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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 18, Issue 3 (March 2017)

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Cover Story The synthesis of β-ODAP begins with the formation of β-(isoxazolin-5-on-2-yl)alanine (BIA) from the [...] Read more.
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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Moving to the Field: Plant Innate Immunity in Crop Protection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 640; doi:10.3390/ijms18030640
Received: 18 February 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle The Expression and Functional Significance of Runx2 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Its Role in Vasculogenic Mimicry and Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 500; doi:10.3390/ijms18030500
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
The transcription factor Runx2 has been reported to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in many tumors. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is described as the mimicry of endothelial cells by tumor cells to form microvascular tubes in aggressive tumors. Galectin-3 has been reported to regulate cell
[...] Read more.
The transcription factor Runx2 has been reported to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in many tumors. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is described as the mimicry of endothelial cells by tumor cells to form microvascular tubes in aggressive tumors. Galectin-3 has been reported to regulate cell invasion, migration, and VM formation; it could be regulated by Runx2. However, the relationship between Runx2, Galectin-3, EMT, and VM has not been studied in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We examined Runx2 expression in 89 human HCC samples and found Runx2 expression was associated with VM. Clinical-pathological data analysis revealed that Runx2 expression was associated with a shorter survival period. Overexpression of Runx2 promoted EMT and enhanced cell migration, invasion, and VM formation in HepG2 cells. Conversely, the downregulation of Runx2 inhibited EMT and reduced cell invasion, migration, and VM formation in SMMC7721. Galectin-3 expression declined following the downregulation of Runx2 in HepG2 cells, and increased in SMMC7721 cells after Runx2 knockdown. We consistently demonstrated that the downregulation of LGALS3 in HepG2-Runx2 cells reduced cell migration; invasion and VM formation; while upregulation of LGALS3 in SMMC7721-shRunx2 cells enhanced cell migration, invasion, and VM formation. The results indicate that Runx2 could promote EMT and VM formation in HCC and Galectin-3 might have some function in this process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Microenvironment and Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula mKG on Allergic Asthma by Regulating Lung and Plasma Metabolic Alternations
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 602; doi:10.3390/ijms18030602
Received: 8 January 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 4 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airway and is characterized by airway remodeling, hyperresponsiveness, and shortness of breath. Modified Kushen Gancao Formula (mKG), derived from traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCM), has been demonstrated to have good therapeutic effects on experimental allergic
[...] Read more.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airway and is characterized by airway remodeling, hyperresponsiveness, and shortness of breath. Modified Kushen Gancao Formula (mKG), derived from traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCM), has been demonstrated to have good therapeutic effects on experimental allergic asthma. However, its anti-asthma mechanism remains currently unknown. In the present work, metabolomics studies of biochemical changes in the lung tissue and plasma of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma mice with mKG treatment were performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Partial least squares–discriminate analysis (PLS−DA) indicated that the metabolic perturbation induced by OVA was reduced after mKG treatment. A total of twenty-four metabolites involved in seven metabolic pathways were identified as potential biomarkers in the development of allergic asthma. Among them, myristic acid (L3 or P2), sphinganine (L6 or P4), and lysoPC(15:0) (L12 or P16) were detected both in lung tissue and plasma. Additionally, l-acetylcarnitine (L1), thromboxane B2 (L2), 10-HDoHE (L10), and 5-HETE (L11) were first reported to be potential biomarkers associated with allergic asthma. The treatment of mKG mediated all of those potential biomarkers except lysoPC(15:0) (P16). The anti-asthma mechanism of mKG can be achieved through the comprehensive regulation of multiple perturbed biomarkers and metabolic pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Genetic Polymorphisms Contribute to the Individual Variations of Imatinib Mesylate Plasma Levels and Adverse Reactions in Chinese GIST Patients
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 603; doi:10.3390/ijms18030603
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 4 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract
Imatinib mesylate (IM) has dramatically improved the outcomes of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients. However, the clinical responses of IM may considerably vary among single individuals. This study aimed to investigate the influences of genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzyme (CYP3A4), transporters (ABCB1, ABCG2),
[...] Read more.
Imatinib mesylate (IM) has dramatically improved the outcomes of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients. However, the clinical responses of IM may considerably vary among single individuals. This study aimed to investigate the influences of genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzyme (CYP3A4), transporters (ABCB1, ABCG2), and nuclear receptor (Pregnane X Receptor (PXR, encoded by NR1I2)) on IM plasma levels and related adverse reactions in Chinese GIST patients. A total of 68 Chinese GIST patients who have received IM 300–600 mg/day were genotyped for six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (CYP3A4 rs2242480; ABCB1 rs1045642; ABCG2 rs2231137; NRI12 rs3814055, rs6785049, rs2276706), and the steady-state IM trough plasma concentrations were measured by a validated HPLC method. There were statistically significant variances in the steady-state IM trough plasma concentrations (from 272.22 to 4365.96 ng/mL). Subjects of GG in rs2242480, T allele carriers in rs1045642 and CC in rs3814055 had significantly higher steady-state IM dose-adjusted trough plasma concentrations. Subjects of CC in rs3814055 had significantly higher incidence rate of edema. The genetic polymorphisms of rs2242480, rs1045642, rs3814055 were significantly associated with IM plasma levels, and the genetic variations of rs3814055 were significantly associated with the incidence rate of edema in Chinese GIST patients. The current results may serve as valuable fundamental knowledge for IM therapy in Chinese GIST patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bimolecular Rate Constants for FAD-Dependent Glucose Dehydrogenase from Aspergillus terreus and Organic Electron Acceptors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 604; doi:10.3390/ijms18030604
Received: 13 December 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
The flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) from Aspergillus species require suitable redox mediators to transfer electrons from the enzyme to the electrode surface for the application of bioelectrical devices. Although several mediators for FAD-GDH are already in use, they are still far
[...] Read more.
The flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) from Aspergillus species require suitable redox mediators to transfer electrons from the enzyme to the electrode surface for the application of bioelectrical devices. Although several mediators for FAD-GDH are already in use, they are still far from optimum in view of potential, kinetics, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness. Herein, we investigated the efficiency of various phenothiazines and quinones in the electrochemical oxidation of FAD-GDH from Aspergillus terreus. At pH 7.0, the logarithm of the bimolecular oxidation rate constants appeared to depend on the redox potentials of all the mediators tested. Notably, the rate constant of each molecule for FAD-GDH was approximately 2.5 orders of magnitude higher than that for glucose oxidase from Aspergillus sp. The results suggest that the electron transfer kinetics is mainly determined by the formal potential of the mediator, the driving force of electron transfer, and the electron transfer distance between the redox active site of the mediator and the FAD, affected by the steric or chemical interactions. Higher k2 values were found for ortho-quinones than for para-quinones in the reactions with FAD-GDH and glucose oxidase, which was likely due to less steric hindrance in the active site in the case of the ortho-quinones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomolecular Engineering and Bioelectronics)
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Open AccessArticle In-Depth Lipidomic Analysis of Molecular Species of Triacylglycerides, Diacylglycerides, Glycerophospholipids, and Sphingolipids of Buttermilk by GC-MS/FID, HPLC-ELSD, and UPLC-QToF-MS
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 605; doi:10.3390/ijms18030605
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
Buttermilk, a byproduct of butter manufacturing, has gained considerable attention due to its high concentration of polar lipids as phospho- and sphingolipids from the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). These polar lipids (PLs) are essential components of all cellular membranes and exert a
[...] Read more.
Buttermilk, a byproduct of butter manufacturing, has gained considerable attention due to its high concentration of polar lipids as phospho- and sphingolipids from the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). These polar lipids (PLs) are essential components of all cellular membranes and exert a variety of indispensable metabolic, neurological, and intracellular signaling processes. Despite its importance, there are few research studies that report a comprehensive characterization of the lipid molecular species of MFGM that could contribute to a better understanding of their putative healthful activities. In this study, procedures such as pressurized liquid extraction of polar and nonpolar lipids and their fractionation by flash chromatography have been carried out. The obtained fractions were submitted to an exhaustive characterization from a lipidomic point of view. The characterization includes new data about the identification and quantification of triacylglycerides (TAG), diacylglycerides (DAG), and phospho- and sphingolipids using different chromatographic techniques. The fatty acid profile was comparable to that of the milk fat but with a highly diverse composition of fatty acids. Molecular species have also been determined by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QToF-MS). The TAG (16:0/16:0/6:0) and TAG (16:0/16:0/8:0) were the predominant saturated TAG species and TAG (14:0/18:1/16:0) and TAG (16:0/16:0/18:1) presented the highest content of monounsaturated TAG species. Furthermore; over 30 molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) could be identified within PL, with PC (16:0/18:1) being the most abundant species. Whereas C16:0 was found to be the preferred FA in TAGs, it was C18:1 in PLs. Several ganglioside species have also been characterized with d18:1 ceramide moiety and secondary acyl chains ranging from C20:0 to C26:1. This approach could broaden the applications of high-resolution mass spectrometry for a better understanding of the role of MFGM and its functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipidomics and Glycomics: New Advances in Food Science and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Bioavailability Comparison of Nine Bioselenocompounds In Vitro and In Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 506; doi:10.3390/ijms18030506
Received: 28 January 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
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Abstract
Selenium (Se) shows biologically ambivalent characteristics in animals. It is an essential element but becomes severely toxic when the amount ingested exceeds the adequate intake level. Its biological, nutritional, and toxicological effects are strongly dependent on its chemical form. In this study, we
[...] Read more.
Selenium (Se) shows biologically ambivalent characteristics in animals. It is an essential element but becomes severely toxic when the amount ingested exceeds the adequate intake level. Its biological, nutritional, and toxicological effects are strongly dependent on its chemical form. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity and bioavailability of nine naturally occurring Se compounds, or the so-called bioselenocompounds, in vivo and in vitro. Selenite and selenocystine showed higher toxicity than the other bioselenocompounds in vitro. In an in vitro membrane permeability study using Caco-2 cells, selenomethionine and Se-methylselenocysteine were more efficiently transported than the other bioselenocompounds. The effect of bioselenocompounds on nutritional availability was quantitatively determined from the recovery of serum selenoproteins in Se-deficient rats by speciation analysis. In contrast to the in vitro study, there were no significant differences in the assimilation of Se into serum selenoproteins among the bioselenocompounds, including selenoamino acids, selenosugar, and inorganic Se species, such as selenite, selenate, and selenocyanate, except trimethylselenonium ion. These results indicate that animals can equally assimilate both inorganic and organic naturally occurring selenocompounds except trimethylselenonium ion, which is the urinary metabolite of excess Se. We confirmed that the bioselenocompounds except trimethylselenonium ion had equivalent nutritional availabilities. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Phosphorus and Iron Deficiencies Influences Rice Shoot Growth in an Oxygen Dependent Manner: Insight from Upland and Lowland Rice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 607; doi:10.3390/ijms18030607
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
Rice is the main staple crop for one-third of the world population. To maximize yields, large quantities and constant input of fertilizers containing essential nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) are added. Rice can germinate in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions,
[...] Read more.
Rice is the main staple crop for one-third of the world population. To maximize yields, large quantities and constant input of fertilizers containing essential nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) are added. Rice can germinate in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, but the crosstalk between oxygen (O2) and nutrients such as P and Fe on plant growth remains obscure. The aim of this work was to test whether such interactions exist, and, if so, if they are conserved between up- and lowland rice varieties. To do so, we assessed shoot and root biomass as well as inorganic phosphate (Pi) accumulation in four rice varieties, including two lowland rice varieties Nipponbare and Suphanburi 1 (SPR1) (adapted to non-aerated condition) and two upland rice varieties CMU122 and Sew Mae Jun (SMJ) (adapted to aerated condition) under various conditions of Pi and/or Fe deficiencies, in aerated and non-areated solution. Under these different experimental conditions, our results revealed that the altered shoot biomass in Nipponbare and SPR1 was O2-dependent but to a lesser extent in CMU122 and SMJ cultivars. In this perspective, discovering the biological significance and molecular basis of these mineral elements and O2 signal interaction is needed to fully appreciate the performance of plants to multiple environmental changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Botany)
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Open AccessArticle Structural Basis of Native CXCL7 Monomer Binding to CXCR2 Receptor N-Domain and Glycosaminoglycan Heparin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 508; doi:10.3390/ijms18030508
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
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Abstract
CXCL7, a chemokine highly expressed in platelets, orchestrates neutrophil recruitment during thrombosis and related pathophysiological processes by interacting with CXCR2 receptor and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). CXCL7 exists as monomers and dimers, and dimerization (~50 μM) and CXCR2 binding (~10 nM) constants indicate that
[...] Read more.
CXCL7, a chemokine highly expressed in platelets, orchestrates neutrophil recruitment during thrombosis and related pathophysiological processes by interacting with CXCR2 receptor and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG). CXCL7 exists as monomers and dimers, and dimerization (~50 μM) and CXCR2 binding (~10 nM) constants indicate that CXCL7 is a potent agonist as a monomer. Currently, nothing is known regarding the structural basis by which receptor and GAG interactions mediate CXCL7 function. Using solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we characterized the binding of CXCL7 monomer to the CXCR2 N-terminal domain (CXCR2Nd) that constitutes a critical docking site and to GAG heparin. We found that CXCR2Nd binds a hydrophobic groove and that ionic interactions also play a role in mediating binding. Heparin binds a set of contiguous basic residues indicating a prominent role for ionic interactions. Modeling studies reveal that the binding interface is dynamic and that GAG adopts different binding geometries. Most importantly, several residues involved in GAG binding are also involved in receptor interactions, suggesting that GAG-bound monomer cannot activate the receptor. Further, this is the first study that describes the structural basis of receptor and GAG interactions of a native monomer of the neutrophil-activating chemokine family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Chemokine-Receptor Interactions and Functions)
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Open AccessArticle Custom Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization: the Importance of DNA Quality, an Expert Eye, and Variant Validation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 609; doi:10.3390/ijms18030609
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
The presence of false positive and false negative results in the Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) design is poorly addressed in literature reports. We took advantage of a custom aCGH recently carried out to analyze its design performance, the use of several Agilent
[...] Read more.
The presence of false positive and false negative results in the Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) design is poorly addressed in literature reports. We took advantage of a custom aCGH recently carried out to analyze its design performance, the use of several Agilent aberrations detection algorithms, and the presence of false results. Our study provides a confirmation that the high density design does not generate more noise than standard designs and, might reach a good resolution. We noticed a not negligible presence of false negative and false positive results in the imbalances call performed by the Agilent software. The Aberration Detection Method 2 (ADM-2) algorithm with a threshold of 6 performed quite well, and the array design proved to be reliable, provided that some additional filters are applied, such as considering only intervals with average absolute log2ratio above 0.3. We also propose an additional filter that takes into account the proportion of probes with log2ratio exceeding suggestive values for gain or loss. In addition, the quality of samples was confirmed to be a crucial parameter. Finally, this work raises the importance of evaluating the samples profiles by eye and the necessity of validating the imbalances detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparison of the Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride on Ocular Surfaces between C57BL/6 and BALB/c Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 509; doi:10.3390/ijms18030509
Received: 1 January 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
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Abstract
Models of benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-induced ocular disruption have been created and are widely used in various animals. This study aimed to compare the effects of BAC on the ocular surfaces of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were treated separately with
[...] Read more.
Models of benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-induced ocular disruption have been created and are widely used in various animals. This study aimed to compare the effects of BAC on the ocular surfaces of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were treated separately with BAC eye-drops at different concentrations. Eyes were evaluated by scoring epithelial disruption, corneal opacity and neovascularization in vivo, and by histological assays with hematoxylin/eosin (H/E) and periodic acid-Schiff stainings and by determining the expression of inflammatory factors in vitro on Days 7 and 14. The in vivo corneal epithelial disruption, corneal edema/opacity and neovascularization, which were in accordance with the results of the H/E staining and peaked at Day 7, were observed in a dose-dependent manner in the BAC-treated mice, with more severe signs in the C57BL/6 mice than the BALB/c mice. The loss of conjunctival goblet cells in the conjunctivas and the increasing expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), growth-regulated protein alpha (GROa) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1a) in the corneas were found in a dose-dependent manner in both strains of mice. Topical application of BAC can dramatically disrupt the ocular surfaces of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, and the disruptions were much more severe in the C57BL/6 mice that received high doses of BAC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dry Eye and Ocular Surface Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle The Application of Curve Fitting on the Voltammograms of Various Isoforms of Metallothioneins–Metal Complexes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 610; doi:10.3390/ijms18030610
Received: 11 February 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The translation of metallothioneins (MTs) is one of the defense strategies by which organisms protect themselves from metal-induced toxicity. MTs belong to a family of proteins comprising MT-1, MT-2, MT-3, and MT-4 classes, with multiple isoforms within each class. The main aim of
[...] Read more.
The translation of metallothioneins (MTs) is one of the defense strategies by which organisms protect themselves from metal-induced toxicity. MTs belong to a family of proteins comprising MT-1, MT-2, MT-3, and MT-4 classes, with multiple isoforms within each class. The main aim of this study was to determine the behavior of MT in dependence on various externally modelled environments, using electrochemistry. In our study, the mass distribution of MTs was characterized using MALDI-TOF. After that, adsorptive transfer stripping technique with differential pulse voltammetry was selected for optimization of electrochemical detection of MTs with regard to accumulation time and pH effects. Our results show that utilization of 0.5 M NaCl, pH 6.4, as the supporting electrolyte provides a highly complicated fingerprint, showing a number of non-resolved voltammograms. Hence, we further resolved the voltammograms exhibiting the broad and overlapping signals using curve fitting. The separated signals were assigned to the electrochemical responses of several MT complexes with zinc(II), cadmium(II), and copper(II), respectively. Our results show that electrochemistry could serve as a great tool for metalloproteomic applications to determine the ratio of metal ion bonds within the target protein structure, however, it provides highly complicated signals, which require further resolution using a proper statistical method, such as curve fitting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallothioneins in Bioinorganic Chemistry: Recent Developments)
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Open AccessArticle Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Activation Is Not the Main Contributor to Teratogenesis Elicited by Polar Compounds from Oxidized Frying Oil
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 510; doi:10.3390/ijms18030510
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
We previously reported that polar compounds (PO) in cooking oil are teratogenic and perturbed retinoic acid (RA) metabolism. Considering PO as a potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activator, this study aimed to investigate the role of PPARα in PO-induced teratogenesis and disturbance
[...] Read more.
