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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 10 (October 2010), Pages 3623-4174

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Open AccessArticle Rapid Synthesis of Flavor Compound 4-Ethyloctanoic Acid under Microwave Irradiation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 4165-4174; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11104165
Received: 30 September 2010 / Revised: 20 October 2010 / Accepted: 21 October 2010 / Published: 25 October 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (170 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rapid synthesis of 4-ethyloctanoic acid by means of microwave irradiation is described. Diethyl malonate reacted with 2-ethyl-1-bromohexane in the presence of sodium ethoxide to give diethyl (2-ethylhexyl)malonate (1b). 1b was saponified in the solution of ethanol and potassium hydroxide and then
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Rapid synthesis of 4-ethyloctanoic acid by means of microwave irradiation is described. Diethyl malonate reacted with 2-ethyl-1-bromohexane in the presence of sodium ethoxide to give diethyl (2-ethylhexyl)malonate (1b). 1b was saponified in the solution of ethanol and potassium hydroxide and then acidified to form (2-ethylhexyl)propanedioic acid (1c), and 1c was heated and decarboxylized to give 4-ethyloctanoic acid (1d). The influence of reaction temperature and reaction time on the yield of 1b and the effect of reaction time on the yield of 1c and 1d were investigated in order to optimize the synthetic conditions. The relative optimal conditions for the synthesis of 1b were a mole ratio of sodium to diethyl malonate to 2-ethylhexyl bromide of 0.1:0.11:0.11, a reaction temperature of 80–85 °C, and a reaction time of 2–2.5 h. The yield of 1b was about 79%. 1b was saponified for 30 min and then acidified to form 1c, and the yield of 1c was 96%. 1c was heated for 16 min at 180°C to give 1d, and the yield of 1d was about 90%. The overall yield of 1d is 70% under microwave irradiation. The reaction time was reduced greatly. In order to compare the result of microwave irradiation with that of an oil bath, the reactions were also performed in an oil bath. The structures of intermediates, product and by-product were confirmed by HRMS, 1H NMR, 13C-NMR and IR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
Open AccessReview Lipid Based Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis—Modulation of Intestinal Mucus Membrane Phospholipids as a Tool to Influence Inflammation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 4149-4164; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11104149
Received: 6 September 2010 / Revised: 15 October 2010 / Accepted: 16 October 2010 / Published: 25 October 2010
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is the result of an inappropriate colonic inflammatory response triggered by environmental and genetic factors. We have recently shown that mucus from UC patients has a decreased phosphatidylcholine (PC) content, while clinical trials revealed that therapeutic addition of PC to
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Ulcerative colitis (UC) is the result of an inappropriate colonic inflammatory response triggered by environmental and genetic factors. We have recently shown that mucus from UC patients has a decreased phosphatidylcholine (PC) content, while clinical trials revealed that therapeutic addition of PC to the colonic mucus alleviated the inflammatory activity. The mechanisms behind this are still unclear. We hypothesized that PC has at least two possible functions in the intestine: First, it establishes the surface hydrophobicity of the mucus and therefore protects the underlying tissue against intraluminal aggressors; recent experiments on surgical specimens revealed reduced surface tension and hydrophobicity in UC patients. Second, mucus phospholipids might also be integrated into the plasma membranes of enterocytes and thereby influence the signaling state of the mucosa. PC has been shown to inhibit TNF-α induced pro-inflammatory responses including: (1) assembly of plasma membrane actin; (2) activation of MAP kinases ERK and p38; and (3) activation of NF-κB and synthesis of pro-inflammatory gene products. Other phospholipids like phosphatidylethanolamine or sphingomyelin had no effect. PC also inhibited latex bead phagosome actin assembly, killing of M. tuberculosis in macrophages, and sphingosine-1-phosphate induced actin assembly in macrophages. Collectively, these results provide a molecular foundation that shows PC, firstly, as an anti-inflammatory, and secondly, as a surface hydrophobicity increasing compound with promising therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences)
Open AccessArticle In Vivo Biocompatibility Study of Electrospun Chitosan Microfiber for Tissue Engineering
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 4140-4148; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11104140
Received: 28 September 2010 / Revised: 19 October 2010 / Accepted: 19 October 2010 / Published: 25 October 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, we examined the biocompatibility of electrospun chitosan microfibers as a scaffold. The chitosan microfibers showed a three-dimensional pore structure by SEM. The chitosan microfibers supported attachment and viability of rat muscle-derived stem cells (rMDSCs). Subcutaneous implantation of the chitosan microfibers
