Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Mar. Drugs, Volume 11, Issue 10 (October 2013), Pages 3582-4126

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-28
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Chitosan Nanoparticles Attenuate Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Stress Injury in Mouse Macrophage RAW264.7 Cells
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3582-3600; doi:10.3390/md11103582
Received: 2 August 2013 / Revised: 18 August 2013 / Accepted: 30 August 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (860 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in murine macrophages RAW264.7 cells. After 24 h pre-incubation with CNP (25–200 μg/mL) and chitosan (CS) (50–200 μg/mL, as
[...] Read more.
This study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in murine macrophages RAW264.7 cells. After 24 h pre-incubation with CNP (25–200 μg/mL) and chitosan (CS) (50–200 μg/mL, as controls), the viability loss in RAW264.7 cells induced by H2O2 (500 μM) for 12 h was markedly restored in a concentration-dependent manner as measured by MTT assay (P < 0.05) and decreased in cellular LDH release (P < 0.05). Moreover, CNP also exerted preventive effects on suppressing the production of lipid peroxidation such as malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05), restoring activities of endogenous antioxidant including superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (P < 0.05), along with increasing total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) (P < 0.05). In addition, pre-incubation of CNP with RAW264.7 cells for 24 h resulted in the increase of the gene expression level of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, such as MnSOD and GSH-Px (P < 0.05). At the same concentration, CNP significantly decreased LDH release and MDA (P < 0.05) as well as increased MnSOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC activities (P < 0.05) as compared to CS. Taken together, our findings suggest that CNP can more effectively protect RAW264.7 cells against oxidative stress by H2O2 as compared to CS, which might be used as a potential natural compound-based antioxidant in the functional food and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
Open AccessArticle Functional Genomics of Novel Secondary Metabolites from Diverse Cyanobacteria Using Untargeted Metabolomics
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3617-3631; doi:10.3390/md11103617
Received: 15 August 2013 / Revised: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has become a powerful tool for the detection of metabolites in complex biological systems and for the identification of novel metabolites. We previously identified a number of unexpected metabolites in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, such as histidine betaine,
[...] Read more.
Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has become a powerful tool for the detection of metabolites in complex biological systems and for the identification of novel metabolites. We previously identified a number of unexpected metabolites in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, such as histidine betaine, its derivatives and several unusual oligosaccharides. To test for the presence of these compounds and to assess the diversity of small polar metabolites in other cyanobacteria, we profiled cell extracts of nine strains representing much of the morphological and evolutionary diversification of this phylum. Spectral features in raw metabolite profiles obtained by normal phase liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) were manually curated so that chemical formulae of metabolites could be assigned. For putative identification, retention times and MS/MS spectra were cross-referenced with those of standards or available sprectral library records. Overall, we detected 264 distinct metabolites. These included indeed different betaines, oligosaccharides as well as additional unidentified metabolites with chemical formulae not present in databases of metabolism. Some of these metabolites were detected only in a single strain, but some were present in more than one. Genomic interrogation of the strains revealed that generally, presence of a given metabolite corresponded well with the presence of its biosynthetic genes, if known. Our results show the potential of combining metabolite profiling and genomics for the identification of novel biosynthetic genes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Marine α-Methoxylated Fatty Acid Analogs that Effectively Inhibit the Topoisomerase IB from Leishmania donovani with a Mechanism Different from that of Camptothecin
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3661-3675; doi:10.3390/md11103661
Received: 7 August 2013 / Revised: 1 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Sponges biosynthesize α-methoxylated fatty acids with unusual biophysical and biological properties and in some cases they display enhanced anticancer activities. However, the antiprotozoal properties of the α-methoxylated fatty acids have been less studied. In this work, we describe the total synthesis of (5
[...] Read more.
Sponges biosynthesize α-methoxylated fatty acids with unusual biophysical and biological properties and in some cases they display enhanced anticancer activities. However, the antiprotozoal properties of the α-methoxylated fatty acids have been less studied. In this work, we describe the total synthesis of (5Z,9Z)-(±)-2-methoxy-5, 9-eicosadienoic acid (1) and its acetylenic analog (±)-2-methoxy-5,9-eicosadiynoic acid (2), and report that they inhibit (EC50 values between 31 and 22 µM) the Leishmania donovani DNA topoisomerase IB enzyme (LdTopIB). The inhibition of LdTopIB (EC50 = 53 µM) by the acid (±)-2-methoxy-6-icosynoic acid (12) was studied as well. The potency of LdTopIB inhibition followed the trend 2 > 1 > 12, indicating that the effectiveness of inhibition depends on the degree of unsaturation. All of the studied α-methoxylated fatty acids failed to inhibit the human topoisomerase IB enzyme (hTopIB) at 100 µM. However, the α-methoxylated fatty acids were capable of inhibiting an active but truncated LdTopIB with which camptothecin (CPT) cannot interact suggesting that the methoxylated fatty acids inhibit LdTopIB with a mechanism different from that of CPT. The diunsaturated fatty acids displayed low cytotoxicity towards Leishmania infantum promastigotes (EC50 values between 260 and 240 µM), but 12 displayed a better cytotoxicity towards Leishmania donovani promastigotes (EC50 = 100 µM) and a better therapeutic index. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiprotozoal Marine Natural Products)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the in Vitro Anti-Atherogenic Properties of Lipid Fractions of Olive Pomace, Olive Pomace Enriched Fish Feed and Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Fed with Olive Pomace Enriched Fish Feed
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3676-3688; doi:10.3390/md11103676
Received: 28 August 2013 / Revised: 12 September 2013 / Accepted: 13 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Given the pivotal role of Platelet-Activating-Factor (PAF) in atherosclerosis and the cardio-protective role of PAF-inhibitors derived from olive pomace, the inclusion of olive pomace in fish feed has been studied for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The aim of the current
[...] Read more.