We previously reported that polar compounds (PO) in cooking oil are teratogenic and perturbed retinoic acid (RA) metabolism. Considering PO as a potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activator, this study aimed to investigate the role of PPARα in PO-induced teratogenesis and disturbance of RA metabolism. Female PPARα knockout or wild type mice were mated with males of the same genotype. Pregnant mice were fed a diet containing 10% fat from either fresh oil (FO) or PO from gestational day1 to day18, and killed at day18. The PO diet significantly increased the incidence of teratogenesis and fetal RA concentrations, regardless of genotype. Though PPARα deficiency disturbed maternal RA homeostasis, itself did not contribute to teratogenesis as long as FO diet was given. The mRNA profile of genes involved in RA metabolism was differentially affected by diet or genotype in mothers and fetuses. Based on hepatic mRNA levels of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, we inferred that PO not only activated PPARα, but also altered transactivity of other xenobiotic receptors. We concluded that PO-induced fetal anomalies and RA accumulation were independent of PPARα activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
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Open AccessArticle Sex-Dependent Effects of HO-1 Deletion from Adipocytes in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 611; doi:10.3390/ijms18030611
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
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Abstract
Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been demonstrated to decrease body weight and improve insulin sensitivity in several models of obesity in rodents. To further study the role of HO-1 in adipose tissue, we created an adipose-specific HO-1 knockout mouse model. Male and
[...] Read more.
Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been demonstrated to decrease body weight and improve insulin sensitivity in several models of obesity in rodents. To further study the role of HO-1 in adipose tissue, we created an adipose-specific HO-1 knockout mouse model. Male and female mice were fed either a control or a high-fat diet for 30 weeks. Body weights were measured weekly and body composition, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were determined every six weeks. Adipocyte-specific knockout of HO-1 had no significant effect on body weight in mice fed a high-fat diet but increased body weight in female mice fed a normal-fat diet. Although body weights were not different in females fed a high fat diet, loss of HO-1 in adipocytes resulted in significant alterations in body composition. Adipose-specific HO-1 knockout resulted in increased fasting hyperglycemia and insulinemia in female but not male mice on both diets. Adipose-specific knockout of HO-1 resulted in a significant loss of HO activity and a decrease in the protein levels of adiponectin in adipose tissue. These results demonstrate that loss of HO-1 in adipocytes has greater effects on body fat and fasting hyperglycemia in a sex-dependent fashion and that expression of HO-1 in adipose tissue may have a greater protective role in females as compared to males. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipokines)
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Open AccessArticle Transplantation of Embryonic Spinal Cord Derived Cells Helps to Prevent Muscle Atrophy after Peripheral Nerve Injury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 511; doi:10.3390/ijms18030511
Received: 26 December 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
Injuries to peripheral nerves are frequent in serious traumas and spinal cord injuries. In addition to surgical approaches, other interventions, such as cell transplantation, should be considered to keep the muscles in good condition until the axons regenerate. In this study, E14.5 rat
[...] Read more.
Injuries to peripheral nerves are frequent in serious traumas and spinal cord injuries. In addition to surgical approaches, other interventions, such as cell transplantation, should be considered to keep the muscles in good condition until the axons regenerate. In this study, E14.5 rat embryonic spinal cord fetal cells and cultured neural progenitor cells from different spinal cord segments were injected into transected musculocutaneous nerve of 200–300 g female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, and atrophy in biceps brachii was assessed. Both kinds of cells were able to survive, extend their axons towards the muscle and form neuromuscular junctions that were functional in electromyographic studies. As a result, muscle endplates were preserved and atrophy was reduced. Furthermore, we observed that the fetal cells had a better effect in reducing the muscle atrophy compared to the pure neural progenitor cells, whereas lumbar cells were more beneficial compared to thoracic and cervical cells. In addition, fetal lumbar cells were used to supplement six weeks delayed surgical repair after the nerve transection. Cell transplantation helped to preserve the muscle endplates, which in turn lead to earlier functional recovery seen in behavioral test and electromyography. In conclusion, we were able to show that embryonic spinal cord derived cells, especially the lumbar fetal cells, are beneficial in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries due to their ability to prevent the muscle atrophy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: From Bench to Bedside)
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Open AccessArticle Tentative Characterization of Polyphenolic Compounds in the Male Flowers of Phoenix dactylifera by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry and DFT
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 512; doi:10.3390/ijms18030512
Received: 28 December 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
Phoenix dacylifera is an ancient palm species rich in (poly)phenols. These phenolic compounds were tentatively identified by using liquid chromatography coupled with ion spray mass spectrometry in tandem mode (LC/MS/MS) with negative ion detection. Negative identification of the compounds was based on their
[...] Read more.
Phoenix dacylifera is an ancient palm species rich in (poly)phenols. These phenolic compounds were tentatively identified by using liquid chromatography coupled with ion spray mass spectrometry in tandem mode (LC/MS/MS) with negative ion detection. Negative identification of the compounds was based on their retention times and mass spectra in full scan mode (MS), and in different MS/MS modes. For the first time, complete hypothesis, and routs for both p-coumaroylshikimic acids (CoSA) and caffeoylshikimic acids (CSA) were suggested and confirmed by Density Fonctional Theory (DFT) study. Notably, of the 53 compounds characterized, 19 hydroxycinnamates derivatives were tentativelycharacterized in male flowers of date palm and 15 of them were recorded for the first time. In addition, five organic acids, six B-type proanthocyanidins, two anthocyanidin and 21 flavonoid derivatives have been tentatively characterized. Identification of B-type proanthocyanidins were based on the diagnostic ions resulting from heterocyclic ring fission (HRF) and retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) reaction of flavan-3-ol provided information on the hydroxylation pattern and the type of inter-flavan bond proanthocyanidins. The sequence of proanthocyanidins was detected through ions extracted from quinone methide (QM) cleavage of the inter-flavan bond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins)
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Open AccessArticle Neuropeptide VGF Promotes Maturation of Hippocampal Dendrites That Is Reduced by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 612; doi:10.3390/ijms18030612
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
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Abstract
The neuropeptide VGF (non-acronymic) is induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis, as well as synaptic activity. However, morphological changes induced by VGF have not been elucidated. Developing hippocampal neurons were exposed to VGF through bath application or virus-mediated expression in
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The neuropeptide VGF (non-acronymic) is induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis, as well as synaptic activity. However, morphological changes induced by VGF have not been elucidated. Developing hippocampal neurons were exposed to VGF through bath application or virus-mediated expression in vitro. VGF-derived peptide, TLQP-62, enhanced dendritic branching, and outgrowth. Furthermore, VGF increased dendritic spine density and the proportion of immature spines. Spine formation was associated with increased synaptic protein expression and co-localization of pre- and postsynaptic markers. Three non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected in human VGF gene. Transfection of N2a cells with plasmids containing these SNPs revealed no relative change in protein expression levels and normal protein size, except for a truncated protein from the premature stop codon, E525X. All three SNPs resulted in a lower proportion of N2a cells bearing neurites relative to wild-type VGF. Furthermore, all three mutations reduced the total length of dendrites in developing hippocampal neurons. Taken together, our results suggest VGF enhances dendritic maturation and that these effects can be altered by common mutations in the VGF gene. The findings may have implications for people suffering from psychiatric disease or other conditions who may have altered VGF levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor)
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Open AccessArticle Strawberry-Tree Honey Induces Growth Inhibition of Human Colon Cancer Cells and Increases ROS Generation: A Comparison with Manuka Honey
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 613; doi:10.3390/ijms18030613
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
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Abstract
Honey is a natural product known to modulate several biological activities including cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the phytochemical content and the antioxidant activity of Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) honey (STH) and its cytotoxic properties against
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Honey is a natural product known to modulate several biological activities including cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the phytochemical content and the antioxidant activity of Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) honey (STH) and its cytotoxic properties against human colon adenocarcinoma (HCT-116) and metastatic (LoVo) cell lines in comparison with Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey (MH). Several unifloral STH and MH were analyzed for their phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and protein contents, as well as their radical scavenging activities. STH from the Berchidda area showed the highest amount of phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and protein content, and antioxidant capacity compared to MH. Both STH and MH induced cytotoxicity and cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HCT-116 and LoVo cells, with less toxicity on non-cancer cells. Compared to MH, STH showed more effect at lower concentrations on HCT-116 and LoVo cells. In addition, both honeys increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In HCT-116 cells, STH and MH induced similar ROS production but in LoVo cells STH induced a higher percentage of ROS compared to MH. Our results indicate that STH and MH can induce cell growth inhibition and ROS generation in colon adenocarcinoma and metastatic cells, which could be due to the presence of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. These preliminary results are interesting and suggest a potential chemopreventive action which could be useful for further studies in order to develop chemopreventive agents for colon cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tumor Cell-Derived Microvesicles Induced Not Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition but Apoptosis in Human Proximal Tubular (HK-2) Cells: Implications for Renal Impairment in Multiple Myeloma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 513; doi:10.3390/ijms18030513
Received: 4 December 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
Renal impairment (RI) is one of the hallmarks of multiple myeloma (MM) and carries a poor prognosis. Microvesicles (MVs) are membrane vesicles and play an important role in disease progression. Here, we investigated the role of MVs derived from MM cells (MM-MVs) in
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Renal impairment (RI) is one of the hallmarks of multiple myeloma (MM) and carries a poor prognosis. Microvesicles (MVs) are membrane vesicles and play an important role in disease progression. Here, we investigated the role of MVs derived from MM cells (MM-MVs) in RI of MM. We found that MM-MVs significantly inhibited viability and induced apoptosis, but not epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human kidney-2 (HK-2), a human renal tubular epithelial cell line. The protein levels of cleaved caspase-3, 8, and 9, and E-cadherin, were increased, but vementin levels were decreased in the HK-2 cells treated with MM-MVs. Through a comparative sequencing and analysis of RNA content between the MVs from RPMI8226 MM cells (RPMI8226-MVs) and K562 leukemia cells, RPMI8226-MVs were enriched with more renal-pathogenic miRNAs, in which the selective miRNAs may participate in the up-regulation of the levels of cleaved caspase-3. Furthermore, the levels of CD138+ circulating MVs (cirMVs) in the peripheral blood were positively correlated with the severity of RI in newly-diagnosed MM. Our study supports MM-MVs representing a previously undescribed factor and playing a potential role in the development of RI of MM patients, and sheds light on the potential application of CD138+ cirMV counts in precise diagnosis of RI in MM and exploring MM-MVs as a therapeutic target. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Myocardial Ischemic Postconditioning Promotes Autophagy against Ischemia Reperfusion Injury via the Activation of the nNOS/AMPK/mTOR Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 614; doi:10.3390/ijms18030614
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
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Abstract
Autophagy participates in the progression of many diseases, comprising ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R). It is reported that it is involved in the protective mechanism of ischemic postconditioning (IPostC). According to research, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is also involved in the condition of I/R
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Autophagy participates in the progression of many diseases, comprising ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R). It is reported that it is involved in the protective mechanism of ischemic postconditioning (IPostC). According to research, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is also involved in the condition of I/R and IPostC. However, the relationship between nNOS, autophagy and IPostC has not been previously investigated. We hypothesize that IPostC promotes autophagy activity against I/R injury partially through nNOS-mediated pathways. Mouse hearts were subjected to I/R injury through the ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. H9c2 cells were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in vitro. IPostC, compared with I/R, restored nNOS activity, increased the formation of autophagosome and restored the impaired autophagic flux, thus autophagic activity was raised markedly. IPostC increased adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and suppressed mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), but a selective nNOS inhibitor abolished those effects. Similar effects of IPostC were demonstrated in H9c2 cells in vitro. IPostC decreased infarct size and preserved most of the normal structure. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell apoptosis were reduced by IPostC with improved cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential. However, an autophagy inhibitor suppressed the protective effects. These results suggest that IPostC promoted autophagy against I/R injury at least partially via the activation of nNOS/AMPK/mTOR pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improvement of Cardiac Function in Heart Failure 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Derivate Isocorydine (d-ICD) Suppresses Migration and Invasion of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell by Downregulating ITGA1 Expression
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 514; doi:10.3390/ijms18030514
Received: 24 January 2017 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
In our previous studies, we found that isocorydine (ICD) could be a potential antitumor agent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Derivate isocorydine (d-ICD), a more effective antitumor agent, has been demonstrated to inhibit proliferation and drug resistance in HCC. In order to investigate the
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In our previous studies, we found that isocorydine (ICD) could be a potential antitumor agent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Derivate isocorydine (d-ICD), a more effective antitumor agent, has been demonstrated to inhibit proliferation and drug resistance in HCC. In order to investigate the potential role of d-ICD on HCC cell migration and its possible mechanism, wound healing assay, trans-well invasion assay, western blot analysis, and qRT-PCR were performed to study the migration and invasion ability of HCC cells as well as relevant molecular alteration following d-ICD treatment. Results indicated that the migration and invasion ability of HCC cells were suppressed when cultured with d-ICD. Meanwhile, the expression level of ITGA1 was markedly reduced. Furthermore, we found that ITGA1 promotes HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro, and that ITGA1 can partly reverse the effect of d-ICD-induced migration and invasion suppression in HCC cells. In addition, dual luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay were used to study the expression regulation of ITGA1, and found that E2F1 directly upregulates ITGA1 expression and d-ICD inhibits E2F1 expression. Taken together, these results reveal that d-ICD inhibits HCC cell migration and invasion may partly by downregulating E2F1/ITGA1 expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Cellular Midpalatal Suture Changes after Rapid Maxillary Expansion in Growing Subjects: A Case Report
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 615; doi:10.3390/ijms18030615
Received: 29 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
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Abstract
The present case report aimed to investigate immediate histologic changes in midpalatal suture in humans following rapid maxillary expansion compared to control. Three patients (mean age 8.3 +/- 0.9 years) were enrolled in the case report and underwent midpalatal suture biopsy. Two patients
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The present case report aimed to investigate immediate histologic changes in midpalatal suture in humans following rapid maxillary expansion compared to control. Three patients (mean age 8.3 +/- 0.9 years) were enrolled in the case report and underwent midpalatal suture biopsy. Two patients underwent treatment before biopsy. The third patient did not show transversal maxillary deficiency and was enrolled as a control. Biopsy samples of midpalatal suture at 7 (subject 1) and 30 days (subject 2) after maxillary expansion as well as of one control (subject 3) were collected and processed for histology. In the control (subject 3) inter-digitations at the palatal suture gap were observed. At 7 days (subject 1) mature bone with small marrow spaces and trabecular bone with the peculiar storiform appearance inside the soft tissue and collagen fibers running parallel only in the central part were present. At 30 days (subject 2), a greater number of newly-formed bone trabeculae with a perpendicular orientation to the long axis of the suture could be seen. At 30 days the fibrous component of bone tissue was less represented compared to the sample at 7 days. Data from the preliminary histological results showed that bone formation was observed in the gap after rapid maxillary expansion, although the healing process was still ongoing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association of Hormone Receptor Expression with Survival in Ovarian Endometrioid Carcinoma: Biological Validation and Clinical Implications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 515; doi:10.3390/ijms18030515
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
This paper aims to validate whether hormone receptor expression is associated with longer survival among women diagnosed with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma (EC), and whether it identifies patients with stage IC/II tumors with excellent outcome that could be spared from toxic chemotherapy. Expression of
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This paper aims to validate whether hormone receptor expression is associated with longer survival among women diagnosed with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma (EC), and whether it identifies patients with stage IC/II tumors with excellent outcome that could be spared from toxic chemotherapy. Expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) was assessed on 182 EC samples represented on tissue microarrays using the Alberta Ovarian Tumor Type (AOVT) cohort. Statistical analyses were performed to test for associations with ovarian cancer specific survival. ER or PR expression was present in 87.3% and 86.7% of cases, respectively, with co-expression present in 83.0%. Expression of each of the hormonal receptors was significantly higher in low-grade tumors and tumors with squamous differentiation. Expression of ER (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.08–0.42, p = 0.0002) and of PR (HR = 0.22, 95% confidence interval 0.10–0.53, p = 0.0011) were significantly associated with longer ovarian cancer specific survival adjusted for age, grade, treatment center, stage, and residual disease. However, the five-year ovarian cancer specific survival among women with ER positive stage IC/II EC was 89.0% (standard error 3.3%) and for PR positive tumors 89.9% (standard error 3.2%), robustly below the 95% threshold where adjuvant therapy could be avoided. We validated the association of hormone receptor expression with ovarian cancer specific survival independent of standard predictors in an independent sample set of EC. The high ER/PR co-expression frequency and the survival difference support further testing of the efficacy of hormonal therapy in hormone receptor-positive ovarian EC. The clinical utility to identify a group of women diagnosed with EC at stage IC/II that could be spared from adjuvant therapy is limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gynecologic Oncology: From Molecular Mechanisms to Targeted Therapies)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Five Known Brassinosteroid Analogs from Hyodeoxycholic Acid and Their Activities as Plant-Growth Regulators
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 516; doi:10.3390/ijms18030516
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
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Abstract
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones that promote growth in different plant organs and tissues. The structural requirements that these compounds should possess to exhibit this biological activity have been studied. In this work, a series of known BR analogs 515,
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Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones that promote growth in different plant organs and tissues. The structural requirements that these compounds should possess to exhibit this biological activity have been studied. In this work, a series of known BR analogs 515, were synthesized starting from hyodeoxycholic acid 4, and maintaining the alkyl side chain as cholic acid or its methyl ester. The growth-promoting effects of brassinolide (1) and synthesized analogs were evaluated by using the rice lamina inclination assay at concentrations ranging from 1 × 10−8–1 × 10−6 M. Our results indicate that in this concentration range the induced bending angle of rice seedlings increases with increasing concentration of BRs. Analysis of the activities, determined at the lowest tested concentration, in terms of BR structures shows that the 2α,3α-dihydroxy-7-oxa-6-ketone moiety existing in brassinolide is required for the plant growing activity of these compounds, as it has been proposed by some structure-activity relationship studies. The effect of compound 8 on cell elongation was assessed by microscopy analysis, and the results indicate that the growth-promoting effect of analog 8 is mainly due to cell elongation of the adaxial sides, instead of an increase on cell number. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Botany)
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Open AccessArticle Natural Killer Cell Assessment in Peripheral Circulation and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Severe Sepsis: A Case Control Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 616; doi:10.3390/ijms18030616
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 12 March 2017
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Abstract
Sepsis is a complex systemic inflammatory syndrome, the most common cause of which is attributed to systemic underlying bacterial infection. The complete mechanisms of the dynamic pro- and anti-inflammatory processes underlying the pathophysiology of sepsis remain poorly understood. Natural killer (NK) cells play
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Sepsis is a complex systemic inflammatory syndrome, the most common cause of which is attributed to systemic underlying bacterial infection. The complete mechanisms of the dynamic pro- and anti-inflammatory processes underlying the pathophysiology of sepsis remain poorly understood. Natural killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of sepsis, leading to exaggerated inflammation due their rapid response and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Several studies have already shown that NK cells undergo lymphopenia in the peripheral blood of patients with sepsis. However, our understanding of the mechanisms behind its cellular trafficking and its role in disease development is restricted to studies in animal models. In this study, we aimed to compare the human NK cell subset (CD56bright or dim) levels in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of sepsis patients. We conducted a case-control study with a sample size consisting of 10 control patients and 23 sepsis patients enrolled at the Hospital Cajuru (Curitiba/PR, Brazil) from 2013 to 2015. Although we were able to confirm previous observations of peripheral blood lymphopenia, no significant differences were detected in NK cell levels in the BAL fluid of these patients. Overall, these findings strengthened the evidence that peripheral blood lymphopenia is likely to be associated with cell death as a consequence of sepsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Killer (NK) Cells)
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Open AccessArticle Investigating Autism-Related Symptoms in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome: A Case Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 517; doi:10.3390/ijms18030517
Received: 21 January 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a rare genetic disorder caused by the lack of expression of paternal genes from chromosome 15q11-13, has been investigated for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology in various studies. However, previous findings have been variable, and no studies investigating ASD symptomatology
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Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a rare genetic disorder caused by the lack of expression of paternal genes from chromosome 15q11-13, has been investigated for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology in various studies. However, previous findings have been variable, and no studies investigating ASD symptomatology in PWS have exclusively studied children. We aimed to characterize social communication functioning and other ASD-related symptoms in children with PWS, and assessed agreement across measures and rates of ASD diagnosis. Measures included the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2), Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales-II (VABS-II). General adaptive and intellectual skills were also assessed. Clinical best estimate (CBE) diagnosis was determined by an experienced developmental pediatrician, based on history and review of all available study measures, and taking into account overall developmental level. Participants included 10 children with PWS, aged 3 to 12 years. Three of the 10 children were male and genetic subtypes were two deletion (DEL) and eight uniparental disomy (UPD) (with a total of 6 female UPD cases). Although 8 of the 10 children exceeded cut-offs on at least one of the ASD assessments, agreement between parent questionnaires (SCQ, SRS-2, SSIS-RS) and observational assessment (ADOS-2) was very poor. None of the children were assigned a CBE diagnosis of ASD, with the caveat that the risk may have been lower because of the predominance of girls in the sample. The lack of agreement between the assessments emphasizes the complexity of interpreting ASD symptom measures in children with PWS. Full article
Open AccessArticle Tenebrio molitor Larvae Inhibit Adipogenesis through AMPK and MAPKs Signaling in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Obesity in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 518; doi:10.3390/ijms18030518
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Despite the increasing interest in insect-based bioactive products, the biological activities of these products are rarely studied adequately. Larvae of Tenebrio molitor, the yellow mealworm, have been eaten as a traditional food and provide many health benefits. Therefore, we hypothesized that T.