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In this work, we examined the biocompatibility of electrospun chitosan microfibers as a scaffold. The chitosan microfibers showed a three-dimensional pore structure by SEM. The chitosan microfibers supported attachment and viability of rat muscle-derived stem cells (rMDSCs). Subcutaneous implantation of the chitosan microfibers demonstrated that implantation of rMDSCs containing chitosan microfibers induced lower host tissue responses with decreased macrophage accumulation than did the chitosan microfibers alone, probably due to the immunosuppression of the transplanted rMDSCs. Our results collectively show that chitosan microfibers could serve as a biocompatible in vivo scaffold for rMDSCs in rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins)
Open AccessArticle On Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationship, Its Extension, and the Quantum Issue of Wave-Particle Duality
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 4124-4139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11104124
Received: 11 August 2010 / Revised: 27 September 2010 / Accepted: 17 October 2010 / Published: 22 October 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Within the path integral Feynman formulation of quantum mechanics, the fundamental Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationship (HUR) is analyzed in terms of the quantum fluctuation influence on coordinate and momentum estimations. While introducing specific particle and wave representations, as well as their ratio, in quantifying
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Within the path integral Feynman formulation of quantum mechanics, the fundamental Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationship (HUR) is analyzed in terms of the quantum fluctuation influence on coordinate and momentum estimations. While introducing specific particle and wave representations, as well as their ratio, in quantifying the wave-to-particle quantum information, the basic HUR is recovered in a close analytical manner for a large range of observable particle-wave Copenhagen duality, although with the dominant wave manifestation, while registering its progressive modification with the factor √1-n2, in terms of magnitude n ε [0,1] of the quantum fluctuation, for the free quantum evolution around the exact wave-particle equivalence. The practical implications of the present particle-to-wave ratio as well as of the free-evolution quantum picture are discussed for experimental implementation, broken symmetry and the electronic localization function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Electronic Structure Calculations)
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Open AccessArticle Estrogen Stimulates Proliferation and Differentiation of Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells through Different Signal Transduction Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 4114-4123; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11104114
Received: 13 October 2010 / Revised: 17 October 2010 / Accepted: 18 October 2010 / Published: 22 October 2010
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our previous study indicated that both 17β-estradiol (E2), known to be an endogenous estrogen, and bisphenol A (BPA), known to be a xenoestrogen, could positively influence the proliferation or differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs). The aim of the present study was to
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Our previous study indicated that both 17β-estradiol (E2), known to be an endogenous estrogen, and bisphenol A (BPA), known to be a xenoestrogen, could positively influence the proliferation or differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs). The aim of the present study was to identify the signal transduction pathways for estrogenic activities promoting proliferation and differentiation of NS/PCs via well known nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs) or putative membrane-associated ERs. NS/PCs were cultured from the telencephalon of 15-day-old rat embryos. In order to confirm the involvement of nuclear ERs for estrogenic activities, their specific antagonist, ICI-182,780, was used. The presence of putative membrane-associated ER was functionally examined as to whether E2 can activate rapid intracellular signaling mechanism. In order to confirm the involvement of membrane-associated ERs for estrogenic activities, a cell-impermeable E2, bovine serum albumin-conjugated E2 (E2-BSA) was used. We showed that E2 could rapidly activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK 1/2), which was not inhibited by ICI-182,780. ICI-182,780 abrogated the stimulatory effect of these estrogens (E2 and BPA) on the proliferation of NS/PCs, but not their effect on the differentiation of the NS/PCs into oligodendroglia. Furthermore, E2-BSA mimicked the activity of differentiation from NS/PCs into oligodendroglia, but not the activity of proliferation. Our study suggests that (1) the estrogen induced proliferation of NS/PCs is mediated via nuclear ERs; (2) the oligodendroglial generation from NS/PCs is likely to be stimulated via putative membrane‑associated ERs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Celecoxib in a Rabbit Model of Osteoarthritis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 4106-4113; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11104106
