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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 18, Issue 3 (March 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The synthesis of β-ODAP begins with the formation of β-(isoxazolin-5-on-2-yl)alanine (BIA) from the [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle A Combination of Soybean and Haematococcus Extract Alleviates Ultraviolet B-Induced Photoaging
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030682
Received: 24 January 2017 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2778 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soybean-derived isoflavones have been investigated for their preventative effects against UV-induced symptoms of skin damage including wrinkle formation and inflammation. Haematococcus pluvialis is a freshwater species of Chlorophyta that contains high concentrations of the natural carotenoid pigment astaxanthin. Astaxanthin is known to be
[...] Read more.
Soybean-derived isoflavones have been investigated for their preventative effects against UV-induced symptoms of skin damage including wrinkle formation and inflammation. Haematococcus pluvialis is a freshwater species of Chlorophyta that contains high concentrations of the natural carotenoid pigment astaxanthin. Astaxanthin is known to be involved in retinoic acid receptor (RAR) signaling and previously been associated with the inhibition of activator protein (AP)-1 dependent transcription. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that a combination of soy extract (SE) and Haematococcus extract (HE) may prevent UVB-induced photoaging through specific signaling pathways, as measured by UVB-induced wrinkling on hairless mice skin and expression changes in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). The 1:2 ratio of SE and HE mixture (SHM) showed the optimal benefit in vivo. SHM was found to inhibit wrinkle formation via the downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 mRNA and protein expression. SHM also inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and the transactivation of AP-1 which plays an important role in regulating MMP expression. These results highlight the potential for SHM to be developed as a therapeutic agent to prevent UVB-induced skin wrinkling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessCase Report Anti-Obesity Effect of Bombus ignitus Queen Glycosaminoglycans in Rats on a High-Fat Diet
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030681
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mechanism of functional insect glycosaminoglycan (GAG) on obesity caused a high fat diet has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, insect glycosaminoglycans derived from Isaria sinclairii, Bombus ignitus (a type of bumblebee) queen, and Gryllus bimaculatus were purified and investigated as a
[...] Read more.
The mechanism of functional insect glycosaminoglycan (GAG) on obesity caused a high fat diet has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, insect glycosaminoglycans derived from Isaria sinclairii, Bombus ignitus (a type of bumblebee) queen, and Gryllus bimaculatus were purified and investigated as a potential functional food. 14-week old male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks. There were five groups that received daily intraperitoneal administration of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, control), GbG (GAG from Gryllus bimaculatus) 10 mg/kg, ISG (GAG from Isaria sinclairii) 10 mg/kg, IQG (GAG from Bombus ignites) 10 mg/kg, or Pravastatin (2 mg/kg). All treatments were performed for one month. IQG produced a potential anti-inflammatory effect with the inhibition of c-reactive protein and sero-biochemical parameters of phospholipids and free fatty acids indicative of an anti-hyperlipidemic effect. Abdominal and epididymidal fat weight were reduced in conjunction with a mild increase in body weight. The level of laminin in HMVEC-C cells or fibronectin in HFD rat hepatocytes was significantly affected by these GAG treatments, which regulated adipogenesis and adipocyte function. Compared to the control rats, IQG-treated rats displayed up-regulation of 87 genes (test:control ratio >2.0) including fatty acid synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, with the down-regulation of 47 genes including the uridine diphosphate (UDP) glycosyltransferase 2 families, polypeptidase B, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1. The data suggest that IQG could potentially prevent or treat fatty liver or hyperlipidemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle Survivin and NAIP in Human Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Protective Role of the Association of Serenoa repens, Lycopene and Selenium from the Randomized Clinical Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030680
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3958 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment includes the apoptosis machinery modulation through the direct inhibition of caspase cascade. We previously demonstrated that Serenoa repens (Ser) with lycopene (Ly) and selenium (Se) reawakened apoptosis by reducing survivin and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) levels in
[...] Read more.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment includes the apoptosis machinery modulation through the direct inhibition of caspase cascade. We previously demonstrated that Serenoa repens (Ser) with lycopene (Ly) and selenium (Se) reawakened apoptosis by reducing survivin and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) levels in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Ser-Se-Ly association on survivin and NAIP expression in BPH patients. Ninety patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to clinical BPH were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo (Group BPH + placebo, n = 45) or Ser-Se-Ly association (Group BPH + Ser-Se-Ly; n = 45) for 3 months. At time 0, all patients underwent prostatic biopsies. After 3 months of treatment, they underwent prostatic re-biopsy and specimens were collected for molecular, morphological, and immunohistochemical analysis. After 3 months, survivin and NAIP were significantly decreased, while caspase-3 was significantly increased in BPH patients treated with Ser-Se-Ly when compared with the other group. In BPH patients treated with Ser-Se-Ly for 3 months, the glandular epithelium was formed by a single layer of cuboidal cells. PSA showed high immunoexpression in all BPH patients and a focal positivity in Ser-Se-Ly treated patients after 3 months. Evident prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) immunoexpression was shown in all BPH patients, while no positivity was present after Ser-Se-Ly administration. Ser-Se-Ly proved to be effective in promoting apoptosis in BPH patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Urology)