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Despite the increasing interest in insect-based bioactive products, the biological activities of these products are rarely studied adequately. Larvae of Tenebrio molitor, the yellow mealworm, have been eaten as a traditional food and provide many health benefits. Therefore, we hypothesized that T. molitor larvae might influence adipogenesis and obesity-related disorders. In the present study, we investigated the anti-adipogenic and antiobesity effects of T. molitor larvae in vitro and in vivo. The lipid accumulation and triglyceride content in mature adipocytes was reduced significantly (up to 90%) upon exposure to an ethanol extract of T. molitor larvae, without a reduction in cell viability. Exposure also resulted in key adipogenic and lipogenic transcription factors. Additionally, in adipogenic differentiation medium the extract induced phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Daily oral administration of T. molitor larvae powder to obese mice fed high-fat diet attenuated body weight gain. We also found that the powder efficiently reduced hepatic steatosis as well as aspartate and alanine transaminase enzyme levels in mice fed a high-fat diet. Our results suggest that T. molitor larvae extract has an antiobesity effect when administered as a food supplement and has potential as a therapeutic agent for obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Genomics of the Aeromonadaceae Core Oligosaccharide Biosynthetic Regions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 519; doi:10.3390/ijms18030519
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 26 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are an integral part of the Gram-negative outer membrane, playing important organizational and structural roles and taking part in the bacterial infection process. In Aeromonas hydrophila, piscicola, and salmonicida, three different genomic regions taking part in the LPS
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Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are an integral part of the Gram-negative outer membrane, playing important organizational and structural roles and taking part in the bacterial infection process. In Aeromonas hydrophila, piscicola, and salmonicida, three different genomic regions taking part in the LPS core oligosaccharide (Core-OS) assembly have been identified, although the characterization of these clusters in most aeromonad species is still lacking. Here, we analyse the conservation of these LPS biosynthesis gene clusters in the all the 170 currently public Aeromonas genomes, including 30 different species, and characterise the structure of a putative common inner Core-OS in the Aeromonadaceae family. We describe three new genomic organizations for the inner Core-OS genomic regions, which were more evolutionary conserved than the outer Core-OS regions, which presented remarkable variability. We report how the degree of conservation of the genes from the inner and outer Core-OS may be indicative of the taxonomic relationship between Aeromonas species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs))
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Open AccessArticle CmMYB19 Over-Expression Improves Aphid Tolerance in Chrysanthemum by Promoting Lignin Synthesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 619; doi:10.3390/ijms18030619
Received: 18 December 2016 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 12 March 2017
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Abstract
The gene encoding the MYB (v-myb avian myeloblastosis vira l oncogene homolog) transcription factor CmMYB19 was isolated from chrysanthemum. It encodes a 200 amino acid protein and belongs to the R2R3-MYB subfamily. CmMYB19 was not transcriptionally activated in yeast, while a transient expression
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The gene encoding the MYB (v-myb avian myeloblastosis vira l oncogene homolog) transcription factor CmMYB19 was isolated from chrysanthemum. It encodes a 200 amino acid protein and belongs to the R2R3-MYB subfamily. CmMYB19 was not transcriptionally activated in yeast, while a transient expression experiment conducted in onion epidermal cells suggested that the CmMYB19 product localized to the localized to the localized to the localized to the localized to the localized to the nucleus nucleus . CmMYB19 transcription was induced by aphid (Macrosiphoniella sanborni) infestation, and the abundance of transcript was higher in the leaf and stem than in the root. The over-expression of CmMYB19 restricted the multiplication of the aphids. A comparison of transcript abundance of the major genes involved in lignin synthesis showed that CmPAL1 (phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1), CmC4H (cinnamate4 hydroxylase), Cm4CL1 (4-hydroxy cinnamoyl CoA ligase 1), CmHCT (hydroxycinnamoyl CoA-shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase), CmC3H1 (coumarate3 hydroxylase1), CmCCoAOMT1 (caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase 1) and CmCCR1 (cinnamyl CoA reductase1) were all upregulated, in agreement in agreement in agreement in agreement in agreement in agreement with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content in CmMYB19 over-expressing plants plants plants. Collectively, the over-expression of CmMYB19 restricted the multiplication of the aphids on the host, mediated by an enhanced accumulation of lignin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Insect Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle Ovalbumin with Glycated Carboxyl Groups Shows Membrane-Damaging Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 520; doi:10.3390/ijms18030520
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether glycated ovalbumin (OVA) showed novel activity at the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated OVA (Man-OVA) was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-dextro (d)-mannopyranoside. An increase in the number
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The aim of the present study was to investigate whether glycated ovalbumin (OVA) showed novel activity at the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated OVA (Man-OVA) was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-dextro (d)-mannopyranoside. An increase in the number of modified carboxyl groups increased the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA on cell membrane-mimicking vesicles, whereas OVA did not induce membrane permeability in the tested phospholipid vesicles. The glycation of carboxyl groups caused a notable change in the gross conformation of OVA. Moreover, owing to their spatial positions, the Trp residues in Man-OVA were more exposed, unlike those in OVA. Fluorescence quenching studies suggested that the Trp residues in Man-OVA were located on the interface binds with the lipid vesicles, and their microenvironment was abundant in positively charged residues. Although OVA and Man-OVA showed a similar binding affinity for lipid vesicles, the lipid-interacting feature of Man-OVA was distinct from that of OVA. Chemical modification studies revealed that Lys and Arg residues, but not Trp residues, played a crucial role in the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA. Taken together, our data suggest that glycation of carboxyl groups causes changes in the structural properties and membrane-interacting features of OVA, generating OVA with membrane-perturbing activities at the lipid-water interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle A Biomedical Investigation of the Hepatoprotective Effect of Radix salviae miltiorrhizae and Network Pharmacology-Based Prediction of the Active Compounds and Molecular Targets
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 620; doi:10.3390/ijms18030620
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract
Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen in Chinese), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb, has been used for centuries to treat liver diseases. In this study, the preventive and curative potential of Danshen aqueous extract on acute/chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty
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Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen in Chinese), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb, has been used for centuries to treat liver diseases. In this study, the preventive and curative potential of Danshen aqueous extract on acute/chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was studied. The in vivo results indicated that Danshen could alleviate hepatic inflammation, fatty degeneration, and haptic fibrogenesis in ALD and NAFLD models. In the aspect of mechanism of action, the significant reduction in MDA levels in both ALD and NAFLD models implies the decreased levels of oxidative stress by Danshen. However, Danshen treatment could not activate the internal enzymatic antioxidant system in ALD and NAFLD models. To further explore the hepatoprotective mechanism of Danshen, an in silico-based network pharmacology approach was employed in the present study. The pharmacological network analysis result revealed that six potential active ingredients such as tanshinone iia, salvianolic acid b, and Danshensu may contribute to the hepatoprotective effects of Danshen on ALD and NAFLD. The action mechanism may relate with regulating the intracellular molecular targets such as PPARα, CYP1A2, and MMP2 for regulation of lipid metabolism, antioxidant and anti-fibrogenesis by these potential active ingredients. Our studies suggest that the combination of network pharmacology strategy with in vivo experimental study may provide a forceful tool for exploring the mechanism of action of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb and developing novel bioactive ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle Omalizumab Is Equally Effective in Persistent Allergic Oral Corticosteroid-Dependent Asthma Caused by Either Seasonal or Perennial Allergens: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 521; doi:10.3390/ijms18030521
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 23 January 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Omalizumab is marketed for chronic severe asthma patients who are allergic to perennial allergens. Our purpose was to investigate whether omalizumab is also effective in persistent severe asthma due to seasonal allergens. Thirty patients with oral corticosteroid-dependent asthma were treated with Omalizumab according
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Omalizumab is marketed for chronic severe asthma patients who are allergic to perennial allergens. Our purpose was to investigate whether omalizumab is also effective in persistent severe asthma due to seasonal allergens. Thirty patients with oral corticosteroid-dependent asthma were treated with Omalizumab according to the dosing table. For each patient with asthma due to seasonal allergens, we recruited the next two consecutive patients with asthma due to perennial allergens. The dose of oral methyl prednisolone (MP) was tapered at a rate of 2 mg every two weeks after the start of treatment with omalizumab depending on tolerance. At each monthly visit, a forced spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement were performed and the accumulated monthly MP dose was calculated. At entry, there were no differences between groups in terms of gender, body mass index or obesity, year exacerbation rate, monthly dose of MP, FeNO and blood immunoglobuline E (IgE) values, or spirometry (perennial: FVC: 76%; FEV1: 62%; seasonal: FVC: 79%; FEV1: 70%). The follow-up lasted 76 weeks. One patient in each group was considered a non-responder. Spirometry did not worsen in either group. There was a significant intragroup reduction in annual exacerbation rate and MP consumption but no differences were detected in the intergroup comparison. Omalizumab offered the same clinical benefits in the two cohorts regardless of whether the asthma was caused by a seasonal or a perennial allergen. These results strongly suggest that allergens are the trigger in chronic asthma but that it is the persistent exposure to IgE that causes the chronicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translational Molecular Medicine & Molecular Drug Discovery)
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Open AccessArticle Revisiting the Metabolism and Bioactivation of Ketoconazole in Human and Mouse Using Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 621; doi:10.3390/ijms18030621
Received: 19 February 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract
Although ketoconazole (KCZ) has been used worldwide for 30 years, its metabolic characteristics are poorly described. Moreover, the hepatotoxicity of KCZ limits its therapeutic use. In this study, we used liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to evaluate the metabolic profile of KCZ in mouse
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Although ketoconazole (KCZ) has been used worldwide for 30 years, its metabolic characteristics are poorly described. Moreover, the hepatotoxicity of KCZ limits its therapeutic use. In this study, we used liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to evaluate the metabolic profile of KCZ in mouse and human and identify the mechanisms underlying its hepatotoxicity. A total of 28 metabolites of KCZ, 11 of which were novel, were identified in this study. Newly identified metabolites were classified into three categories according to the metabolic positions of a piperazine ring, imidazole ring, and N-acetyl moiety. The metabolic characteristics of KCZ in human were comparable to those in mouse. Moreover, three cyanide adducts of KCZ were identified in mouse and human liver microsomal incubates as “flags” to trigger additional toxicity study. The oxidation of piperazine into iminium ion is suggested as a biotransformation responsible for bioactivation. In summary, the metabolic characteristics of KCZ, including reactive metabolites, were comprehensively understood using a metabolomics approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Drug Induced Liver Injury)
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Open AccessArticle Factors That Negatively Affect the Prognosis of Pediatric Community-Acquired Pneumonia in District Hospital in Tanzania
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 623; doi:10.3390/ijms18030623
Received: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still the most important cause of death in countries with scarce resources. All children (33 months ± 35 DS) discharged from the Pediatric Unit of Itigi Hospital, Tanzania, with a diagnosis of CAP from August 2014 to April 2015
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Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still the most important cause of death in countries with scarce resources. All children (33 months ± 35 DS) discharged from the Pediatric Unit of Itigi Hospital, Tanzania, with a diagnosis of CAP from August 2014 to April 2015 were enrolled. Clinical data were gathered. Dried blood spot (DBS) samples for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacterial detection were collected in all 100 children included. Twenty-four percent of patients were identified with severe CAP and 11% died. Surprisingly, 54% of patients were admitted with a wrong diagnosis, which increased complications, the need for antibiotics and chest X-rays, and the length of hospitalization. Comorbidity, found in 32% of children, significantly increased severity, complications, deaths, need for chest X-rays, and oxygen therapy. Malnourished children (29%) required more antibiotics. Microbiologically, Streptococcus pneumonia (S. p.), Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. a.) were the bacteria more frequently isolated. Seventy-five percent of patients had mono-infection. Etiology was not correlated with severity, complications, deaths, oxygen demand, or duration of hospitalization. Our study highlights that difficult diagnoses and comorbidities negatively affect clinical evolution. S. p. and Hib still play a large role; thus, implementation of current vaccine strategies is needed. DBS is a simple and efficient diagnostic method for bacterial identification in countries with scarce resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pneumonia: Pathogenesis, Diagnostics, Therapeutics, and Prevention)
Open AccessArticle Autophagy Induced by Areca Nut Extract Contributes to Decreasing Cisplatin Toxicity in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells: Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species/AMPK Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 524; doi:10.3390/ijms18030524
Received: 22 January 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
Chewing areca nut is closely associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The current study aimed to investigate potential associations between areca nut extract (ANE) and cisplatin toxicity in OSCC cells. OSCC cells (Cal-27 and Scc-9) viability and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment
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Chewing areca nut is closely associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The current study aimed to investigate potential associations between areca nut extract (ANE) and cisplatin toxicity in OSCC cells. OSCC cells (Cal-27 and Scc-9) viability and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment with ANE and/or cisplatin. The expressions of proteins associated with autophagy and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling network were evaluated. We revealed that advanced OSCC patients with areca nut chewing habits presented higher LC3 expression and poorer prognosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated autophagy was induced after pro-longed treatment of ANE (six days, 3 μg). Cisplatin toxicity (IC50, 48 h) was decreased in OSCC cells after ANE treatment (six days, 3 μg). Cisplatin toxicity could be enhanced by reversed autophagy by pretreatment of 3-methyladenine (3-MA), N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), or Compound C. Cleaved-Poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (cl-PARP) and cleaved-caspase 3 (cl-caspase 3) were downregulated in ANE-treated OSCC cells in the presence of cisplatin, which was also reversed by NAC and Compound C. Collectively, ANE could decrease cisplatin toxicity of OSCC by inducing autophagy, which involves the ROS and AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle Dectin-1-Mediated Pathway Contributes to Fusarium proliferatum-Induced CXCL-8 Release from Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 624; doi:10.3390/ijms18030624
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract
Fusarium species are causative agents of human respiratory disorders and are distributed widely in our environment. Little is known of their interaction with human respiratory epithelial cells, which may contribute to allergic airway responses. In this study, we report on the release of
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Fusarium species are causative agents of human respiratory disorders and are distributed widely in our environment. Little is known of their interaction with human respiratory epithelial cells, which may contribute to allergic airway responses. In this study, we report on the release of C–X–C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL-8) from human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells upon stimulation with Fusarium proliferatum extracts. F. proliferatum-induced cytokine release from BEAS-2B cells was determined by cytokine array and CXCL-8 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Blocking antibodies and signaling pathway inhibitors were employed to delineate cell surface receptors and signaling pathways participating in CXCL-8 release. F. proliferatum extracts induced the release of CXCL-8 in a time-dependent manner. The dectin-1 receptor ligands, curdlan and laminarin, reduced CXCL-8 release. Cells pre-treated with anti-Dectin-1 antibodies (2 µg/mL) decreased CXCL-8 release by 24%. Furthermore, F. proliferatum-stimulated CXCL-8 release was reduced by 32%, 53%–81%, 40% and 26% after BEAS-2B cells were pretreated with activation inhibitors of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)—piceatannol—, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)—PD98059, U0126, SB202190, SP600125—, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)—LY294002—and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)—BAY117082—, respectively. These results suggest that Dectin-1-mediated activation of the Syk, MAPKs, PI3K and NF-κB signaling pathways contributes to F. proliferatum-stimulated CXCL-8 release from BEAS-2B cells and provides an important basis for developing novel therapeutic strategies in clinical allergy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inhaled Pollutants Modulate Respiratory and Systemic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Retinoic Acid Negatively Impacts Proliferation and MCTC Specific Attributes of Human Skin Derived Mast Cells, but Reinforces Allergic Stimulability
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 525; doi:10.3390/ijms18030525
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
The Vitamin-A-metabolite retinoic acid (RA) acts as a master regulator of cellular programs. Mast cells (MCs) are primary effector cells of type-I-allergic reactions. We recently uncovered that human cutaneous MCs are enriched with RA network components over other skin cells. Yet, direct experimental
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The Vitamin-A-metabolite retinoic acid (RA) acts as a master regulator of cellular programs. Mast cells (MCs) are primary effector cells of type-I-allergic reactions. We recently uncovered that human cutaneous MCs are enriched with RA network components over other skin cells. Yet, direct experimental evidence on the significance of the RA-MC axis is limited. Here, skin-derived cultured MCs were exposed to RA for seven days and investigated by flow-cytometry (BrdU incorporation, Annexin/PI, FcεRI), microscopy, RT-qPCR, histamine quantitation, protease activity, and degranulation assays. We found that while MC size and granularity remained unchanged, RA potently interfered with MC proliferation. Conversely, a modest survival-promoting effect from RA was noted. The granule constituents, histamine and tryptase, remained unaffected, while RA had a striking impact on MC chymase, whose expression dropped by gene and by peptidase activity. The newly uncovered MRGPRX2 performed similarly to chymase. Intriguingly, RA fostered allergic MC degranulation, in a way completely uncoupled from FcεRI expression, but it simultaneously restricted MRGPRX2-triggered histamine release in agreement with the reduced receptor expression. Vitamin-A-derived hormones thus re-shape skin-derived MCs numerically, phenotypically, and functionally. A general theme emerges, implying RA to skew MCs towards processes associated with (allergic) inflammation, while driving them away from the skin-imprinted MCTC (“MCs containing tryptase and chymase”) signature (chymase, MRGPRX2). Collectively, MCs are substantial targets of the skin retinoid network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translational Molecular Medicine & Molecular Drug Discovery)
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Open AccessArticle GeneAnalytics Pathway Analysis and Genetic Overlap among Autism Spectrum Disorder, Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 527; doi:10.3390/ijms18030527
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Bipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SCH) show similar neuropsychiatric behavioral disturbances, including impaired social interaction and communication, seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with multiple overlapping genetic and environmental influences implicated in risk and course of illness. GeneAnalytics software was used for pathway
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Bipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SCH) show similar neuropsychiatric behavioral disturbances, including impaired social interaction and communication, seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with multiple overlapping genetic and environmental influences implicated in risk and course of illness. GeneAnalytics software was used for pathway analysis and genetic profiling to characterize common susceptibility genes obtained from published lists for ASD (792 genes), BPD (290 genes) and SCH (560 genes). Rank scores were derived from the number and nature of overlapping genes, gene-disease association, tissue specificity and gene functions subdivided into categories (e.g., diseases, tissues or functional pathways). Twenty-three genes were common to all three disorders and mapped to nine biological Superpathways including Circadian entrainment (10 genes, score = 37.0), Amphetamine addiction (five genes, score = 24.2), and Sudden infant death syndrome (six genes, score = 24.1). Brain tissues included the medulla oblongata (11 genes, score = 2.1), thalamus (10 genes, score = 2.0) and hypothalamus (nine genes, score = 2.0) with six common genes (BDNF, DRD2, CHRNA7, HTR2A, SLC6A3, and TPH2). Overlapping genes impacted dopamine and serotonin homeostasis and signal transduction pathways, impacting mood, behavior and physical activity level. Converging effects on pathways governing circadian rhythms support a core etiological relationship between neuropsychiatric illnesses and sleep disruption with hypoxia and central brain stem dysfunction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation and Adaptation of a Laboratory-Based cDNA Library Preparation Protocol for Retrospective Sequencing of Archived MicroRNAs from up to 35-Year-Old Clinical FFPE Specimens
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 627; doi:10.3390/ijms18030627
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
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Abstract
Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens, when used in conjunction with patient clinical data history, represent an invaluable resource for molecular studies of cancer. Even though nucleic acids extracted from archived FFPE tissues are degraded, their molecular analysis has become possible. In this study, we
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Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens, when used in conjunction with patient clinical data history, represent an invaluable resource for molecular studies of cancer. Even though nucleic acids extracted from archived FFPE tissues are degraded, their molecular analysis has become possible. In this study, we optimized a laboratory-based next-generation sequencing barcoded cDNA library preparation protocol for analysis of small RNAs recovered from archived FFPE tissues. Using matched fresh and FFPE specimens, we evaluated the robustness and reproducibility of our optimized approach, as well as its applicability to archived clinical specimens stored for up to 35 years. We then evaluated this cDNA library preparation protocol by performing a miRNA expression analysis of archived breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) specimens, selected for their relation to the risk of subsequent breast cancer development and obtained from six different institutions. Our analyses identified six miRNAs (miR-29a, miR-221, miR-375, miR-184, miR-363, miR-455-5p) differentially expressed between DCIS lesions from women who subsequently developed an invasive breast cancer (cases) and women who did not develop invasive breast cancer within the same time interval (control). Our thorough evaluation and application of this laboratory-based miRNA sequencing analysis indicates that the preparation of small RNA cDNA libraries can reliably be performed on older, archived, clinically-classified specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Regulation by Non-Coding RNAs)
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Open AccessArticle PAMAM Dendrimers Cross the Blood–Brain Barrier When Administered through the Carotid Artery in C57BL/6J Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 628; doi:10.3390/ijms18030628
Received: 21 February 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
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Abstract
Drug delivery into the central nervous system (CNS) is challenging due to the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and drug delivery into the brain overcoming the BBB can be achieved using nanoparticles such as dendrimers. The conventional cationic dendrimers used are highly toxic. Therefore, the
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Drug delivery into the central nervous system (CNS) is challenging due to the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and drug delivery into the brain overcoming the BBB can be achieved using nanoparticles such as dendrimers. The conventional cationic dendrimers used are highly toxic. Therefore, the present study investigates the role of novel mixed surface dendrimers, which have potentially less toxicity and can cross the BBB when administered through the carotid artery in mice. In vitro experiments investigated the uptake of amine dendrimers (G1-NH2 and G4-NH2) and novel dendrimers (G1-90/10 and G4-90/10) by primary cortical cultures. In vivo experiments involved transplantation of G4-90/10 into mice through (1) invasive intracranial injections into the striatum; and (2) less invasive carotid injections. The animals were sacrificed 24-h and 1-week post-transplantations and their brains were analyzed. In vivo experiments proved that the G4-90/10 can cross the BBB when injected through the carotid artery and localize within neurons and glial cells. The dendrimers were found to migrate through the corpus callosum 1-week post intracranial injection. Immunohistochemistry showed that the migrating cells are the dendrimer-infected glial cells. Overall, our results suggest that poly-amidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers may be used as a minimally invasive means to deliver biomolecules for treating neurological diseases or disorders Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood–Brain Barrier in CNS Injury and Repair)
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Open AccessArticle The CpG Dinucleotide Adjacent to a κB Site Affects NF-κB Function through Its Methylation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 528; doi:10.3390/ijms18030528
Received: 26 December 2016 / Revised: 18 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
NF-κB is an important transcription factor that plays critical roles in cell survival, proliferation, inflammation, and cancers. Although the majority of experimentally identified functional NF-κB binding sites (κB sites) match the consensus sequence, there are plenty of non-functional NF-κB consensus sequences in the
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NF-κB is an important transcription factor that plays critical roles in cell survival, proliferation, inflammation, and cancers. Although the majority of experimentally identified functional NF-κB binding sites (κB sites) match the consensus sequence, there are plenty of non-functional NF-κB consensus sequences in the genome. We analyzed the surrounding sequences of the known κB sites that perfectly match the GGGRNNYYCC consensus sequence and identified the nucleotide at the -1 position of κB sites as a key contributor to the binding of the κB sites by NF-κB. We demonstrated that a cytosine at the -1 position of a κB site (-1C) could be methylated, which thereafter impaired NF-κB binding and/or function. In addition, all -1C κB sites are located in CpG islands and are conserved during evolution only when they are within CpG islands. Interestingly, when there are multiple NF-κB binding possibilities, methylation of -1C might increase NF-κB binding. Our finding suggests that a single nucleotide at the -1 position of a κB site could be a critical factor in NF-κB functioning and could be exploited as an additional manner to regulate the expression of NF-κB target genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Treatment with 17β-Estradiol Reduced Body Weight and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in a High-Fat Diet-Induced Animal Model of Obesity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 629; doi:10.3390/ijms18030629
Received: 5 January 2017 / Revised: 25 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
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Abstract
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) play important roles in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Recently, these estrogen receptors were reconsidered as an important treatment target of obesity leading to CVD. In this study, 17β-estradiol (17β-E) replacement therapy applied to high-fat
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Estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) play important roles in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Recently, these estrogen receptors were reconsidered as an important treatment target of obesity leading to CVD. In this study, 17β-estradiol (17β-E) replacement therapy applied to high-fat diet-induced obese C57B male mice and ovariectomized (OVX) rats were evaluated, and the protective effects against high-fat diet-induced obesity were assessed in C57B mouse hearts. The results showed that 17β-E treatment activated both ERα and ERβ, and ERβ levels increased in a dose-dependent manner in high-fat diet C57B mouse cardiomyocytes following 17β-E treatment. Notably, an almost 16% reduction in body weight was observed in the 17β-E-treated (12 μg/kg/day for 60 days) high-fat diet-induced obese C57B male mice. These results suggested that 17β-E supplements may reduce CVD risk due to obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle RNase L Suppresses Androgen Receptor Signaling, Cell Migration and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 529; doi:10.3390/ijms18030529
Received: 22 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
The interferon antiviral pathways and prostate cancer genetics converge on a regulated endoribonuclease, RNase L. Positional cloning and linkage studies mapped Hereditary Prostate Cancer 1 (HPC1) to RNASEL. To date, there is no correlation of viral infections with prostate cancer,
[...] Read more.