Received: 13 September 2010 / Accepted: 15 October 2010 / Published: 21 October 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Introduction: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It is a slowly progressive joint disease typically seen in middle-age to elderly people. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid is a well-documented treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Celebrex® (celecoxib) is a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
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Introduction: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It is a slowly progressive joint disease typically seen in middle-age to elderly people. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid is a well-documented treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Celebrex® (celecoxib) is a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which could help to reduce inflammation and to reduce pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intra-articular injection of celecoxib in a rabbit osteoarthritis model. Methods: Thirty New Zealand white rabbits underwent unilateral knee joint surgery using the Hulth technique. Six weeks post-surgery, the animals were randomly divided into three groups, and each group was respectively given weekly intra-articular injections with Celebrex®, hyaluronic acid and saline. On the sixth week, the results were assessed in rabbit models by gross observation, histological evaluation, and expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-3. Results: In the group given Celebrex® and hyaluronic acid, the pathological changes in the rabbit articular cartilage improved significantly, much more than in the saline group. The statistically significant suppression of IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-3 was shown in the Celebrex group. No significant differences were detected between two treatment groups. Conclusions: Intra-articular injection of celecoxib is beneficial for knee osteoarthritis. It might repair and protect early osteoarthritis cartilage by delaying cartilage degeneration and impairing the function of inflammatory mediators, therefore, intra-articular injection of celecoxib can be used as an alternative to the current treatment of osteoarthritis. Full article
Open AccessArticle COMBO-FISH Enables High Precision Localization Microscopy as a Prerequisite for Nanostructure Analysis of Genome Loci
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 4094-4105; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11104094
Received: 15 September 2010 / Revised: 16 October 2010 / Accepted: 18 October 2010 / Published: 21 October 2010
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the completeness of genome databases, it has become possible to develop a novel FISH (Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization) technique called COMBO-FISH (COMBinatorial Oligo FISH). In contrast to other FISH techniques, COMBO-FISH makes use of a bioinformatics approach for probe set design. By
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With the completeness of genome databases, it has become possible to develop a novel FISH (Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization) technique called COMBO-FISH (COMBinatorial Oligo FISH). In contrast to other FISH techniques, COMBO-FISH makes use of a bioinformatics approach for probe set design. By means of computer genome database searching, several oligonucleotide stretches of typical lengths of 15–30 nucleotides are selected in such a way that all uniquely colocalize at the given genome target. The probes applied here were Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs)—synthetic DNA analogues with a neutral backbone—which were synthesized under high purity conditions. For a probe repetitively highlighted in centromere 9, PNAs labeled with different dyes were tested, among which Alexa 488Ò showed reversible photobleaching (blinking between dark and bright state) a prerequisite for the application of SPDM (Spectral Precision Distance/Position Determination Microscopy) a novel technique of high resolution fluorescence localization microscopy. Although COMBO-FISH labeled cell nuclei under SPDM conditions sometimes revealed fluorescent background, the specific locus was clearly discriminated by the signal intensity and the resulting localization accuracy in the range of 10–20 nm for a detected oligonucleotide stretch. The results indicate that COMBO-FISH probes with blinking dyes are well suited for SPDM, which will open new perspectives on molecular nanostructural analysis of the genome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Activities of Extract and Fractions from the Hypocotyls of the Mangrove Plant Kandelia candel
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 4080-4093; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11104080
Received: 30 September 2010 / Revised: 17 October 2010 / Accepted: 19 October 2010 / Published: 21 October 2010
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The antioxidant activities of 70% acetone extract (70% AE) from the hypocotyls of the mangrove plant Kandelia candel and its fractions of petroleum ether (PF), ethyl acetate (EF), water (WF), and the LF (WF fraction further purified through a Sephadex LH‑20 column), were
