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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 650; doi:10.3390/ijms18030650

The Five Immune Forces Impacting DNA-Based Cancer Immunotherapeutic Strategy

1
Department of Medicine, St. Thomas Health Mid-Town Hospital, Nashville, TN 37236, USA
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A Merritt Blvd, Nashville, TN 37209, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Takuji Tanaka and Masahito Shimizu
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Cancer)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1579 KB, uploaded 17 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

DNA-based vaccine strategy is increasingly realized as a viable cancer treatment approach. Strategies to enhance immunogenicity utilizing tumor associated antigens have been investigated in several pre-clinical and clinical studies. The promising outcomes of these studies have suggested that DNA-based vaccines induce potent T-cell effector responses and at the same time cause only minimal side-effects to cancer patients. However, the immune evasive tumor microenvironment is still an important hindrance to a long-term vaccine success. Several options are currently under various stages of study to overcome immune inhibitory effect in tumor microenvironment. Some of these approaches include, but are not limited to, identification of neoantigens, mutanome studies, designing fusion plasmids, vaccine adjuvant modifications, and co-treatment with immune-checkpoint inhibitors. In this review, we follow a Porter’s analysis analogy, otherwise commonly used in business models, to analyze various immune-forces that determine the potential success and sustainable positive outcomes following DNA vaccination using non-viral tumor associated antigens in treatment against cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA vaccine; T-cells; cytokines; immune checkpoint inhibitors; tumor associated antigens DNA vaccine; T-cells; cytokines; immune checkpoint inhibitors; tumor associated antigens
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Amara, S.; Tiriveedhi, V. The Five Immune Forces Impacting DNA-Based Cancer Immunotherapeutic Strategy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 650.

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