The interferon antiviral pathways and prostate cancer genetics converge on a regulated endoribonuclease, RNase L. Positional cloning and linkage studies mapped Hereditary Prostate Cancer 1 (HPC1) to RNASEL. To date, there is no correlation of viral infections with prostate cancer, suggesting that RNase L may play additional roles in tumor suppression. Here, we demonstrate a role of RNase L as a suppressor of androgen receptor (AR) signaling, cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Using RNase L mutants, we show that its nucleolytic activity is dispensable for both AR signaling and migration. The most prevalent HPC1-associated mutations in RNase L, R462Q and E265X, enhance AR signaling and cell migration. RNase L negatively regulates cell migration and attachment on various extracellular matrices. We demonstrate that RNase L knockdown cells promote increased cell surface expression of integrin β1 which activates Focal Adhesion Kinase-Sarcoma (FAK-Src) pathway and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1-guanosine triphosphatase (Rac1-GTPase) activity to increase cell migration. Activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 is significantly increased in cells where RNase L levels are ablated. We show that mutations in RNase L found in HPC patients may promote prostate cancer by increasing expression of AR-responsive genes and cell motility and identify novel roles of RNase L as a prostate cancer susceptibility gene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic, Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle The Role of the Melatoninergic System in Light-Entrained Behavior of Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 530; doi:10.3390/ijms18030530
Received: 20 January 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 26 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
The role of endogenous melatonin for the control of the circadian system under entrained conditions and for the determination of the chronotype is still poorly understood. Mice with deletions in the melatoninergic system (melatonin deficiency or the lack of melatonin receptors, respectively) do
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The role of endogenous melatonin for the control of the circadian system under entrained conditions and for the determination of the chronotype is still poorly understood. Mice with deletions in the melatoninergic system (melatonin deficiency or the lack of melatonin receptors, respectively) do not display any obvious defects in either their spontaneous (circadian) or entrained (diurnal) rhythmic behavior. However, there are effects that can be detected by analyzing the periodicity of the locomotor behaviors in some detail. We found that melatonin-deficient mice (C57Bl), as well as melatonin-proficient C3H mice that lack the melatonin receptors (MT) 1 and 2 (C3H MT1,2 KO), reproduce their diurnal locomotor rhythms with significantly less accuracy than mice with an intact melatoninergic system. However, their respective chronotypes remained unaltered. These results show that one function of the endogenous melatoninergic system might be to stabilize internal rhythms under conditions of a steady entrainment, while it has no effects on the chronotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melatonin and Its Analogues: Experimental and Clinical Aspects)
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Open AccessArticle Profile of Polyphenol Compounds of Five Muscadine Grapes Cultivated in the United States and in Newly Adapted Locations in China
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 631; doi:10.3390/ijms18030631
Received: 27 January 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
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Abstract
Polyphenol compositions and concentrations in skins and seeds of five muscadine grapes (cv. “Noble”, “Alachua”, “Carlos”, “Fry”, and “Granny Val”) cultivated in the United States (Tallahassee-Florida, TA-FL) and South China (Nanning-Guangxi, NN-GX and Pu’er-Yunnan, PE-YN) were investigated, using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem
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Polyphenol compositions and concentrations in skins and seeds of five muscadine grapes (cv. “Noble”, “Alachua”, “Carlos”, “Fry”, and “Granny Val”) cultivated in the United States (Tallahassee-Florida, TA-FL) and South China (Nanning-Guangxi, NN-GX and Pu’er-Yunnan, PE-YN) were investigated, using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC Triple TOF MS/MS). Fourteen ellagitannins were newly identified in these muscadine grapes. The grapes grown in NN-GX accumulated higher levels of ellagic acid, methyl brevifolin carboxylate, and ellagic acid glucoside in skins, and penta-O-galloyl-glucose in seeds. In PE-YN, more flavonols were detected in skins, and higher contents of flavan-3-ols, ellagic acid, and methyl gallate were identified in seeds. Abundant seed gallic acid and flavonols were found among the grapes grown in TA-FL. Based on principal component analysis (PCA) of 54 evaluation parameters, various cultivars grown in different locations could be grouped together and vice versa for the same cultivar cultivated in different regions. This is the result of the interaction between genotype and environmental conditions, which apparently influences the polyphenol synthesis and accumulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activity of Natural Secondary Metabolite Products)
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Open AccessArticle Establishment of HK-2 Cells as a Relevant Model to Study Tenofovir-Induced Cytotoxicity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 531; doi:10.3390/ijms18030531
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 25 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
Tenofovir (TFV) is an antiviral drug approved for treating Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B. TFV is administered orally as the prodrug tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) which then is deesterified to the active drug TFV. TFV induces nephrotoxicity characterized by renal failure
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Tenofovir (TFV) is an antiviral drug approved for treating Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B. TFV is administered orally as the prodrug tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) which then is deesterified to the active drug TFV. TFV induces nephrotoxicity characterized by renal failure and Fanconi Syndrome. The mechanism of this toxicity remains unknown due to limited experimental models. This study investigated the cellular mechanism of cytotoxicity using a human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell line (HK-2). HK-2 cells were grown for 48 h followed by 24 to 72 h exposure to 0–28.8 μM TFV or vehicle, phosphate buffered saline (PBS). MTT (MTT, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) and Trypan blue indicated that TFV diminished cell viability at 24–72 h. TFV decreased ATP levels at 72 h when compared to vehicle, reflecting mitochondrial dysfunction. TFV increased the oxidative stress biomarkers of protein carbonylation and 4-hydroxynonenol (4-HNE) adduct formation. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was released into the media following exposure to 14.5 and 28.8 μM TFV. Caspase 3 and 9 cleavage was induced by TFV compared to vehicle at 72 h. These studies show that HK-2 cells are a sensitive model for TFV cytotoxicity and suggest that mitochondrial stress and apoptosis occur in HK-2 cells treated with TFV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nephrotoxicity)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Clozapine on DNA Methylation in Peripheral Leukocytes from Patients with Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 632; doi:10.3390/ijms18030632
Received: 27 January 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
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Abstract
Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic, that is established as the treatment of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (SCZ). To date, no study investigating comprehensive DNA methylation changes in SCZ patients treated with chronic clozapine has been reported. The purpose of the present study is
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Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic, that is established as the treatment of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (SCZ). To date, no study investigating comprehensive DNA methylation changes in SCZ patients treated with chronic clozapine has been reported. The purpose of the present study is to reveal the effects of clozapine on DNA methylation in treatment-resistant SCZ. We conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in peripheral leukocytes (485,764 CpG dinucleotides) from treatment-resistant SCZ patients treated with clozapine (n = 21) in a longitudinal study. Significant changes in DNA methylation were observed at 29,134 sites after one year of treatment with clozapine, and these genes were enriched for “cell substrate adhesion” and “cell matrix adhesion” gene ontology (GO) terms. Furthermore, DNA methylation changes in the CREBBP (CREB binding protein) gene were significantly correlated with the clinical improvements. Our findings provide insights into the action of clozapine in treatment-resistant SCZ. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vanillin Suppresses Cell Motility by Inhibiting STAT3-Mediated HIF-1α mRNA Expression in Malignant Melanoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 532; doi:10.3390/ijms18030532
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
Recent studies have shown that vanillin has anti-cancer, anti-mutagenic, and anti-metastatic activity; however, the precise molecular mechanism whereby vanillin inhibits metastasis and cancer progression is not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether vanillin has anti-cancer and anti-metastatic activities via inhibition of
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Recent studies have shown that vanillin has anti-cancer, anti-mutagenic, and anti-metastatic activity; however, the precise molecular mechanism whereby vanillin inhibits metastasis and cancer progression is not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether vanillin has anti-cancer and anti-metastatic activities via inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in A2058 and A375 human malignant melanoma cells. Immunoblotting and quantitative real time (RT)-PCR analysis revealed that vanillin down-regulates HIF-1α protein accumulation and the transcripts of HIF-1α target genes related to cancer metastasis including fibronectin 1 (FN1), lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). It was also found that vanillin significantly suppresses HIF-1α mRNA expression and de novo HIF-1α protein synthesis. To understand the suppressive mechanism of vanillin on HIF-1α expression, chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed. Consequently, it was found that vanillin causes inhibition of promoter occupancy by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), but not nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), on HIF1A. Furthermore, an in vitro migration assay revealed that the motility of melanoma cells stimulated by hypoxia was attenuated by vanillin treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrate that vanillin might be a potential anti-metastatic agent that suppresses metastatic gene expression and migration activity under hypoxia via the STAT3-HIF-1α signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activity of Natural Secondary Metabolite Products)
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Open AccessArticle miR-30a as Potential Therapeutics by Targeting TET1 through Regulation of Drp-1 Promoter Hydroxymethylation in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 633; doi:10.3390/ijms18030633
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract
Several recent studies have indicated that miR-30a plays critical roles in various biological processes and diseases. However, the mechanism of miR-30a participation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) regulation is ambiguous. Our previous study demonstrated that miR-30a may function as a novel therapeutic target
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Several recent studies have indicated that miR-30a plays critical roles in various biological processes and diseases. However, the mechanism of miR-30a participation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) regulation is ambiguous. Our previous study demonstrated that miR-30a may function as a novel therapeutic target for lung fibrosis by blocking mitochondrial fission, which is dependent on dynamin-related protein1 (Drp-1). However, the regulatory mechanism between miR-30a and Drp-1 is yet to be investigated. Additionally, whether miR-30a can act as a potential therapeutic has not been verified in vivo. In this study, the miR-30a expression in IPF patients was evaluated. Computational analysis and a dual-luciferase reporter assay system were used to identify the target gene of miR-30a, and cell transfection was utilized to confirm this relationship. Ten–eleven translocation 1 (TET1) was validated as a direct target of miR-30a, and miR-30a mimic and inhibitor transfection significantly reduced and increased the TET1 protein expression, respectively. Further experimentation verified that the TET1 siRNA interference could inhibit Drp-1 promoter hydroxymethylation. Finally, miR-30a agomir was designed and applied to identify and validate the therapeutic effect of miR-30a in vivo. Our study demonstrated that miR-30a could inhibit TET1 expression through base pairing with complementary sites in the 3′untranslated region to regulate Drp-1 promoter hydroxymethylation. Furthermore, miR-30a could act as a potential therapeutic target for IPF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Ranibizumab and Aflibercept on Human Müller Cells and Photoreceptors under Stress Conditions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 533; doi:10.3390/ijms18030533
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy has revolutionized the treatment of retinal vascular diseases. However, constitutive VEGF also acts as a trophic factor on retinal nonvascular cells. We have studied the effects of aflibercept and ranibizumab on human Müller cells and photoreceptors exposed
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Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy has revolutionized the treatment of retinal vascular diseases. However, constitutive VEGF also acts as a trophic factor on retinal nonvascular cells. We have studied the effects of aflibercept and ranibizumab on human Müller cells and photoreceptors exposed to starvation media containing various concentrations of glucose, with or without CoCl2-induced hypoxia. Cell survival was assessed by calcein-AM cell viability assays. Expression of heat shock proteins (Hsp) and redox proteins thioredoxin 1 and 2 (TRX1, TRX2) was studied by Western blots. The production of neurotrophic factors in Müller cells and interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) in photoreceptors was measured by enzymelinked immunosorbent assays. Aflibercept and ranibizumab did not affect the viability of both types of cells. Neither aflibercept nor ranibizumab affected the production of neurotrophic factors or expression of Hsp60 and Hsp90 in Müller cells. However, aflibercept but not ranibizumab affected the expression of Hsp60, Hsp9, TRX1 and TRX2 in photoreceptors. Aflibercept and ranibizumab both inhibited the production of IRBP in photoreceptors, aflibercept more so than ranibizumab. Our data indicates that the potential influence of aflibercept and ranibizumab on photoreceptors should be specifically monitored in clinical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinal Diseases: Bridging Basic and Clinical Research)
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Open AccessArticle The PRR11-SKA2 Bidirectional Transcription Unit Is Negatively Regulated by p53 through NF-Y in Lung Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 534; doi:10.3390/ijms18030534
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 19 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
We previously identified proline-rich protein 11 (PRR11) as a novel cancer-related gene that is implicated in the regulation of cell cycle and tumorigenesis. Our recent study demonstrated that PRR11 and its adjacent gene, kinetochore associated 2 (SKA2), constitute a