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The antioxidant activities of 70% acetone extract (70% AE) from the hypocotyls of the mangrove plant Kandelia candel and its fractions of petroleum ether (PF), ethyl acetate (EF), water (WF), and the LF (WF fraction further purified through a Sephadex LH‑20 column), were investigated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that all the extract and fractions possessed potent antioxidant activity. There was a significant linear correlation between the total phenolics concentration and the ferric reducing power or free radical scavenging activity of the extract and fractions. Among the extract and fractions, the LF fraction exhibits the best antioxidant performance. The MALDT-TOF MS and HPLC analyses revealed that the phenolic compounds associated with the antioxidant activity of the LF fraction contains a large number of procyanidins and a small amount of prodelphinidins, and the epicatechin is the main extension unit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle In Vitro Efficacy of Myxococcus fulvus ANSM068 to Biotransform Aflatoxin B1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 4063-4079; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11104063
Received: 29 September 2010 / Revised: 12 October 2010 / Accepted: 15 October 2010 / Published: 20 October 2010
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (317 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is commonly found in cereals and animal feeds and causes a significant threat to the food industry and animal production. Several microbial isolates with high AFB1 transformation ability have been identified in our previous studies. The
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Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is commonly found in cereals and animal feeds and causes a significant threat to the food industry and animal production. Several microbial isolates with high AFB1 transformation ability have been identified in our previous studies. The aim of this research was to characterize one of those isolates, Myxococcus fulvus ANSM068, and to explore its biotransformation mechanism. The bacterial isolate of M. fulvus ANSM068, isolated from deer feces, was able to transform AFB1 by 80.7% in liquid VY/2 medium after incubation at 30 °C for 72 h. The supernatant of the bacterial culture was more effective in transforming AFB1 as compared to the cells alone and the cell extract. The transformation activity was significantly reduced and eradicated after the culture supernatant was treated with proteinase K, proteinase K plus SDS and heating. Culture conditions, including nitrogen source, initial pH and incubation temperature were evaluated for an optimal AFB1 transformation. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) analyses showed that AFB1 was transformed to a structurally different compound. Infrared analysis (IR) indicated that the lactone ring on the AFB1 molecule was modified by the culture supernatant. Chromatographies on DEAE-Ion exchange and Sephadex-Molecular sieve and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis were used to determine active components from the culture supernatant, indicating that enzyme(s) were responsible for the AFB1 biotransformation. This is the first report on AFB1 transformation by a strain of myxobacteria through enzymatic reaction(s). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Carbonic Anhydrase I Is Recognized by an SOD1 Antibody upon Biotinylation of Human Spinal Cord Extracts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 4051-4062; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11104051
Received: 16 September 2010 / Revised: 14 October 2010 / Accepted: 18 October 2010 / Published: 20 October 2010
PDF Full-text (346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We recently reported the presence of a novel 32 kDa protein immunoreactive to a copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) antibody within the spinal cord of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This unique protein species was generated by biotinylation of spinal cord tissue
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We recently reported the presence of a novel 32 kDa protein immunoreactive to a copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) antibody within the spinal cord of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This unique protein species was generated by biotinylation of spinal cord tissue extracts to detect conformational changes of SOD1 specific to ALS patients. To further characterize this protein, we enriched the protein by column chromatography and determined its protein identity by mass spectrometry. The protein that gave rise to the 32 kDa species upon biotinylation was identified as carbonic anhydrase I (CA I). Biotinylation of CA I from ALS spinal cord resulted in the generation of a novel epitope recognized by the SOD1 antibody. This epitope could also be generated by biotinylation of extracts from cultured cells expressing human CA I. Peptide competition assays identified the amino acid sequence in carbonic anhydrase I responsible for binding the SOD1 antibody. We conclude that chemical modifications used to identify pathogenic protein conformations can lead to the identification of unanticipated proteins that may participate in disease pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
Open AccessArticle Characteristics of Lignin from Flax Shives as Affected by Extraction Conditions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 4035-4050; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11104035
Received: 10 September 2010 / Revised: 27 September 2010 / Accepted: 14 October 2010 / Published: 20 October 2010