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Open AccessArticle Methodological Challenges in Protein Microarray and Immunohistochemistry for the Discovery of Novel Autoantibodies in Paediatric Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030679
Received: 22 February 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
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Abstract
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune-mediated demyelinating disease affecting mainly children and young adults. Differentiation to multiple sclerosis is not always possible, due to overlapping clinical symptoms and recurrent and multiphasic forms. Until now, immunoglobulins reactive to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG
[...] Read more.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune-mediated demyelinating disease affecting mainly children and young adults. Differentiation to multiple sclerosis is not always possible, due to overlapping clinical symptoms and recurrent and multiphasic forms. Until now, immunoglobulins reactive to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG antibodies) have been found in a subset of patients with ADEM. However, there are still patients lacking autoantibodies, necessitating the identification of new autoantibodies as biomarkers in those patients. Therefore, we aimed to identify novel autoantibody targets in ADEM patients. Sixteen ADEM patients (11 seronegative, 5 seropositive for MOG antibodies) were analysed for potential new biomarkers, using a protein microarray and immunohistochemistry on rat brain tissue to identify antibodies against intracellular and surface neuronal and glial antigens. Nine candidate antigens were identified in the protein microarray analysis in at least two patients per group. Immunohistochemistry on rat brain tissue did not reveal new target antigens. Although no new autoantibody targets could be found here, future studies should aim to identify new biomarkers for therapeutic and prognostic purposes. The microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry methods used here have several limitations, which should be considered in future searches for biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity, Bactericidal, and Antioxidant Activity of Sodium Alginate Hydrosols Treated with Direct Electric Current
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030678
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
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Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of using direct electric current (DC) of 0, 200, and 400 mA for five minutes on the physiochemical properties, cytotoxicity, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of sodium alginate hydrosols with different sodium chloride concentrations.
[...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of using direct electric current (DC) of 0, 200, and 400 mA for five minutes on the physiochemical properties, cytotoxicity, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of sodium alginate hydrosols with different sodium chloride concentrations. The pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), electrical conductivity (EC), and available chlorine concentration (ACC) were measured. The effect of sodium alginate hydrosols treated with DC on Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas fluorescence, and RAW 264.7 and L929 cells was investigated. Subsequently, the antioxidant properties of hydrosols were evaluated by determining the scavenging ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The results have shown that after applying 400 mA in hydrosol samples with 0.1% and 0.2% NaCl all tested bacteria were inactivated. The ACC concentration of C400 samples with NaCl was equal to 13.95 and 19.71 mg/L, respectively. The cytotoxicity analysis revealed that optimized electric field conditions and the addition of sodium chloride allow for the avoidance of toxicity effects on normal cells without disturbing the antibacterial effects. Due to the presence of oxidizing substances, the DPPH of variants treated with DC was lower than the DPPH of control samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Conditioning the Main Biomass Yield Components and Resistance to Melampsora spp. in Salix viminalis × Salix schwerinii Hybrids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030677
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
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Abstract
The biomass of Salix viminalis is the most highly valued source of green energy, followed by S. schwerinii, S. dasyclados and other species. Significant variability in productivity and leaf rust resistance are noted both within and among willow species, which creates new
[...] Read more.
The biomass of Salix viminalis is the most highly valued source of green energy, followed by S. schwerinii, S. dasyclados and other species. Significant variability in productivity and leaf rust resistance are noted both within and among willow species, which creates new opportunities for improving willow yield parameters through selection of desirable recombinants supported with molecular markers. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked with biomass yield-related traits and the resistance/susceptibility of Salix mapping population to leaf rust. The experimental material comprised a mapping population developed based on S. viminalis × S. schwerinii hybrids. Phenotyping was performed on plants grown in a field experiment that had a balanced incomplete block design with 10 replications. Based on a genetic map, 11 QTLs were identified for plant height, 9 for shoot diameter, 3 for number of shoots and 11 for resistance/susceptibility to leaf rust. The QTLs identified in our study explained 3%–16% of variability in the analyzed traits. Our findings make significant contributions to the development of willow breeding programs and research into shrubby willow crops grown for energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle ATRAP Expression in Brown Adipose Tissue Does Not Influence the Development of Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030676
Received: 28 January 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (14234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Activation of tissue renin–angiotensin system (RAS), mainly mediated by an angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R), plays an important role in the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. We have shown that AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP), a specific binding protein of AT1R, functions
[...] Read more.