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We previously identified proline-rich protein 11 (PRR11) as a novel cancer-related gene that is implicated in the regulation of cell cycle and tumorigenesis. Our recent study demonstrated that PRR11 and its adjacent gene, kinetochore associated 2 (SKA2), constitute a classic head-to-head gene pair that is coordinately regulated by nuclear factor Y (NF-Y). In the present study, we further show that the PRR11-SKA2 bidirectional transcription unit is an indirect target of the tumor suppressor p53. A luciferase reporter assay revealed that overexpression of wild type p53, but not mutant p53, significantly represses the basal activity and NF-Y mediated transactivation of the PRR11-SKA2 bidirectional promoter. Deletion and mutation analysis of the PRR11-SKA2 promoter revealed that p53-mediated PRR11-SKA2 repression is dependent on the presence of functional NF-Y binding sites. Furthermore, a co-immunoprecipitation assay revealed that p53 associates with NF-Y in lung cancer cells, and a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that p53 represses PRR11-SKA2 transcription by reducing the binding amount of NF-Y in the PRR11-SKA2 promoter region. Consistently, the ability of p53 to downregulate PRR11-SKA2 transcription was significantly attenuated upon siRNA-mediated depletion of nuclear factor Y subunit beta (NF-YB). Notably, lung cancer patients with lower expression of either PRR11 or SKA2 along with wild type p53 exhibited the best overall survival compared with others with p53 mutation and/or higher expression of either PRR11 or SKA2. Taken together, our results demonstrate that p53 negatively regulates the expression of the PRR11-SKA2 bidirectional transcription unit through NF-Y, suggesting that the inability to repress the PRR11-SKA2 bidirectional transcription unit after loss of p53 might contribute to tumorigenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Hyper-Methylated Loci Persisting from Sessile Serrated Polyps to Serrated Cancers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 535; doi:10.3390/ijms18030535
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
Although serrated polyps were historically considered to pose little risk, it is now understood that progression down the serrated pathway could account for as many as 15%–35% of colorectal cancers. The sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) is the most prevalent pre-invasive serrated lesion. Our
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Although serrated polyps were historically considered to pose little risk, it is now understood that progression down the serrated pathway could account for as many as 15%–35% of colorectal cancers. The sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) is the most prevalent pre-invasive serrated lesion. Our objective was to identify the CpG loci that are persistently hyper-methylated during serrated carcinogenesis, from the early SSA/P lesion through the later cancer phases of neoplasia development. We queried the loci hyper-methylated in serrated cancers within our rightsided SSA/Ps from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry, using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 k panel to comprehensively assess the DNA methylation status. We identified CpG loci and regions consistently hyper-methylated throughout the serrated carcinogenesis spectrum, in both our SSA/P specimens and in serrated cancers. Hyper-methylated CpG loci included the known the tumor suppressor gene RET (p = 5.72 x 10−10), as well as loci in differentially methylated regions for GSG1L, MIR4493, NTNG1, MCIDAS, ZNF568, and RERG. The hyper-methylated loci that we identified help characterize the biology of SSA/P development, and could be useful as therapeutic targets, or for future identification of patients who may benefit from shorter surveillance intervals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle Overexpression of Transforming Acidic Coiled Coil‑Containing Protein 3 Reflects Malignant Characteristics and Poor Prognosis of Glioma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 235; doi:10.3390/ijms18030235
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 4 March 2017
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Abstract
Gliomas are malignant primary brain tumors with poor prognosis. Recently, research was indicative of a tight connection between tumor malignancy and genetic alterations. Here, we propose an oncogenic implication of transforming acidic coiled-coil-containing protein 3 (TACC3) in gliomas. By comprehensively analyzing the Chinese
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Gliomas are malignant primary brain tumors with poor prognosis. Recently, research was indicative of a tight connection between tumor malignancy and genetic alterations. Here, we propose an oncogenic implication of transforming acidic coiled-coil-containing protein 3 (TACC3) in gliomas. By comprehensively analyzing the Chinese glioma genome atlas (CGGA) and publicly available data, we demonstrated that TACC3 were overexpressed along with glioma grade and served as an independent negative prognostic biomarker for glioma patients. Functions’ annotations and gene sets’ enrichment analysis suggested that TACC3 may participate in cell cycle, DNA repair, epithelium-mesenchymal transition and other tumor-related biological processes and molecular pathways. Patients with high TACC3 expression showed CD133+ stem cell properties, glioma plasticity and shorter overall survival time under chemo-/radio-therapy. Additionally, a TACC3 associated the miRNA-mRNA network was constructed based on in silico prediction and expression pattern, which provide a foundation for further detection of TACC3-miRNA-mRNA axis function. Collectively, our observations identify TACC3 as an oncogene of tumor malignancy, as well as a prognostic and motoring biomarker for glioma patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Advances in Molecular Oncology)
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Open AccessArticle Blockade of Y177 and Nuclear Translocation of Bcr-Abl Inhibits Proliferation and Promotes Apoptosis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 537; doi:10.3390/ijms18030537
Received: 2 January 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
The gradual emerging of resistance to imatinib urgently calls for the development of new therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The fusion protein Bcr-Abl, which promotes the malignant transformation of CML cells, is mainly located in the cytoplasm, while the c-Abl protein which
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The gradual emerging of resistance to imatinib urgently calls for the development of new therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The fusion protein Bcr-Abl, which promotes the malignant transformation of CML cells, is mainly located in the cytoplasm, while the c-Abl protein which is expressed in the nucleus can induce apoptosis. Based on the hetero-dimerization of FKBP (the 12-kDa FK506- and rapamycin-binding protein) and FRB (the FKBP-rapamycin binding domain of the protein kinase, mTOR) mediated by AP21967, we constructed a nuclear transport system to induce cytoplasmic Bcr-Abl into nuclear. In this study, we reported the construction of the nuclear transport system, and we demonstrated that FN3R (three nuclear localization signals were fused to FRBT2098L with a FLAG tag), HF2S (two FKBP domains were in tandem and fused to the SH2 domain of Grb2 with an HA tag) and Bcr-Abl form a complexus upon AP21967. Bcr-Abl was imported into the nucleus successfully by the nuclear transport system. The nuclear transport system inhibited CML cell proliferation through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) pathways mainly by HF2S. It was proven that nuclear located Bcr-Abl induced CML cell (including imatinib-resistant K562G01 cells) apoptosis by activation of p73 and its downstream molecules. In summary, our study provides a new targeted therapy for the CML patients even with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI)-resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Targeting Therapy and Selective Killing)
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Open AccessArticle The Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Arterial Stiffness of Pediatric Mucopolysaccharidosis Patients Are Increased Compared to Both Pediatric and Adult Controls
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 637; doi:10.3390/ijms18030637
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 25 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract
Treatments for mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) have increased longevity, but cardiovascular disease causes mortality in a significant percentage of survivors. Markers must be developed to predict MPS cardiac risk and monitor efficacy of investigational therapies.MPS patients underwent carotid artery ultrasonography from which carotid intima-media thickness
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Treatments for mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) have increased longevity, but cardiovascular disease causes mortality in a significant percentage of survivors. Markers must be developed to predict MPS cardiac risk and monitor efficacy of investigational therapies.MPS patients underwent carotid artery ultrasonography from which carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and three measures of arterial stiffness were calculated: carotid artery distensibility (cCSD), compliance (cCSC), and incremental elastic modulus (cIEM). MPS carotid measurements were compared to corresponding data from pediatric and adult healthy cohorts. 33 MPS patients (17 MPS I, 9 MPS II, 4 MPS IIIA, and 3 MPS VI; mean age 12.5 ± 4.7 years), 560 pediatric controls (age 13.1 ± 4.0 years), and 554 adult controls (age 39.2 ± 2.2 years) were studied. Age and sex-adjusted aggregate MPS cIMT (0.56 ± 0.05 mm) was significantly greater than both pediatric (+0.12 mm; 95% CI +0.10 to +0.14 mm) and adult (+0.10 mm; 95% CI +0.06 to +0.14 mm) control cohorts; similar findings were observed for all MPS subtypes. Mean MPS cIMT approximated the 80th percentile of the adult cohort cIMT. MPS patients also demonstrated significantly increased adjusted arterial stiffness measurements, evidenced by reduced cCSD, cCSC, and increased cIEM, compared to pediatric and adult control cohorts. Regardless of treatment, MPS patients demonstrate increased cIMT and arterial stiffness compared to healthy pediatric and adult controls. These data suggest that relatively young MPS patients demonstrate a “structural vascular age” of at least 40 years old. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluating Complex Mixtures in the Zebrafish Embryo by Reconstituting Field Water Samples: A Metal Pollution Case Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 539; doi:10.3390/ijms18030539
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 12 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
Accurately assessing the toxicity of complex, environmentally relevant mixtures remains an important challenge in ecotoxicology. The goal was to identify biological effects after exposure to environmental water samples and to determine whether the observed effects could be explained by the waterborne metal mixture
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Accurately assessing the toxicity of complex, environmentally relevant mixtures remains an important challenge in ecotoxicology. The goal was to identify biological effects after exposure to environmental water samples and to determine whether the observed effects could be explained by the waterborne metal mixture found in the samples. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to water samples of five different sites originating from two Flemish (Mol and Olen, Belgium) metal contaminated streams: “Scheppelijke Nete” (SN) and “Kneutersloop” (K), and a ditch (D), which is the contamination source of SN. Trace metal concentrations, and Na, K, Mg and Ca concentrations were measured using ICP-MS and were used to reconstitute site-specific water samples. We assessed whether the effects that were observed after exposure to environmental samples could be explained by metal mixture toxicity under standardized laboratory conditions. Exposure to “D” or “reconstituted D” water caused 100% mortality. SN and reconstituted SN water caused similar effects on hatching, swim bladder inflation, growth and swimming activity. A canonical discriminant analysis confirmed a high similarity between both exposure scenarios, indicating that the observed toxicity was indeed primarily caused by metals. The applied workflow could be a valuable approach to evaluate mixture toxicity that limits time and costs while maintaining biological relevance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish: A Model for Toxicological Research)
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Open AccessArticle Expression of Autophagy-Related Proteins in Different Types of Thyroid Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 540; doi:10.3390/ijms18030540
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
Thyroid cancer is common type of malignant tumor in humans, and the autophagy status of such tumors may vary according to subtype. This study aimed to investigate the expression and implications of the major autophagy-related molecules light chain (LC) 3A, LC3B, p62, and
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Thyroid cancer is common type of malignant tumor in humans, and the autophagy status of such tumors may vary according to subtype. This study aimed to investigate the expression and implications of the major autophagy-related molecules light chain (LC) 3A, LC3B, p62, and BNIP-3 in human thyroid carcinoma. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 555 thyroid cancers (papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC): 342; follicular carcinoma (FC): 112; medullary carcinoma (MC): 70; poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC): 23; and anaplastic carcinoma (AC): 8) and 152 follicular adenomas (FAs). Expression of autophagy-related molecules (LC3A, LC3B, p62, and BNIP-3) was detected immunohistochemically, and the results were analyzed via comparison with clinicopathologic parameters. Tumoral LC3A and LC3B expressions were the highest in MC (p < 0.001), whereas stromal LC3A expression was higher in AC and PTC (p < 0.001). BNIP-3 expression was absent in MC and AC (p = 0.013). Tumoral LC3A, LC3B, and p62 expressions were higher in conventional type PTC, compared with those in the follicular variant. PTC with the BRAF V600E mutation exhibited higher expression of all autophagy-related proteins relative to PTC without this mutation (p < 0.05). BNIP-3 negativity was associated with capsular invasion in FC (p = 0.001), and p62 negativity was associated with lymph node metastasis in MC (p = 0.006). In a univariate analysis, LC3B negativity was associated with shorter disease-free survival in PTC with the BRAF V600E mutation (p = 0.024). We conclude that the expression of autophagy-related proteins differs according to thyroid cancer subtype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Light-Emitting Diode Irradiation on Growth Characteristics and Regulation of Porphyrin Biosynthesis in Rice Seedlings
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 641; doi:10.3390/ijms18030641
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
We examined the effects of light quality on growth characteristics and porphyrin biosynthesis of rice seedlings grown under different wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs). After 10 days of exposure to various wavelengths of LEDs, leaf area and shoot biomass were greater in
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We examined the effects of light quality on growth characteristics and porphyrin biosynthesis of rice seedlings grown under different wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs). After 10 days of exposure to various wavelengths of LEDs, leaf area and shoot biomass were greater in seedlings grown under white and blue LEDs than those of green and red LEDs. Both green and red LED treatments drastically decreased levels of protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX) and Mg-porphyrins compared to those of white LED, while levels of Mg-Proto IX monomethyl ester and protochlorophyllide under blue LED were decreased by 21% and 49%, respectively. Transcript levels of PPO1 were greatly upregulated in seedlings grown under red LED compared to white LED, whereas transcript levels of HO2 and CHLD were upregulated under blue LED. Overall, most porphyrin biosynthetic genes in the Fe-porphyrin branch remained almost constant or upregulated, while most genes in the Mg-porphyrin branch were downregulated. Expression levels of nuclear-encoded photosynthetic genes Lhcb and RbcS noticeably decreased after exposure to blue and red LEDs, compared to white LED. Our study suggests that specific wavelengths of LED greatly influence characteristics of growth in plants partly through altering the metabolic regulation of the porphyrin biosynthetic pathway, and possibly contribute to affect retrograde signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Botany)
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Open AccessArticle Pre-Exposure Gene Expression in Baboons with and without Pancytopenia after Radiation Exposure
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 541; doi:10.3390/ijms18030541
Received: 27 January 2017 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
Radiosensitivity differs in humans and likely among primates. The reasons are not well known. We examined pre-exposure gene expression in baboons (n = 17) who developed haematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS) without pancytopenia or a more aggravated HARS with pancytopenia after irradiation.