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lignin, a polyphenolic molecule, is a major constituent of flax shives. This polyphenolic molecular structure renders lignin a potential source of a variety of commercially viable products such as fine chemicals. This work compares the performance of different lignin isolation methods. Lignin from
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Lignin, a polyphenolic molecule, is a major constituent of flax shives. This polyphenolic molecular structure renders lignin a potential source of a variety of commercially viable products such as fine chemicals. This work compares the performance of different lignin isolation methods. Lignin from flax shive was isolated using both conventional alkaline extraction method and a novel experimental pressurized low polarity water (PLPW) extraction process. The lignin yields and chemical composition of the lignin fractions were determined. The conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h, extracted 92 g lignin per kg flax shives, while lignin yields from the PLPW extracts ranged from 27 to 241 g lignin per kg flax shives. The purity and monomeric composition of the lignins obtained from the different extraction conditions was assessed via UV spectroscopy and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation. Lignin obtained from conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h was of low purity and exhibited the lowest yields of nitrobenzene oxidation products. With respect to alkali assisted PLPW extractions, temperature created an opposing effect on lignin yield and nitrobenzene oxidation products. More lignin was extracted as temperature increased, yet the yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products decreased. The low yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products may be attributed to either the formation of condensed structures or the selective dissolution of condensed structures of lignin during the pressurized alkaline high temperature treatment. Analytical pyrolysis, using pyroprobe GC-MS, was used to investigate the molecular composition of the lignin samples. The total yield of pyrolysis lignin products was 13.3, 64.7, and 30.5% for the 1.25 M NaOH extracted lignin, alkaline assisted PLPW extracted lignin, and the unprocessed flax shives, respectively. Key lignin derived compounds such as guaiacol, 4-vinyl guaiacol, 4-methyl guaiacol, syringol, eugenol, isoeugenol, catechol, homocatechol, and vanillin were detected in all of the samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Stability and Folding Behavior Analysis of Zinc-Finger Using Simple Models
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 4014-4034; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11104014
Received: 7 September 2010 / Revised: 1 October 2010 / Accepted: 9 October 2010 / Published: 19 October 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (805 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zinc-fingers play crucial roles in regulating gene expression and mediating protein-protein interactions. In this article, two different proteins (Sp1f2 and FSD-1) are investigated using the Gaussian network model and anisotropy elastic network model. By using these simple coarse-grained methods, we analyze the structural
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Zinc-fingers play crucial roles in regulating gene expression and mediating protein-protein interactions. In this article, two different proteins (Sp1f2 and FSD-1) are investigated using the Gaussian network model and anisotropy elastic network model. By using these simple coarse-grained methods, we analyze the structural stabilization and establish the unfolding pathway of the two different proteins, in good agreement with related experimental and molecular dynamics simulation data. From the analysis, it is also found that the folding process of the zinc-finger motif is predominated by several factors. Both the zinc ion and C-terminal loop affect the folding pathway of the zinc-finger motif. Knowledge about the stability and folding behavior of zinc-fingers may help in understanding the folding mechanisms of the zinc-finger motif and in designing new zinc-fingers. Meanwhile, these simple coarse-grained analyses can be used as a general and quick method for mechanistic studies of metalloproteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Folding 2011)
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Open AccessArticle Cyclin D1 Expression and the Inhibitory Effect of Celecoxib on Ovarian Tumor Growth in Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 3999-4013; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11103999
Received: 7 September 2010 / Revised: 28 September 2010 / Accepted: 8 October 2010 / Published: 19 October 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The report aims to investigate the relationship between the expression of cyclin D1 and Cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2), thus to explore the molecular mechanisms of the antitumor efficacy of Celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor. Human ovarian SKOV-3 carcinoma cell xenograft-bearing mice were treated with Celecoxib by