Activation of tissue renin–angiotensin system (RAS), mainly mediated by an angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R), plays an important role in the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. We have shown that AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP), a specific binding protein of AT1R, functions as an endogenous inhibitor to prevent excessive activation of tissue RAS. In the present study, we newly generated ATRAP/Agtrap-floxed (ATRAPfl/fl) mice and adipose tissue-specific ATRAP downregulated (ATRAPadipoq) mice by the Cre/loxP system using Adipoq-Cre. Using these mice, we examined the functional role of adipose ATRAP in the pathogenesis of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Compared with ATRAPfl/fl mice, ATRAPadipoq mice exhibited a decreased ATRAP expression in visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) by approximately 30% and 85%, respectively. When mice were fed a high-fat diet, ATRAPfl/fl mice showed decreased endogenous ATRAP expression in WAT that was equivalent to ATRAPadipoq mice, and there was no difference in the exacerbation of dietary obesity and glucose and lipid metabolism. These results indicate that ATRAP in BAT does not influence the pathogenesis of dietary obesity or metabolic disorders. Future studies that modulate ATRAP in WAT are necessary to assess its in vivo functions in the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Passage through the Ocular Barriers and Beneficial Effects in Retinal Ischemia of Topical Application of PACAP1-38 in Rodents
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030675
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 12 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1609 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has two active forms, PACAP1-27 and PACAP1-38. Among the well-established actions are PACAP’s neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects, which have also been proven in models of different retinopathies. The route of delivery is usually intravitreal in
[...] Read more.
The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has two active forms, PACAP1-27 and PACAP1-38. Among the well-established actions are PACAP’s neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects, which have also been proven in models of different retinopathies. The route of delivery is usually intravitreal in studies proving PACAP’s retinoprotective effects. Recently, we have shown that PACAP1-27 delivered as eye drops in benzalkonium-chloride was able to cross the ocular barriers and exert retinoprotection in ischemia. Since PACAP1-38 is the dominant form of the naturally occurring PACAP, our aim was to investigate whether the longer form is also able to cross the barriers and exert protective effects in permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), a model of retinal hypoperfusion. Our results show that radioactive PACAP1-38 eye drops could effectively pass through the ocular barriers to reach the retina. Routine histological analysis and immunohistochemical evaluation of the Müller glial cells revealed that PACAP1-38 exerted retinoprotective effects. PACAP1-38 attenuated the damage caused by hypoperfusion, apparent in almost all retinal layers, and it decreased the glial cell overactivation. Overall, our results confirm that PACAP1-38 given in the form of eye drops is a novel protective therapeutic approach to treat retinal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
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Open AccessArticle ROS Production and ERK Activity Are Involved in the Effects of d-β-Hydroxybutyrate and Metformin in a Glucose Deficient Condition
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030674
Received: 26 December 2016 / Revised: 11 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hypoglycemia, a complication of insulin or sulfonylurea therapy in diabetic patients, leads to brain damage. Furthermore, glucose replenishment following hypoglycemic coma induces neuronal cell death. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity and the protective effect of d
[...] Read more.
Hypoglycemia, a complication of insulin or sulfonylurea therapy in diabetic patients, leads to brain damage. Furthermore, glucose replenishment following hypoglycemic coma induces neuronal cell death. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity and the protective effect of d-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-BHB) using SH-SY5Y cells. The cytotoxic mechanism of metformin under glucose deficiency was also examined. Cell viability under 1 mM glucose (glucose deficiency) was significantly decreased which was accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and glycogen synthase 3 (GSK3β). ROS inhibitor reversed the glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity and restored the reduced phosphorylation of ERK and GSK3β. While metformin did not alter cell viability in normal glucose media, it further increased cell death and ROS production under glucose deficiency. However, D-BHB reversed cytotoxicity, ROS production, and the decrease in phosphorylation of ERK and GSK3β induced by the glucose deficiency. ERK inhibitor reversed the D-BHB-induced increase in cell viability under glucose deficiency, whereas GSK3β inhibitor did not restore glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity. Finally, the protective effect of D-BHB against glucose deficiency was confirmed in primary neuronal cells. We demonstrate that glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by ERK inhibition through ROS production, which is attenuated by D-BHB and intensified by metformin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
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Open AccessReview Molecular Basis for Modulation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors and Their Drug Actions by Extracellular Ca2+
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030672
Received: 8 February 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (916 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) associated with the slow phase of the glutamatergic signaling pathway in neurons of the central nervous system have gained importance as drug targets for chronic neurodegenerative diseases. While extracellular Ca2+ was reported to exhibit direct activation and modulation
[...] Read more.