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Radiosensitivity differs in humans and likely among primates. The reasons are not well known. We examined pre-exposure gene expression in baboons (n = 17) who developed haematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS) without pancytopenia or a more aggravated HARS with pancytopenia after irradiation. We evaluated gene expression in a two stage study design where stage I comprised a whole genome screen for messenger RNAs (mRNA) (microarray) and detection of 667 microRNAs (miRNA) (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) platform). Twenty candidate mRNAs and nine miRNAs were selected for validation in stage II (qRT-PCR). None of the mRNA species could be confirmed during the validation step, but six of the nine selected candidate miRNA remained significantly different during validation. In particular, miR-425-5p (receiver operating characteristic = 0.98; p = 0.0003) showed nearly complete discrimination between HARS groups with and without pancytopenia. Target gene searches of miR-425-5p identified new potential mRNAs and associated biological processes linked with radiosensitivity. We found that one miRNA species examined in pre-exposure blood samples was associated with HARS characterized by pancytopenia and identified new target mRNAs that might reflect differences in radiosensitivity of irradiated normal tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Radiation Toxicity in Cells)
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Impacts the Expression of Runx2 Target Genes and Modulates Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Membrane Vesicle Biogenesis Gene Networks in 143B Osteosarcoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 642; doi:10.3390/ijms18030642
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
PDF Full-text (12074 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive malignancy of bone affecting children, adolescents and young adults. Understanding vitamin D metabolism and vitamin D regulated genes in OS is an important aspect of vitamin D/cancer paradigm, and in evaluating vitamin D as adjuvant therapy for human
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Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive malignancy of bone affecting children, adolescents and young adults. Understanding vitamin D metabolism and vitamin D regulated genes in OS is an important aspect of vitamin D/cancer paradigm, and in evaluating vitamin D as adjuvant therapy for human OS. Vitamin D treatment of 143B OS cells induced significant and novel changes in the expression of genes that regulate: (a) inflammation and immunity; (b) formation of reactive oxygen species, metabolism of cyclic nucleotides, sterols, vitamins and mineral (calcium), quantity of gap junctions and skeletogenesis; (c) bone mineral density; and (d) cell viability of skeletal cells, aggregation of bone cancer cells and exocytosis of secretory vesicles. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed significant reduction in Runx2 target genes such as fibroblast growth factor -1, -12 (FGF1 and FGF12), bone morphogenetic factor-1 (BMP1), SWI/SNF related, matrix associated actin dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily a, member 4 (SMARCA4), Matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE), Integrin, β4 (ITGBP4), Matrix Metalloproteinase -1, -28 (MMP1 and MMP28), and signal transducer and activator of transcription-4 (STAT4) in vitamin D treated 143B OS cells. These genes interact with the inflammation, oxidative stress and membrane vesicle biogenesis gene networks. Vitamin D not only inhibited the expression of Runx2 target genes MMP1, MMP28 and kallikrein related peptidase-7 (KLK7), but also migration and invasion of 143B OS cells. Vitamin D regulated Runx2 target genes or their products represent potential therapeutic targets and laboratory biomarkers for applications in translational oncology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle Simplifying the Preparation of Pollen Grains for MALDI-TOF MS Classification
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 543; doi:10.3390/ijms18030543
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a well-implemented analytical technique for the investigation of complex biological samples. In MS, the sample preparation strategy is decisive for the success of the measurements. Here, sample preparation processes and target
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Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a well-implemented analytical technique for the investigation of complex biological samples. In MS, the sample preparation strategy is decisive for the success of the measurements. Here, sample preparation processes and target materials for the investigation of different pollen grains are compared. A reduced and optimized sample preparation process prior to MALDI-TOF measurement is presented using conductive carbon tape as target. The application of conductive tape yields in enhanced absolute signal intensities and mass spectral pattern information, which leads to a clear separation in subsequent pattern analysis. The results will be used to improve the taxonomic differentiation and identification, and might be useful for the development of a simple routine method to identify pollen based on mass spectrometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Techniques in Plant and Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle The Essential Role of Pin1 via NF-κB Signaling in Vascular Inflammation and Atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 644; doi:10.3390/ijms18030644
Received: 21 February 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
Atherosclerosis, as a chronic inflammatory disease, is the major underlying cause of death worldwide. However, the mechanisms that underlie the inflammatory process are not completely understood. Prolyl-isomerase-1 (Pin1), as a unique peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, plays an important role in inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Herein,
[...] Read more.
Atherosclerosis, as a chronic inflammatory disease, is the major underlying cause of death worldwide. However, the mechanisms that underlie the inflammatory process are not completely understood. Prolyl-isomerase-1 (Pin1), as a unique peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, plays an important role in inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Herein, we investigate whether Pin1 regulates vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, and clarify its mechanisms in these processes. ApoE−/− mice were randomly given either juglone (0.3, 1 mg/kg, two times per week) or vehicle i.p. for 4 weeks. Compared with ApoE−/− mice, treatment by juglone resulted not only in markedly attenuated macrophage infiltration and atherosclerotic lesion area in a lipid-independent manner, but also in decreased expression of Pin1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and NF-κB activity in aorta. Then, EA.hy926 cells were pretreated with juglone (6 μmol/L), Pin1 siRNA, NF-κB inhibitor, or vehicle prior to exposure to ox-LDL (50 μg/mL). It was observed that treatment with juglone or Pin1 siRNA suppressed expression of VCAM-1 in oxLDL-incubated EA.hy926 cells and decreased THP-1 cell adhesion to oxLDL-stimulated endothelial cells through the NF-κB signal pathway. Our findings indicate that Pin1 plays a vital role on the development of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle d-Amino Acid Position Influences the Anticancer Activity of Galaxamide Analogs: An Apoptotic Mechanism Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 544; doi:10.3390/ijms18030544
Received: 5 December 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Galaxamide, an extract from Galaxaura filamentosa, is a cyclic pentapeptide containing five l-leucines. Due to the particular cyclic structure and the excellent anticancer activity, synthesis of Galaxamide and its analogs and their subsequent bio-applications have attracted great attention. In the present
[...] Read more.
Galaxamide, an extract from Galaxaura filamentosa, is a cyclic pentapeptide containing five l-leucines. Due to the particular cyclic structure and the excellent anticancer activity, synthesis of Galaxamide and its analogs and their subsequent bio-applications have attracted great attention. In the present work, we synthesized six Galaxamide analogs by replacing one of the l-leucines with phenylalanine and varying the d-amino acid position. The anticancer effect of the synthesized Galaxamide analogs was tested against four in vitro human cancer cell lines, human hepatocellular cells (HepG2), human breast cancer cell (MCF-7), human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-435) and a human cervical carcinoma cell line (Hela). Results showed that Galaxamide analogs with different d-amino acid positions displayed distinct anticancer potential. The Galaxamide analog containing d-amino acid at position 5 (Analog-6) presented the strongest anticancer activity. The mechanism study revealed that Analog-6 could cause the early apoptosis of HepG2 cells by inhibiting their growth in the sub-G1 stage of the cell cycle and induce the chromatin condensation and fragmentation, which can be seen as 68% of HepG2 cells inhibited in the sub-G1 stage. Moreover, a mitochondria-mediated pathway was found to be involved in the apoptotic process of Analog-6 on HepG2 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle Evolution of Fish Let-7 MicroRNAs and Their Expression Correlated to Growth Development in Blunt Snout Bream
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 646; doi:10.3390/ijms18030646
Received: 28 January 2017 / Revised: 12 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
The lethal-7 (let-7) miRNA, known as one of the first founding miRNAs, is present in multiple copies in a genome and has diverse functions in animals. In this study, comparative genomic analysis of let-7 miRNAs members in fish species indicated that
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The lethal-7 (let-7) miRNA, known as one of the first founding miRNAs, is present in multiple copies in a genome and has diverse functions in animals. In this study, comparative genomic analysis of let-7 miRNAs members in fish species indicated that let-7 miRNA is a sequence conserved family in fish, while different species have the variable gene copy numbers. Among the ten members including let-7a/b/c/d/e/f/g/h/i/j, the let-7a precursor sequence was more similar to ancestral sequences, whereas other let-7 miRNA members were separate from the late differentiation of let-7a. The mostly predicted target genes of let-7 miRNAs are involved in biological process, especially developmental process and growth through Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. In order to identify the possible different functions of these ten miRNAs in fish growth development, their expression levels were quantified in adult males and females of Megalobrama amblycephala, as well as in 3-, 6-, and 12-months-old individuals with relatively slow- and fast-growth rates. These ten miRNAs had similar tissue expression patterns between males and females, with higher expression levels in the brain and pituitary than that in other tissues (p < 0.05). Among these miRNAs, the relative expression level of let-7a was the highest among almost all the tested tissues, followed by let-7b, let-7d and let-7c/e/f/g/h/i/j. As to the groups with different growth rates, the expression levels of let-7 miRNAs in pituitary and brain from the slow-growth group were always significantly higher than that in the fast-growth group (p < 0.05). These results suggest that let-7 miRNA members could play an important role in the regulation of growth development in M. amblycephala through negatively regulating expression of their target genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessCommunication Proteome Analysis of Human Follicular Thyroid Cancer Cells Exposed to the Random Positioning Machine
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 546; doi:10.3390/ijms18030546
Received: 26 October 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Several years ago, we detected the formation of multicellular spheroids in experiments with human thyroid cancer cells cultured on the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), a ground-based model to simulate microgravity by continuously changing the orientation of samples. Since then, we have studied cellular
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Several years ago, we detected the formation of multicellular spheroids in experiments with human thyroid cancer cells cultured on the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), a ground-based model to simulate microgravity by continuously changing the orientation of samples. Since then, we have studied cellular mechanisms triggering the cells to leave a monolayer and aggregate to spheroids. Our work focused on spheroid-related changes in gene expression patterns, in protein concentrations, and in factors secreted to the culture supernatant during the period when growth is altered. We detected that factors inducing angiogenesis, the composition of integrins, the density of the cell monolayer exposed to microgravity, the enhanced production of caveolin-1, and the nuclear factor kappa B p65 could play a role during spheroid formation in thyroid cancer cells. In this study, we performed a deep proteome analysis on FTC-133 thyroid cancer cells cultured under conditions designed to encourage or discourage spheroid formation. The experiments revealed more than 5900 proteins. Their evaluation confirmed and explained the observations mentioned above. In addition, we learned that FTC-133 cells growing in monolayers or in spheroids after RPM-exposure incorporate vinculin, paxillin, focal adhesion kinase 1, and adenine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation factor 6 in different ways into the focal adhesion complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Knowledge in Thyroid Cancer—From Bench to Bedside)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrogen Production by a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Strain with Inducible Expression of Photosystem II
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 647; doi:10.3390/ijms18030647
Received: 21 January 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 12 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cy6Nac2.49 is a genetically modified algal strain that activates photosynthesis in a cyclical manner, so that photosynthesis is not active constitutively in the presence of oxygen, but is turned on only in response to a metabolic trigger (anaerobiosis). Here, we further
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Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cy6Nac2.49 is a genetically modified algal strain that activates photosynthesis in a cyclical manner, so that photosynthesis is not active constitutively in the presence of oxygen, but is turned on only in response to a metabolic trigger (anaerobiosis). Here, we further investigated hydrogen production by this strain comparing it with the parental wild-type strain under photoheterotrophic conditions in regular tris-acetate-phosphate (TAP) medium with a 10-h:14-h light/dark regime. Unlike the wild-type, whose level of H2 production remained low during illumination, H2 production in the mutant strain increased gradually with each subsequent light period, and by the final light period was significantly higher than the wild-type. The relatively low Photosystem II (PSII) activity of the mutant culture was shown by low fluorescence yield both in the dark (Fv/Fm) and in the light (δF/Fm’) periods. Measurement of oxygen evolution confirmed the low photosynthetic activity of the mutant cells, which gradually accumulated O2 to a lesser extent than the wild-type, thus allowing the mutant strain to maintain hydrogenase activity over a longer time period and to gradually accumulate H2 during periods of illumination. Therefore, controllable expression of PSII can be used to increase hydrogen production under nutrient replete conditions, thus avoiding many of the limitations associated with nutrient deprivation approaches sometimes used to promote hydrogen production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuel)
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Open AccessArticle Role of uL3 in Multidrug Resistance in p53-Mutated Lung Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 547; doi:10.3390/ijms18030547
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Cancer is one of the most common causes of death among adults. Chemotherapy is crucial in determining patient survival and quality of life. However, the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) continues to pose a significant challenge in the management of cancer. In this
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Cancer is one of the most common causes of death among adults. Chemotherapy is crucial in determining patient survival and quality of life. However, the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) continues to pose a significant challenge in the management of cancer. In this study, we analyzed the role of human ribosomal protein uL3 (formerly rpL3) in multidrug resistance. Our studies revealed that uL3 is a key determinant of multidrug resistance in p53-mutated lung cancer cells by controlling the cell redox status. We established and characterized a multidrug resistant Calu-6 cell line. We found that uL3 down-regulation correlates positively with multidrug resistance. Restoration of the uL3 protein level re-sensitized the resistant cells to the drug by regulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, glutathione content, glutamate release, and cystine uptake. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments and luciferase assays demonstrated that uL3 coordinated the expression of stress-response genes acting as transcriptional repressors of solute carrier family 7 member 11 (xCT) and glutathione S-transferase α1 (GST-α1), independently of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Altogether our results describe a new function of uL3 as a regulator of oxidative stress response genes and advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying multidrug resistance in cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Microenvironment and Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 7-Deoxy-Epothilone Analogues
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 648; doi:10.3390/ijms18030648
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
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Abstract
The synthesis of two deoxygenated analogues of potent epothilones is reported in an effort to analyze the relative importance of molecular conformation and ligand–target interactions to biological activity. 7-deoxy-epothilone D and 7-deoxy-(S)-14-methoxy-epothilone D were prepared through total synthesis and shown to
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The synthesis of two deoxygenated analogues of potent epothilones is reported in an effort to analyze the relative importance of molecular conformation and ligand–target interactions to biological activity. 7-deoxy-epothilone D and 7-deoxy-(S)-14-methoxy-epothilone D were prepared through total synthesis and shown to maintain the conformational preferences of their biologically active parent congeners through computer modeling and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. The significant decrease in observed potency for each compound suggests that a hydrogen bond between the C7-hydroxyl group and the tubulin binding site plays a critical role in the energetics of binding in the epothilone class of polyketides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microtubule-Targeting Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Nrf2 Regulates the Risk of a Diesel Exhaust Inhalation-Induced Immune Response during Bleomycin Lung Injury and Fibrosis in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 649; doi:10.3390/ijms18030649
Received: 28 January 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
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Abstract
The present study investigated the effects of diesel exhaust (DE) on an experimental model of bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung injury and fibrosis in mice. BLM was intravenously administered to both Nrf2+/+ and Nrf2−/− C57BL/6J mice on day 0. The mice were exposed
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The present study investigated the effects of diesel exhaust (DE) on an experimental model of bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung injury and fibrosis in mice. BLM was intravenously administered to both Nrf2+/+ and Nrf2−/− C57BL/6J mice on day 0. The mice were exposed to DE for 56 days from 28 days before the BLM injection to 28 days after the BLM injection. Inhalation of DE induced significant inhibition of airway clearance function and the proinflammatory cytokine secretion in macrophages, an increase in neutrophils, and severe lung inflammatory injury, which were greater in Nrf2−/− mice than in Nrf2+/+ mice. In contrast, inhalation of DE was observed to induce a greater increase of hydroxyproline content in the lung tissues and significantly higher pulmonary antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression in the Nrf2+/+ mice than in Nrf2−/− mice. DE is an important risk factor, and Nrf2 regulates the risk of a DE inhalation induced immune response during BLM lung injury and fibrosis in mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inhaled Pollutants Modulate Respiratory and Systemic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Proline Residues as Switches in Conformational Changes Leading to Amyloid Fibril Formation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 549; doi:10.3390/ijms18030549
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
Here we discuss studies of the structure, folding, oligomerization and amyloid fibril formation of several proline mutants of human stefin B, which is a protein inhibitor of lysosomal cysteine cathepsins and a member of the cystatin family. The structurally important prolines in stefin
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Here we discuss studies of the structure, folding, oligomerization and amyloid fibril formation of several proline mutants of human stefin B, which is a protein inhibitor of lysosomal cysteine cathepsins and a member of the cystatin family. The structurally important prolines in stefin B are responsible for the slow folding phases and facilitate domain swapping (Pro 74) and loop swapping (Pro 79). Moreover, our findings are compared to β2-microglobulin, a protein involved in dialysis-related amyloidosis. The assessment of the contribution of proline residues to the process of amyloid fibril formation may shed new light on the critical molecular events involved in conformational disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Protein Folding)
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of Ferulic Acid against Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion-Induced Swallowing Dysfunction in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 550; doi:10.3390/ijms18030550
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 25 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic phytochemical, has been reported to exert antioxidative and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of FA against the dysfunction of the swallowing reflex induced by ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries (2VO) in rats.
