavonoids, while intramolecular rotation towards coplanarity upon oxidation by the carotenoid radical cation has been identified by quantum mechanical calculations to be an important microscopic property. For carotenoids, anchoring in water/lipid interface by hydrophilic groups allow the carotenoids to serve as molecular wiring across membranes for electron transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
Open AccessArticle Struvite Precipitation for Ammonia Nitrogen Removal in 7-Aminocephalosporanic Acid Wastewater
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 2126-2139; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17022126
Received: 4 January 2012 / Revised: 14 February 2012 / Accepted: 15 February 2012 / Published: 21 February 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (483 KB)
Abstract
7-Aminocephalosporanic acid wastewater usually contains high concentrations of ammonium (NH4+-N), which is known to inhibit nitrification during biological treatment processes. Chemical precipitation is a useful technology to remove ammonium from wastewater. In this paper, the removal of ammonium from 7-aminocephalosporanic
[...] Read more.
7-Aminocephalosporanic acid wastewater usually contains high concentrations of ammonium (NH4+-N), which is known to inhibit nitrification during biological treatment processes. Chemical precipitation is a useful technology to remove ammonium from wastewater. In this paper, the removal of ammonium from 7-aminocephalosporanic acid wastewater was studied. The optimum pH, molar ratio, and various chemical compositions of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) precipitation were investigated. The results indicated that ammonium in 7-aminocephalosporanic acid wastewater could be removed at an optimum pH of 9. The Mg2+:NH4+-N:PO43-P molar ratio was readily controlled at a ratio of 1:1:1.1 to both effectively remove ammonium and avoid creating a higher concentration of PO43-P in the effluent. MgCl2·6H2O + 85% H3PO4 was the most efficient combination for NH4+-N removal. Furthermore, the lowest concentration of the residual PO43−-P was obtained with the same combination. Struvite precipitation could be considered an effective technology for the NH4+-N removal from the 7-aminocephalosporanic acid wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle A New Bromoallene-Producing Chemical Type of the Red Alga Laurencia nangii Masuda
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 2119-2125; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17022119
Received: 27 December 2011 / Revised: 8 February 2012 / Accepted: 13 February 2012 / Published: 21 February 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Six populations of Laurencia nangii were found to produce three bromoallenes; dihydroitomanallene B (1), itomanallene B (2) and pannosallene (3). Prior to this report, L. nangii were only known to produce C15-acetogenins with acetylene functionality.
[...] Read more.
Six populations of Laurencia nangii were found to produce three bromoallenes; dihydroitomanallene B (1), itomanallene B (2) and pannosallene (3). Prior to this report, L. nangii were only known to produce C15-acetogenins with acetylene functionality. This could be regarded as a new chemical race of L. nangii. The compound structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with those previously reported in literature. Compound 1, dihydroitomanallene B, was isolated as a new compound representing a minor variation of itomanallene B (2). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle In Vitro Antibacterial and Time-Kill Assessment of Crude Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Acacia mearnsii De Wild against Bacteria in Shigellosis
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 2103-2118; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17022103
Received: 13 January 2012 / Revised: 13 February 2012 / Accepted: 15 February 2012 / Published: 21 February 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (325 KB)
Abstract
Shigellosis is an important cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality among young children and old people for which treatment with antimicrobial agents is limited. Hence, the need for curative potentials obtainable from medicinal plants becomes inevitable. This study was carried out to assess
[...] Read more.
Shigellosis is an important cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality among young children and old people for which treatment with antimicrobial agents is limited. Hence, the need for curative potentials obtainable from medicinal plants becomes inevitable. This study was carried out to assess the antibacterial potentials of crude methanolic extract of the stem bark of Acacia mearnsii against some selected bacteria of clinical importance in shigellosis. The bacteria were inhibited by the extract to produce concentration dependent inhibition zones. The extract exhibited a varied degree of antibacterial activity against all the tested isolates. The MIC values for Gram negative (0.0391–0.3125) mg/mL and those of Gram positive bacteria (0.0781–0.625) mg/mL indicated that the Gram negative bacteria were more inhibited by the extract than the Gram positive bacteria. Average log reduction in viable cell count in time-kill assay ranged between −2.456 Log10 to 2.230 Log10 cfu/mL after 4 h of interaction, and between −2.921 Log10 and 1.447 Log10 cfu/mL after 8 h interaction in 1× MIC and 2× MIC of the extract. The study provided scientific justification for the use of the crude methanolic extract from the stem bark of A. mearnsii in shigellosis. The degree of the antibacterial activity indicated that the crude extract is a potential source of bioactive compounds that could be useful for the development of new antimicrobial agents capable of decreasing the burden of drug resistance and cost of management of diseases of clinical and public health importance in South Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Open AccessCommunication Total Synthesis of Flocoumafen via Knoevenagel Condensation and Intramolecular Ring Cyclization: General Access to Natural Products
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 2091-2102; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17022091
Received: 4 January 2012 / Revised: 9 February 2012 / Accepted: 14 February 2012 / Published: 21 February 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (316 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The total synthesis and structure determination of cis- and trans-flocoumafen was described. The key synthetic steps involve Knoevenagel condensation with p-methoxybenzaldehyde, in situ decarboxylation and intramolecular ring cyclization to construct the tetralone skeleton. Stereospecific reduction of the O-alkylated ketone 13
[...] Read more.
The total synthesis and structure determination of cis- and trans-flocoumafen was described. The key synthetic steps involve Knoevenagel condensation with p-methoxybenzaldehyde, in situ decarboxylation and intramolecular ring cyclization to construct the tetralone skeleton. Stereospecific reduction of the O-alkylated ketone 13 afforded good yield of precusor alcohol 5. Final coupling of alcohol 5 with 4-hydroxy-coumarin yielded flocoumafen (1). Separation and structure determination of cis- and trans-flocoumafen through 2D NMR analyses-assisted computer simulation techniques for the evaluation of anticoagulant activities are reported for the first time. This method is useful for generating the core tetralone skeleton of 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives and provides a generalized access to various warfarin type anticoagulants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Regulated Expressions of MMP-2, -9 by Diterpenoids from Euphorbia formosana Hayata
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 2082-2090; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17022082
Received: 29 November 2011 / Revised: 3 February 2012 / Accepted: 6 February 2012 / Published: 21 February 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (421 KB)
Abstract
Two new abietane type diterpenoids, namely seco-helioscopinolide (1) and 3b,7b-dihydroxy-ent-abieta-8,13-diene-12,16-olide (2) were isolated from the aerial parts of Euphorbia formosana Hayata together with helioscopinolide A (3), helioscopinolide B (4), helioscopinolide C (
[...] Read more.
Two new abietane type diterpenoids, namely seco-helioscopinolide (1) and 3b,7b-dihydroxy-ent-abieta-8,13-diene-12,16-olide (2) were isolated from the aerial parts of Euphorbia formosana Hayata together with helioscopinolide A (3), helioscopinolide B (4), helioscopinolide C (5) and ent-(5b,8a,9b,10a,12a)-12-hydroxyatis-16-ene-3,14-dione (6). The structures of compounds 16 were elucidated by analyzing their spectroscopic data and comparison with the literature. Further biological tests by gelatin zymographic analysis revealed that 35 significantly up-regulated the expressions and activation of MMP-2 and -9 in human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080. Full article
Back to Top