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) associated with the slow phase of the glutamatergic signaling pathway in neurons of the central nervous system have gained importance as drug targets for chronic neurodegenerative diseases. While extracellular Ca2+ was reported to exhibit direct activation and modulation via an allosteric site, the identification of those binding sites was challenged by weak binding. Herein, we review the discovery of extracellular Ca2+ in regulation of mGluRs, summarize the recent developments in probing Ca2+ binding and its co-regulation of the receptor based on structural and biochemical analysis, and discuss the molecular basis for Ca2+ to regulate various classes of drug action as well as its importance as an allosteric modulator in mGluRs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Regulation and Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Biodegradable and Elastic Poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide) Copolymers and Evaluation as a Localized and Sustained Drug Delivery Carrier
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030671
Received: 5 February 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5338 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To develop a biodegradable polymer possessing elasticity and flexibility, we synthesized MPEG-b-(PCL-co-PLA) copolymers (PCxLyA), which display specific rates of flexibility and elasticity. We synthesize the PCxLyA copolymers by ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone and
[...] Read more.
To develop a biodegradable polymer possessing elasticity and flexibility, we synthesized MPEG-b-(PCL-co-PLA) copolymers (PCxLyA), which display specific rates of flexibility and elasticity. We synthesize the PCxLyA copolymers by ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone and l-lactide. PCxLyA copolymers of various compositions were synthesized with 500,000 molecular weight. The PCxLyA copolymers mechanical properties were dependent on the mole ratio of the ε-caprolactone and l-lactide components. Cyclic tensile tests were carried out to investigate the resistance to creep of PCxLyA specimens after up to 20 deformation cycles to 50% elongation. After in vivo implantation, the PCxLyA implants exhibited biocompatibility, and gradually biodegraded over an eight-week experimental period. Immunohistochemical characterization showed that the PCxLyA implants provoked in vivo inflammation, which gradually decreased over time. The copolymer was used as a drug carrier for locally implantable drugs, the hydrophobic drug dexamethasone (Dex), and the water-soluble drug dexamethasone 21-phosphate disodium salt (Dex(p)). We monitored drug-loaded PCxLyA films for in vitro and in vivo drug release over 40 days and observed real-time sustained release of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence over an extended period from hydrophobic IR-780- and hydrophilic IR-783-loaded PCxLyA implanted in live animals. Finally, we confirmed that PCxLyA films are usable as biodegradable, elastic drug carriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
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Open AccessArticle Study of Different Variants of Mo Enzyme crARC and the Interaction with Its Partners crCytb5-R and crCytb5-1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030670
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
PDF Full-text (2517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The mARC (mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component) proteins are recently discovered molybdenum (Mo) Cofactor containing enzymes. They are involved in the reduction of several N-hydroxylated compounds (NHC) and nitrite. Some NHC are prodrugs containing an amidoxime structure or mutagens such as 6-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP).
[...] Read more.
The mARC (mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component) proteins are recently discovered molybdenum (Mo) Cofactor containing enzymes. They are involved in the reduction of several N-hydroxylated compounds (NHC) and nitrite. Some NHC are prodrugs containing an amidoxime structure or mutagens such as 6-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP). We have studied this protein in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (crARC). Interestingly, all the ARC proteins need the reducing power supplied by other proteins. It is known that crARC requires a cytochrome b5 (crCytb5-1) and a cytochrome b5 reductase (crCytb5-R) that form an electron transport chain from NADH to the substrates. Here, we have investigated NHC reduction by crARC, the interaction with its partners and the function of important conserved amino acids. Interactions among crARC, crCytb5-1 and crCytb5-R have been studied by size-exclusion chromatography. A protein complex between crARC, crCytb5-1 and crCytb5-R was identified. Twelve conserved crARC amino acids have been substituted by alanine by in vitro mutagenesis. We have determined that the amino acids D182, F210 and R276 are essential for NHC reduction activity, R276 is important and F210 is critical for the Mo Cofactor chelation. Finally, the crARC C-termini were shown to be involved in protein aggregation or oligomerization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metalloproteins 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Genomic Loads and Genotypes of Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Viral Factors during Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Chilean Hospitalized Infants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030654
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The clinical impact of viral factors (types and viral loads) during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is still controversial, especially regarding newly described genotypes. In this study, infants with RSV bronchiolitis were recruited to describe the association of these viral factors with severity
[...] Read more.