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Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic phytochemical, has been reported to exert antioxidative and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of FA against the dysfunction of the swallowing reflex induced by ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries (2VO) in rats. In 2VO rats, topical administration of water or citric acid to the pharyngolaryngeal region evoked a diminished number of swallowing events with prolonged latency compared to sham-operated control rats. 2VO rats had an increased level of superoxide anion radical, and decreased dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme levels in the striatum, suggesting that 2VO augmented cerebral oxidative stress and impaired the striatal dopaminergic system. Furthermore, substance P (SP) expression in the laryngopharyngeal mucosa, which is believed to be positively regulated by dopaminergic signaling in the basal ganglia, was decreased in 2VO rats. Oral treatment with FA (30 mg/kg) for 3 weeks (from one week before 2VO to two weeks after) improved the swallowing reflex and maintained levels of striatal dopamine and laryngopharyngeal SP expression in 2VO rats. These results suggest that FA maintains the swallowing reflex by protecting the dopamine-SP system against ischemia-induced oxidative damage in 2VO rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle A New Oleanolic Acid Derivative against CCl4-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 553; doi:10.3390/ijms18030553
Received: 7 January 2017 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 26 February 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
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Abstract
A novel hepatoprotective oleanolic acid derivative, 3-oxours-oleana-9(11), 12-dien-28-oic acid (Oxy-Di-OA), has been reported. In previous studies, we found that Oxy-Di-OA presented the anti-HBV (Hepatitis B Virus) activity (IC50 = 3.13 µg/mL). Remarkably, it is superior to lamivudine in the inhibition of the
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A novel hepatoprotective oleanolic acid derivative, 3-oxours-oleana-9(11), 12-dien-28-oic acid (Oxy-Di-OA), has been reported. In previous studies, we found that Oxy-Di-OA presented the anti-HBV (Hepatitis B Virus) activity (IC50 = 3.13 µg/mL). Remarkably, it is superior to lamivudine in the inhibition of the rebound of the viral replication rate. Furthermore, Oxy-Di-OA showed good performance of anti-HBV activity in vivo. Some studies showed that liver fibrosis may affiliate with HBV gene mutations. In addition, the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of Oxy-Di-OA has not been studied. Therefore, we evaluated the protective effect of Oxy-Di-OA against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in rats. Daily intraperitoneally administration of Oxy-Di-OA prevented the development of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis, which was evidenced by histological study and immunohistochemical analysis. The entire experimental protocol lasted nine weeks. Oxy-Di-OA significantly suppressed the increases of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (p < 0.05). Furthermore, Oxy-Di-OA could prevent expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). It is worth noting that the high-dose group Oxy-Di-OA is superior to bifendate in elevating hepatic function. Compared to the model group, Oxy-Di-OA in the high-dose group and low-dose group can significantly reduce the liver and spleen indices (p < 0.05). The acute toxicity test showed that LD50 and a 95% confidence interval (CIs) value of Oxy-Di-OA were 714.83 mg/kg and 639.73–798.73 mg/kg via intraperitoneal injection in mice, respectively. The LD50 value of Oxy-Di-OA exceeded 2000 mg/kg via gavage in mice. In addition, a simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed and validated to study the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the compound. After single-dose oral administration, time to reach peak concentration of Oxy-Di-OA (Cmax = 8.18 ± 0.66 μg/mL) was 10 ± 2.19 h; the elimination half-life and area under the concentration-time curve from t = 0 to the last time of Oxy-Di-OA was 2.19 h and 90.21 μg·h/mL, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Drug Induced Liver Injury)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Cytotoxic Effects of Aqueous Extracts from the Edible Sea Anemones Anemonia sulcata and Actinia equina
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 653; doi:10.3390/ijms18030653
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Marine invertebrates have been attracting the attention of researchers for their application in nutrition, agriculture, and the pharmaceutical industry, among others. Concerning sea anemones (Cnidaria), little is known regarding their metabolic profiles and potential value as a source of pharmacologically-active agents. In this
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Marine invertebrates have been attracting the attention of researchers for their application in nutrition, agriculture, and the pharmaceutical industry, among others. Concerning sea anemones (Cnidaria), little is known regarding their metabolic profiles and potential value as a source of pharmacologically-active agents. In this work, the chemical profiles of two species of sea anemones Actinia equina and Anemonia sulcata, were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) and its impact upon immune and gastric cells was evaluated. In both species, the methylpyridinium alkaloid homarine was the major compound in aqueous extracts. The extracts were effective in reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced levels of nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a macrophage model of inflammation. Both the extracts and the alkaloid homarine were effective in inhibiting phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a pivotal enzyme in the initial steps of the inflammatory cascade. In order to mimic the oral consumption of these extracts; their effect upon human gastric cells was evaluated. While no caspase-9 activation was detected, the fact that the endoplasmic reticulum-resident caspase-4, and also caspase-3, were activated points to a non-classical mechanism of apoptosis in human gastric cells. This work provides new insights on the toxicity and biological potential of sea anemones increasingly present in human nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Genomic Loads and Genotypes of Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Viral Factors during Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Chilean Hospitalized Infants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 654; doi:10.3390/ijms18030654
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
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Abstract
The clinical impact of viral factors (types and viral loads) during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is still controversial, especially regarding newly described genotypes. In this study, infants with RSV bronchiolitis were recruited to describe the association of these viral factors with severity
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The clinical impact of viral factors (types and viral loads) during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is still controversial, especially regarding newly described genotypes. In this study, infants with RSV bronchiolitis were recruited to describe the association of these viral factors with severity of infection. RSV antigenic types, genotypes, and viral loads were determined from hospitalized patients at Hospital Roberto del Río, Santiago, Chile. Cases were characterized by demographic and clinical information, including days of lower respiratory symptoms and severity. A total of 86 patients were included: 49 moderate and 37 severe cases. During 2013, RSV-A was dominant (86%). RSV-B predominated in 2014 (92%). Phylogenetic analyses revealed circulation of GA2, Buenos Aires (BA), and Ontario (ON) genotypes. No association was observed between severity of infection and RSV group (p = 0.69) or genotype (p = 0.87). After a clinical categorization of duration of illness, higher RSV genomic loads were detected in infants evaluated earlier in their disease (p < 0.001) and also in infants evaluated later, but coursing a more severe infection (p = 0.04). Although types and genotypes did not associate with severity in our children, higher RSV genomic loads and delayed viral clearance in severe patients define a group that might benefit from new antiviral therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pneumonia: Pathogenesis, Diagnostics, Therapeutics, and Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle Comprehensive Metabolomic Analysis in Blood, Urine, Fat, and Muscle in Men with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial on the Effects of Resveratrol after Four Months’ Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 554; doi:10.3390/ijms18030554
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 26 February 2017 / Published: 4 March 2017
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Abstract
Resveratrol possesses several beneficial metabolic effects in rodents, while the effects of resveratrol in humans remain unclear. Therefore, we performed a non-targeted comprehensive metabolomic analysis on blood, urine, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle tissue in middle-aged men with metabolic syndrome randomized to either
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Resveratrol possesses several beneficial metabolic effects in rodents, while the effects of resveratrol in humans remain unclear. Therefore, we performed a non-targeted comprehensive metabolomic analysis on blood, urine, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle tissue in middle-aged men with metabolic syndrome randomized to either resveratrol or placebo treatment for four months. Changes in steroid hormones across all four matrices were the most pronounced changes observed. Resveratrol treatment reduced sulfated androgen precursors in blood, adipose tissue, and muscle tissue, and increased these metabolites in urine. Furthermore, markers of muscle turnover were increased and lipid metabolism was affected, with increased intracellular glycerol and accumulation of long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n3 and n6) free fatty acids in resveratrol-treated men. Finally, urinary derivatives of aromatic amino acids, which mainly reflect the composition of the gut microbiota, were altered upon resveratrol treatment. In conclusion, the non-targeted metabolomics approach applied to four different matrices provided evidence of subtle but robust effects on several metabolic pathways following resveratrol treatment for four months in men with metabolic syndrome—effects that, for the most part, would not have been detected by routine analyses. The affected pathways should be the focus of future clinical trials on resveratrol’s effects, and perhaps particularly the areas of steroid metabolism and the gut microbiome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle BDNF Variants May Modulate Long-Term Visual Memory Performance in a Healthy Cohort
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 655; doi:10.3390/ijms18030655
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
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Abstract
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in numerous cognitive functions including learning and memory. BDNF plays an important role in synaptic plasticity in humans and rats with BDNF shown to be essential for the formation of long-term memories. We previously identified a significant
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in numerous cognitive functions including learning and memory. BDNF plays an important role in synaptic plasticity in humans and rats with BDNF shown to be essential for the formation of long-term memories. We previously identified a significant association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) and long-term visual memory (p-value = 0.003) in a small cohort (n = 181) comprised of healthy individuals who had been phenotyped for various aspects of memory function. In this study, we have extended the cohort to 597 individuals and examined multiple genetic variants across both the BDNF and BDNF-AS genes for association with visual memory performance as assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale—Fourth Edition subtests Visual Reproduction I and II (VR I and II). VR I assesses immediate visual memory, whereas VR II assesses long-term visual memory. Genetic association analyses were performed for 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped on Illumina OmniExpress BeadChip arrays with the immediate and long-term visual memory phenotypes. While none of the BDNF and BDNF-AS variants were shown to be significant for immediate visual memory, we found 10 variants (including the Val66Met polymorphism (p-value = 0.006)) that were nominally associated, and three variants (two variants in BDNF and one variant in the BDNF-AS locus) that were significantly associated with long-term visual memory. Our data therefore suggests a potential role for BDNF, and its anti-sense transcript BDNF-AS, in long-term visual memory performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor)
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Open AccessArticle A Systematic Study of Dysregulated MicroRNA in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 456; doi:10.3390/ijms18030456
Received: 26 December 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that modulate the cellular transcriptome at the post-transcriptional level. miRNA plays important roles in different disease manifestation, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Many studies have characterized the changes of miRNAs in T2DM, a complex systematic disease;
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that modulate the cellular transcriptome at the post-transcriptional level. miRNA plays important roles in different disease manifestation, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Many studies have characterized the changes of miRNAs in T2DM, a complex systematic disease; however, few studies have integrated these findings and explored the functional effects of the dysregulated miRNAs identified. To investigate the involvement of miRNAs in T2DM, we obtained and analyzed all relevant studies published prior to 18 October 2016 from various literature databases. From 59 independent studies that met the inclusion criteria, we identified 158 dysregulated miRNAs in seven different major sample types. To understand the functional impact of these deregulated miRNAs, we performed targets prediction and pathway enrichment analysis. Results from our analysis suggested that the altered miRNAs are involved in the core processes associated with T2DM, such as carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms, insulin signaling pathway and the adipocytokine signaling pathway. This systematic survey of dysregulated miRNAs provides molecular insights on the effect of deregulated miRNAs in different tissues during the development of diabetes. Some of these miRNAs and their mRNA targets may have diagnostic and/or therapeutic utilities in T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle Molecular and Structural Characterization of the Tegumental 20.6-kDa Protein in Clonorchis sinensis as a Potential Druggable Target
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 557; doi:10.3390/ijms18030557
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 4 March 2017
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Abstract
The tegument, representing the membrane-bound outer surface of platyhelminth parasites, plays an important role for the regulation of the host immune response and parasite survival. A comprehensive understanding of tegumental proteins can provide drug candidates for use against helminth-associated diseases, such as clonorchiasis
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The tegument, representing the membrane-bound outer surface of platyhelminth parasites, plays an important role for the regulation of the host immune response and parasite survival. A comprehensive understanding of tegumental proteins can provide drug candidates for use against helminth-associated diseases, such as clonorchiasis caused by the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis. However, little is known regarding the physicochemical properties of C. sinensis teguments. In this study, a novel 20.6-kDa tegumental protein of the C. sinensis adult worm (CsTegu20.6) was identified and characterized by molecular and in silico methods. The complete coding sequence of 525 bp was derived from cDNA clones and encodes a protein of 175 amino acids. Homology search using BLASTX showed CsTegu20.6 identity ranging from 29% to 39% with previously-known tegumental proteins in C. sinensis. Domain analysis indicated the presence of a calcium-binding EF-hand domain containing a basic helix-loop-helix structure and a dynein light chain domain exhibiting a ferredoxin fold. We used a modified method to obtain the accurate tertiary structure of the CsTegu20.6 protein because of the unavailability of appropriate templates. The CsTegu20.6 protein sequence was split into two domains based on the disordered region, and then, the structure of each domain was modeled using I-TASSER. A final full-length structure was obtained by combining two structures and refining the whole structure. A refined CsTegu20.6 structure was used to identify a potential CsTegu20.6 inhibitor based on protein structure-compound interaction analysis. The recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. In C. sinensis, CsTegu20.6 mRNAs were abundant in adult and metacercariae, but not in the egg. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CsTegu20.6 localized to the surface of the tegument in the adult fluke. Collectively, our results contribute to a better understanding of the structural and functional characteristics of CsTegu20.6 and homologs of flukes. One compound is proposed as a putative inhibitor of CsTegu20.6 to facilitate further studies for anthelmintics. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Proteins and Protein-Ligand Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle Knee Viscosupplementation: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis between Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid in a Single Injection versus Five Injections of Standard Hyaluronic Acid
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 658; doi:10.3390/ijms18030658
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
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Abstract
Given the wide difference in price per vial between various presentations of hyaluronic acid, this study seeks to compare the effectiveness and treatment cost of stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) in a single injection with standard preparations of hyaluronic acid (HA) in five injections
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Given the wide difference in price per vial between various presentations of hyaluronic acid, this study seeks to compare the effectiveness and treatment cost of stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) in a single injection with standard preparations of hyaluronic acid (HA) in five injections in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Fifty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren–Lawrence Grade II and III) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score greater than 7, with a homogeneous distribution of age, sex, BMI, and duration of disease, were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group I was treated with NASHA (Durolane®) and Group II with HA (Go-ON®). Patient’s evolution was followed up at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 26th week after treatment. A statistically significant improvement in WOMAC score was observed for patients treated with NASHA versus those who received HA at Week 26. In addition, the need for analgesia was significantly reduced at Week 26 in the NASHA-treated group. Finally, the economic analysis showed an increased cost of overall treatment with HA injections. Our data support the use of the NASHA class of products in the treatment of knee OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Musculoskeletal Diseases Therapy)
Open AccessArticle Caloric Restriction Protects against Lactacystin-Induced Degeneration of Dopamine Neurons Independent of the Ghrelin Receptor
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 558; doi:10.3390/ijms18030558
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 4 March 2017
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Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by a loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to exert ghrelin-dependent neuroprotective effects in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrathydropyridine (MPTP)-based animal model for PD. We here
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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by a loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to exert ghrelin-dependent neuroprotective effects in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrathydropyridine (MPTP)-based animal model for PD. We here investigated whether CR is neuroprotective in the lactacystin (LAC) mouse model for PD, in which proteasome disruption leads to the destruction of the DA neurons of the SNc, and whether this effect is mediated via the ghrelin receptor. Adult male ghrelin receptor wildtype (WT) and knockout (KO) mice were maintained on an ad libitum (AL) diet or on a 30% CR regimen. After 3 weeks, LAC was injected unilaterally into the SNc, and the degree of DA neuron degeneration was evaluated 1 week later. In AL mice, LAC injection significanty reduced the number of DA neurons and striatal DA concentrations. CR protected against DA neuron degeneration following LAC injection. However, no differences were observed between ghrelin receptor WT and KO mice. These results indicate that CR can protect the nigral DA neurons from toxicity related to proteasome disruption; however, the ghrelin receptor is not involved in this effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurobiological Perspectives on Ghrelin)
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Open AccessArticle Structural Characterization of Core Region in Erwinia amylovora Lipopolysaccharide
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 559; doi:10.3390/ijms18030559
Received: 2 February 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 4 March 2017
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Abstract
Erwinia amylovora (E. amylovora) is the first bacterial plant pathogen described and demonstrated to cause fire blight, a devastating plant disease affecting a wide range of species including a wide variety of Rosaceae. In this study, we reported the lipopolysaccharide