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The report aims to investigate the relationship between the expression of cyclin D1 and Cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2), thus to explore the molecular mechanisms of the antitumor efficacy of Celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor. Human ovarian SKOV-3 carcinoma cell xenograft-bearing mice were treated with Celecoxib by infusing gaster (i.g.) twice/day for 21 days. The mRNA levels of COX-2 and cyclin D1 were determined by RT-PCR. The expression of cyclin D1 at the protein level was detected by immunohistochemistry, while COX-2 protein expression was determined by Western blot. A high-dose of Celecoxib (100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited tumor growth (P < 0.05), and the expression of cyclin D1 was reduced by 61%. Celecoxib decreased the proliferation cell index by 40% (P < 0.001) and increased apoptotic index by 52% (P < 0.05) in high-dose Celecoxib treated group. Our results suggest that the antitumor efficacy of Celecoxib against ovarian cancer in mice may in part be mediated through suppression of cyclin D1, which may contribute to its ability to suppress proliferation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Lysophosphatidic Acid Level and the Incidence of Silent Brain Infarction in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 3988-3998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11103988
Received: 12 August 2010 / Revised: 25 September 2010 / Accepted: 12 October 2010 / Published: 19 October 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which is proposed to play an important role in normal physiological situations such as wound healing, vascular tone, vascular integrity and reproduction, may be involved in the etiology of some diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity or myocardial infarction. Abnormal
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Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which is proposed to play an important role in normal physiological situations such as wound healing, vascular tone, vascular integrity and reproduction, may be involved in the etiology of some diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity or myocardial infarction. Abnormal findings, including silent brain infarction (SBI), are frequently observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). However, whether there is a relationship between LPA level and the prevalence of SBI has not been extensively studied. In the present study, the association between them was investigated. 235 patients with NVAF, 116 cases of SBI without NVAF and 120 cases of healthy volunteers (control group), who did not receive any antithrombotic therapy, were enrolled in this study. Plasma LPA levels in the NVAF with SBI group were significantly higher than that in the control group (p < 0.01), NVAF without SBI group (p < 0.01) and SBI without NVAF group (p < 0.01). The LPA levels are lower in the control group than in the NVAF without SBI and SBI without NVAF groups (p < 0.01), however, the latter two groups did not significantly differ from each other for LPA levels (p > 0.05) There were significant differences in the positive rate of platelet activation between each of the groups (p < 0.01). The positive rate of platelet activation was significantly higher in the NVAF with SBI group. We suggest that LPA might be a novel marker for estimation of the status of platelet activation and the risk factor for SBI onset in NVAF patients. We expected that plasma LPA levels could predict the occurrence of SBI in NVAF patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences)
Open AccessArticle Determination of the Thermodegradation of deoxyArbutin in Aqueous Solution by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 3977-3987; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11103977
Received: 30 August 2010 / Revised: 30 September 2010 / Accepted: 13 October 2010 / Published: 15 October 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tyrosinase is the key and rate-limiting enzyme responsible for the conversion of tyrosine into melanin. Competitive inhibition of tyrosinase enzymatic activity results in decreased or absent melanin synthesis by melanocytes in human skin. DeoxyArbutin (4-[(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy]phenol), a novel skin whitening agent, was synthesized through
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Tyrosinase is the key and rate-limiting enzyme responsible for the conversion of tyrosine into melanin. Competitive inhibition of tyrosinase enzymatic activity results in decreased or absent melanin synthesis by melanocytes in human skin. DeoxyArbutin (4-[(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy]phenol), a novel skin whitening agent, was synthesized through the removal of hydroxyl groups from the glucose side-chain of arbutin. DeoxyArbutin not only shows greater inhibition of tyrosinase activity but is also safer than hydroquinone and arbutin. Hence, deoxyArbutin is a potential skin whitening agent for cosmetics and depigmenting drugs; however, stability of this compound under some conditions remains a problem. The lack of stability poses developmental and practical difficulties for the use of deoxyArbutin in cosmetics and medicines. Improving the thermostability of deoxyArbutin is an important issue for its development. In this research, we established an analytical procedure to verify the amount of deoxyArbutin in solutions using a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The results indicate that this novel skin whitening agent is a thermolabile compound in aqueous solutions. Additionally, the rate constant for thermodegradation (k) and the half-life (t1/2) of deoxyArbutin were determined and can be used to understand the thermodegradation kinetics of deoxyArbutin. This information can aid in the application of deoxyArbutin for many future uses. Full article
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