The clinical impact of viral factors (types and viral loads) during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is still controversial, especially regarding newly described genotypes. In this study, infants with RSV bronchiolitis were recruited to describe the association of these viral factors with severity of infection. RSV antigenic types, genotypes, and viral loads were determined from hospitalized patients at Hospital Roberto del Río, Santiago, Chile. Cases were characterized by demographic and clinical information, including days of lower respiratory symptoms and severity. A total of 86 patients were included: 49 moderate and 37 severe cases. During 2013, RSV-A was dominant (86%). RSV-B predominated in 2014 (92%). Phylogenetic analyses revealed circulation of GA2, Buenos Aires (BA), and Ontario (ON) genotypes. No association was observed between severity of infection and RSV group (p = 0.69) or genotype (p = 0.87). After a clinical categorization of duration of illness, higher RSV genomic loads were detected in infants evaluated earlier in their disease (p < 0.001) and also in infants evaluated later, but coursing a more severe infection (p = 0.04). Although types and genotypes did not associate with severity in our children, higher RSV genomic loads and delayed viral clearance in severe patients define a group that might benefit from new antiviral therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pneumonia: Pathogenesis, Diagnostics, Therapeutics, and Prevention)
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Open AccessReview State of the Art on Functional Virgin Olive Oils Enriched with Bioactive Compounds and Their Properties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030668
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1692 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Virgin olive oil, the main fat of the Mediterranean diet, is per se considered as a functional food—as stated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)—due to its content in healthy compounds. The daily intake of endogenous bioactive phenolics from virgin olive oil
[...] Read more.
Virgin olive oil, the main fat of the Mediterranean diet, is per se considered as a functional food—as stated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)—due to its content in healthy compounds. The daily intake of endogenous bioactive phenolics from virgin olive oil is variable due to the influence of multiple agronomic and technological factors. Thus, a good strategy to ensure an optimal intake of polyphenols through habitual diet would be to produce enriched virgin olive oil with well-known bioactive polyphenols. Different sources of natural biological active substances can be potentially used to enrich virgin olive oil (e.g., raw materials derived from the same olive tree, mainly olive leaves and pomaces, and/or other compounds from plants and vegetables, mainly herbs and spices). The development of these functional olive oils may help in prevention of chronic diseases (such as cardiovascular diseases, immune frailty, ageing disorders and degenerative diseases) and improving the quality of life for many consumers reducing health care costs. In the present review, the most relevant scientific information related to the development of enriched virgin olive oil and their positive human health effects has been collected and discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview Novel Diagnostic and Predictive Biomarkers in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030667
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (490 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal disease for a multitude of reasons including very late diagnosis. This in part is due to the lack of understanding of the biological behavior of PDAC and the ineffective screening for this disease. Significant efforts
[...] Read more.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal disease for a multitude of reasons including very late diagnosis. This in part is due to the lack of understanding of the biological behavior of PDAC and the ineffective screening for this disease. Significant efforts have been dedicated to finding the appropriate serum and imaging biomarkers to help early detection and predict response to treatment of PDAC. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) has been the most validated serum marker and has the highest positive predictive value as a stand-alone marker. When combined with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA 125), CA 19-9 can help predict the outcome of patients to surgery and chemotherapy. A slew of novel serum markers including multimarker panels as well as genetic and epigenetic materials have potential for early detection of pancreatic cancer, although these remain to be validated in larger trials. Imaging studies may not correlate with elevated serum markers. Critical features for determining PDAC include the presence of a mass, dilated pancreatic duct, and a duct cut-off sign. Features that are indicative of early metastasis includes neurovascular bundle involvement, duodenal invasion, and greater post contrast enhancement. 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18-FDG) radiotracer uptake and changes following treatment may predict patient overall survival following treatment. Similarly, pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values may predict prognosis with lower ADC lesions having worse outcome. Although these markers have provided significant improvement in the care of pancreatic cancer patients, further advancements can be made with perhaps better combination of markers or discovery of unique marker(s) to pancreatic cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pancreatic Disorders)
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