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Erwinia amylovora (E. amylovora) is the first bacterial plant pathogen described and demonstrated to cause fire blight, a devastating plant disease affecting a wide range of species including a wide variety of Rosaceae. In this study, we reported the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core structure from E. amylovora strain CFBP1430, the first one for an E. amylovora highly pathogenic strain. The chemical characterization was performed on the mutants waaL (lacking only the O-antigen LPS with a complete LPS-core), wabH and wabG (outer-LPS core mutants). The LPSs were isolated from dry cells and analyzed by means of chemical and spectroscopic methods. In particular, they were subjected to a mild acid hydrolysis and/or a hydrazinolysis and investigated in detail by one and two dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and ElectroSpray Ionization Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance (ESI FT-ICR) mass spectrometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs))
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Open AccessCommunication Changes in Brain Monoamines Underlie Behavioural Disruptions after Zebrafish Diet Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Environmental Mixtures
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 560; doi:10.3390/ijms18030560
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 26 February 2017 / Published: 4 March 2017
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Abstract
Zebrafish were exposed through diet to two environmentally relevant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mixtures of contrasted compositions, one of pyrolytic (PY) origin and one from light crude oil (LO). Monoamine concentrations were quantified in the brains of the fish after six month of
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Zebrafish were exposed through diet to two environmentally relevant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mixtures of contrasted compositions, one of pyrolytic (PY) origin and one from light crude oil (LO). Monoamine concentrations were quantified in the brains of the fish after six month of exposure. A significant decrease in noradrenaline (NA) was observed in fish exposed to both mixtures, while a decrease in serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) was observed only in LO-exposed fish. A decrease in metabolites of 5HT and DA was observed in fish exposed to both mixtures. Several behavioural disruptions were observed that depended on mixtures, and parallels were made with changes in monoamine concentrations. Indeed, we observed an increase in anxiety in fish exposed to both mixtures, which could be related to the decrease in 5HT and/or NA, while disruptions of daily activity rhythms were observed in LO fish, which could be related to the decrease in DA. Taken together, these results showed that (i) chronic exposures to PAHs mixtures disrupted brain monoamine contents, which could underlie behavioural disruptions, and that (ii) the biological responses depended on mixture compositions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish: A Model for Toxicological Research)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Potential of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) Grown in Southern Italy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 660; doi:10.3390/ijms18030660
Received: 19 February 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
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Abstract
Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a plant native of Central and South America, but widely distributed in the wild or semi-cultivated areas in Africa, India, and South East Asia. Although studies are available in literature on the polyphenolic content and bioactivity of
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Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a plant native of Central and South America, but widely distributed in the wild or semi-cultivated areas in Africa, India, and South East Asia. Although studies are available in literature on the polyphenolic content and bioactivity of Jatropha curcas L., no information is currently available on plants grown in pedoclimatic and soil conditions different from the autochthon regions. The aim of the present work was to characterize the antioxidant system developed by the plant under a new growing condition and to evaluate the polyphenol amount in a methanolic extract of leaves. Along with these analyses we have also tested the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities on lymphocytes. RP-HPLC-DAD analysis of flavonoids revealed a chromatographic profile dominated by the presence of flavone C-glucosydes. Vitexin is the most abundant identified compound followed by vicenin-2, stellarin-2, rhoifolin, and traces of isovitexin and isorhoifolin. Methanolic extract had high scavenging activity in all antioxidant assays tested and cytoprotective activity on lymphocytes exposed to tertz-buthylhydroperoxide. The results highlighted a well-defined mechanism of adaptation of the plant and a significant content of secondary metabolites with antioxidant properties, which are of interest for their potential uses, especially as a rich source of biologically active products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activity of Natural Secondary Metabolite Products)
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Open AccessArticle Genetic Variants Contributing to Colistin Cytotoxicity: Identification of TGIF1 and HOXD10 Using a Population Genomics Approach
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 661; doi:10.3390/ijms18030661
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
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Abstract
Colistin sulfate (polymixin E) is an antibiotic prescribed with increasing frequency for severe Gram-negative bacterial infections. As nephrotoxicity is a common side effect, the discovery of pharmacogenomic markers associated with toxicity would benefit the utility of this drug. Our objective was to identify
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Colistin sulfate (polymixin E) is an antibiotic prescribed with increasing frequency for severe Gram-negative bacterial infections. As nephrotoxicity is a common side effect, the discovery of pharmacogenomic markers associated with toxicity would benefit the utility of this drug. Our objective was to identify genetic markers of colistin cytotoxicity that were also associated with expression of key proteins using an unbiased, whole genome approach and further evaluate the functional significance in renal cell lines. To this end, we employed International HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) of Yoruban ancestry with known genetic information to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with cellular sensitivity to colistin. Further association studies revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with gene expression and protein expression were significantly enriched in SNPs associated with cytotoxicity (p ≤ 0.001 for gene and p = 0.015 for protein expression). The most highly associated SNP, chr18:3417240 (p = 6.49 × 10−8), was nominally a cis-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) of the gene TGIF1 (transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-induced factor-1; p = 0.021) and was associated with expression of the protein HOXD10 (homeobox protein D10; p = 7.17 × 10−5). To demonstrate functional relevance in a murine colistin nephrotoxicity model, HOXD10 immunohistochemistry revealed upregulated protein expression independent of mRNA expression in response to colistin administration. Knockdown of TGIF1 resulted in decreased protein expression of HOXD10 and increased resistance to colistin cytotoxicity. Furthermore, knockdown of HOXD10 in renal cells also resulted in increased resistance to colistin cytotoxicity, supporting the physiological relevance of the initial genomic associations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nephrotoxicity)
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Open AccessArticle Melatonin MT1 and MT2 Receptors in the Ram Reproductive Tract
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 662; doi:10.3390/ijms18030662
Received: 21 February 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 19 March 2017
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Abstract
Some melatonin functions in mammals are exerted through MT1 and MT2 receptors. However, there are no reports of their presence in the reproductive tract of the ram, a seasonal species. Thus, we have investigated their existence in the ram testis, epididymis,
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Some melatonin functions in mammals are exerted through MT1 and MT2 receptors. However, there are no reports of their presence in the reproductive tract of the ram, a seasonal species. Thus, we have investigated their existence in the ram testis, epididymis, accessory glands and ductus deferens. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed higher levels of m-RNA for both receptors in the testis, ampulla, seminal vesicles, and vas deferens, than in the other organs of the reproductive tract (p < 0.05). Western blot analyses showed protein bands compatible with the MT1 in the testis and cauda epididymis, and for the MT2 in the cauda epididymis and deferent duct. Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed the presence of MT1 receptors in spermatogonias, spermatocytes, and spermatids, and MT2 receptors in the newly-formed spermatozoa in the testis, whereas both receptors were located in the epithelial cells of the ampulla, seminal vesicles, and ductus deferens. Indirect immunofluorescence showed significant differences in the immunolocation of both receptors in spermatozoa during their transit in the epididymis. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that melatonin receptors are present in the ram reproductive tract. These results open the way for new studies on the molecular mechanism of melatonin and the biological significance of its receptors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melatonin and Its Analogues: Experimental and Clinical Aspects)
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Open AccessArticle Inhibition of NLRP3 Inflammasome Pathway by Butyrate Improves Corneal Wound Healing in Corneal Alkali Burn
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 562; doi:10.3390/ijms18030562
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 5 March 2017
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Abstract
Epithelial cells are involved in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity in response to different stresses. The purpose of this study was to investigate if alkali-injured corneal epithelia activate innate immunity through the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (NOD)-like receptor family pyrin domain
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Epithelial cells are involved in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity in response to different stresses. The purpose of this study was to investigate if alkali-injured corneal epithelia activate innate immunity through the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (NOD)-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway. A unilateral alkali burn (AB) was created in the central cornea of C57BL/6 mice. Mice received either no topical treatment or topical treatment with sodium butyrate (NaB), β-hydroxybutyric acid (HBA), dexamethasone (Dex), or vehicle (balanced salt solution, BSS) quater in die (QID) for two or five days (d). We evaluated the expression of inflammasome components including NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), and caspase-1, as well as the downstream cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β. We found elevation of NLRP3 and IL-1β messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts, as well as levels of inflammasome component proteins in the alkali-injured corneas compared to naïve corneas. Treatment with NLRP3 inhibitors using NaB and HBA preserved corneal clarity and decreased NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β mRNA transcripts, as well as NLRP3 protein expression on post-injury compared to BSS-treated corneas. These findings identified a novel innate immune signaling pathway activated by AB. Blocking the NLRP3 pathway in AB mouse model decreases inflammation, resulting in greater corneal clarity. These results provide a mechanistic basis for optimizing therapeutic intervention in alkali injured eyes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wound Repair and Regeneration)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of ACE and ACE2 Expression within Different Organs of the NOD Mouse
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 563; doi:10.3390/ijms18030563
Received: 8 January 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 5 March 2017
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Abstract
Renin angiotensin system (RAS) is known to play a key role in several diseases such as diabetes, and renal and cardiovascular pathologies. Its blockade has been demonstrated to delay chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular damage in diabetic patients. In this sense, since
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Renin angiotensin system (RAS) is known to play a key role in several diseases such as diabetes, and renal and cardiovascular pathologies. Its blockade has been demonstrated to delay chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular damage in diabetic patients. In this sense, since local RAS has been described, the aim of this study is to characterize angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 activities, as well as protein expression, in several tissues of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice model. After 21 or 40 days of diabetes onset, mouse serums and tissues were analyzed for ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities and protein expression. ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities were detected in different tissues. Their expressions vary depending on the studied tissue. Thus, whereas ACE activity was highly expressed in lungs, ACE2 activity was highly expressed in pancreas among the studied tissues. Interestingly, we also observed that diabetes up-regulates ACE mainly in serum, lung, heart, and liver, and ACE2 mainly in serum, liver, and pancreas. In conclusion, we found a marked serum and pulmonary alteration in ACE activity of diabetic mice, suggesting a common regulation. The increase of ACE2 activity within the circulation in diabetic mice may be ascribed to a compensatory mechanism of RAS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Loaded PS80 PBCA Nanocarrier for In Vitro Neural Differentiation of Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 663; doi:10.3390/ijms18030663
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 19 March 2017
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Abstract
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can induce neural differentiation in stem cells and has the potential for repair of the nervous system. In this study, a polysorbate 80-coated polybutylcyanoacrylate nanocarrier (PS80 PBCA NC) was constructed to deliver plasmid DNAs (pDNAs) containing
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Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can induce neural differentiation in stem cells and has the potential for repair of the nervous system. In this study, a polysorbate 80-coated polybutylcyanoacrylate nanocarrier (PS80 PBCA NC) was constructed to deliver plasmid DNAs (pDNAs) containing BDNF gene attached to a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE-cmvBDNF). The hypoxia-sensing mechanism of BDNF expression and inductiveness of the nano-formulation on mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to differentiate into neurons following hypoxia was tested in vitro with immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting. The HRE-cmvBDNF appeared to adsorb onto the surface of PS80 PBCA NC, with a resultant mean diameter of 92.6 ± 1.0 nm and zeta potential of −14.1 ± 1.1 mV. HIF-1α level in iPSCs was significantly higher in hypoxia, which resulted in a 51% greater BDNF expression when transfected with PS80 PBCA NC/HRE-cmvBDNF than those without hypoxia. TrkB and phospho-Akt were also elevated which correlated with neural differentiation. The findings suggest that PS80 PBCA NC too can be endocytosed to serve as an efficient vector for genes coupled to the HRE in hypoxia-sensitive cells, and activation of the PI3/Akt pathway in iPSCs by BDNF is capable of neural lineage specification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor)
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Open AccessArticle Gene-Transformation-Induced Changes in Chemical Functional Group Features and Molecular Structure Conformation in Alfalfa Plants Co-Expressing Lc-bHLH and C1-MYB Transcriptive Flavanoid Regulatory Genes: Effects of Single-Gene and Two-Gene Insertion
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 664; doi:10.3390/ijms18030664
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
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Abstract
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) genotypes transformed with Lc-bHLH and Lc transcription genes were developed with the intention of stimulating proanthocyanidin synthesis in the aerial parts of the plant. To our knowledge, there are no studies on the effect of single-gene and two-gene
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Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) genotypes transformed with Lc-bHLH and Lc transcription genes were developed with the intention of stimulating proanthocyanidin synthesis in the aerial parts of the plant. To our knowledge, there are no studies on the effect of single-gene and two-gene transformation on chemical functional groups and molecular structure changes in these plants. The objective of this study was to use advanced molecular spectroscopy with multivariate chemometrics to determine chemical functional group intensity and molecular structure changes in alfalfa plants when co-expressing Lc-bHLH and C1-MYB transcriptive flavanoid regulatory genes in comparison with non-transgenic (NT) and AC Grazeland (ACGL) genotypes. The results showed that compared to NT genotype, the presence of double genes (Lc and C1) increased ratios of both the area and peak height of protein structural Amide I/II and the height ratio of α-helix to β-sheet. In carbohydrate-related spectral analysis, the double gene-transformed alfalfa genotypes exhibited lower peak heights at 1370, 1240, 1153, and 1020 cm−1 compared to the NT genotype. Furthermore, the effect of double gene transformation on carbohydrate molecular structure was clearly revealed in the principal component analysis of the spectra. In conclusion, single or double transformation of Lc and C1 genes resulted in changing functional groups and molecular structure related to proteins and carbohydrates compared to the NT alfalfa genotype. The current study provided molecular structural information on the transgenic alfalfa plants and provided an insight into the impact of transgenes on protein and carbohydrate properties and their molecular structure’s changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle Evidence of the Role of R-Spondin 1 and Its Receptor Lgr4 in the Transmission of Mechanical Stimuli to Biological Signals for Bone Formation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 564; doi:10.3390/ijms18030564
Received: 22 January 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
The bone can adjust its mass and architecture to mechanical stimuli via a series of molecular cascades, which have been not yet fully elucidated. Emerging evidence indicated that R-spondins (Rspos), a family of secreted agonists of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, had important roles
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The bone can adjust its mass and architecture to mechanical stimuli via a series of molecular cascades, which have been not yet fully elucidated. Emerging evidence indicated that R-spondins (Rspos), a family of secreted agonists of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, had important roles in osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation. However, the role of Rspo proteins in mechanical loading-influenced bone metabolism has never been investigated. In this study, we found that Rspo1 was a mechanosensitive protein for bone formation. Continuous cyclic mechanical stretch (CMS) upregulated the expression of Rspo1 in mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), while the expression of Rspo1 in BMSCs in vivo was downregulated in the bones of a mechanical unloading mouse model (tail suspension (TS)). On the other hand, Rspo1 could promote osteogenesis of BMSCs under CMS through activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and could rescue the bone loss induced by mechanical unloading in the TS mice. Specifically, our results suggested that Rspo1 and its receptor of leucine-rich repeat containing G-protein-coupled receptor 4 (Lgr4) should be a novel molecular signal in the transmission of mechanical stimuli to biological signal in the bone, and this signal should be in the upstream of Wnt/β-catenin signaling for bone formation. Rspo1/Lgr4 could be a new potential target for the prevention and treatment of disuse osteoporosis in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bone and Cartilage Research)
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Open AccessArticle AKT2 Blocks Nucleus Translocation of Apoptosis-Inducing Factor (AIF) and Endonuclease G (EndoG) While Promoting Caspase Activation during Cardiac Ischemia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 565; doi:10.3390/ijms18030565
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
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Abstract
The AKT (protein kinase B, PKB) family has been shown to participate in diverse cellular processes, including apoptosis. Previous studies demonstrated that protein kinase B2 (AKT2−/−) mice heart was sensitized to apoptosis in response to ischemic injury. However, little is known
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The AKT (protein kinase B, PKB) family has been shown to participate in diverse cellular processes, including apoptosis. Previous studies demonstrated that protein kinase B2 (AKT2−/−) mice heart was sensitized to apoptosis in response to ischemic injury. However, little is known about the mechanism and apoptotic signaling pathway. Here, we show that AKT2 inhibition does not affect the development of cardiomyocytes but increases cell death during cardiomyocyte ischemia. Caspase-dependent apoptosis of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway was inactivated in cardiomyocytes with AKT2 inhibition during ischemia, while significant mitochondrial disruption was observed as well as intracytosolic translocation of cytochrome C (Cyto C) together with apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G (EndoG), both of which are proven to conduct DNA degradation in a range of cell death stimuli. Therefore, mitochondria-dependent cell death was investigated and the results suggested that AIF and EndoG nucleus translocation causes cardiomyocyte DNA degradation during ischemia when AKT2 is blocked. These data are the first to show a previous unrecognized function and mechanism of AKT2 in regulating cardiomyocyte survival during ischemia by inducing a unique mitochondrial-dependent DNA degradation pathway when it is inhibited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)
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