Given the pivotal role of Platelet-Activating-Factor (PAF) in atherosclerosis and the cardio-protective role of PAF-inhibitors derived from olive pomace, the inclusion of olive pomace in fish feed has been studied for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The aim of the current research was to elucidate the anti-atherogenic properties of specific HPLC lipid fractions obtained from olive pomace, olive pomace enriched fish feed and fish fed with the olive pomace enriched fish feed, by evaluating their in vitro biological activity against washed rabbit platelets. This in vitro study underlines that olive pomace inclusion in fish feed improves the nutritional value of both fish feed and fish possibly by enriching the marine lipid profile of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) with specific bioactive lipid compounds of plant origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3718-3734; doi:10.3390/md11103718
Received: 19 August 2013 / Revised: 7 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (871 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State. Rapid testing at
[...] Read more.
The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A). The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters. Full article
Open AccessArticle Oxygenated Ylangene-Derived Sesquiterpenoids from the Soft Coral Lemnalia philippinensis
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3735-3741; doi:10.3390/md11103735
Received: 27 August 2013 / Revised: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 24 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (500 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chemical examination of a Taiwanese soft coral Lemnalia philippinensis led to the isolation of three oxygenated ylangene-derived sesquiterpenoids 13, including two new metabolites, philippinlins A and B (1 and 2). The structures of these compounds were elucidated on
[...] Read more.
Chemical examination of a Taiwanese soft coral Lemnalia philippinensis led to the isolation of three oxygenated ylangene-derived sesquiterpenoids 13, including two new metabolites, philippinlins A and B (1 and 2). The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic data. Compound 1 was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity against HepG2, MDA-MB231 and A549 cancer cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
Open AccessArticle Composition and Quantitation of Microalgal Lipids by ERETIC 1H NMR Method
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3742-3753; doi:10.3390/md11103742
Received: 22 July 2013 / Revised: 10 September 2013 / Accepted: 12 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate characterization of biomass constituents is a crucial aspect of research in the biotechnological application of natural products. Here we report an efficient, fast and reproducible method for the identification and quantitation of fatty acids and complex lipids (triacylglycerols, glycolipids, phospholipids) in microalgae
[...] Read more.
Accurate characterization of biomass constituents is a crucial aspect of research in the biotechnological application of natural products. Here we report an efficient, fast and reproducible method for the identification and quantitation of fatty acids and complex lipids (triacylglycerols, glycolipids, phospholipids) in microalgae under investigation for the development of functional health products (probiotics, food ingredients, drugs, etc.) or third generation biofuels. The procedure consists of extraction of the biological matrix by modified Folch method and direct analysis of the resulting material by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The protocol uses a reference electronic signal as external standard (ERETIC method) and allows assessment of total lipid content, saturation degree and class distribution in both high throughput screening of algal collection and metabolic analysis during genetic or culturing studies. As proof of concept, the methodology was applied to the analysis of three microalgal species (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Cyclotella cryptica and Nannochloropsis salina) which drastically differ for the qualitative and quantitative composition of their fatty acid-based lipids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Red Seaweed Gracilaria gracilis as a Multi Products Source
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3754-3776; doi:10.3390/md11103754
Received: 28 June 2013 / Revised: 29 August 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (590 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years seaweeds have increasingly attracted interest in the search for new drugs and have been shown to be a primary source of bioactive natural compounds and biomaterials. In the present investigation, the biochemical composition of the red seaweed Gracilaria gracilis,
[...] Read more.
In recent years seaweeds have increasingly attracted interest in the search for new drugs and have been shown to be a primary source of bioactive natural compounds and biomaterials. In the present investigation, the biochemical composition of the red seaweed Gracilaria gracilis, collected seasonally in the Lesina Lagoon (Southern Adriatic Sea, Lesina, Italy), was assayed by means of advanced analytical techniques, such as gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and spectrophotometric tests. In particular, analysis of lipids, fatty acids, sterols, proteins, phycobiliproteins and carbohydrates as well as phenolic content, antioxidant and radical scavenging activity were performed. In winter extracts of G. gracilis, a high content of R-phycoerythrin together with other valuable products such as arachidonic acid (PUFA ω-6), proteins and carbohydrates was observed. High antioxidant and radical scavenging activities were also detected in summer extracts of the seaweed together with a high content of total phenols. In conclusion, this study points out the possibility of using Gracilaria gracilis as a multi products source for biotechnological, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications even although more investigations are required for separating, purifying and characterizing these bioactive compounds. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Integrated Metagenomic and Metatranscriptomic Analyses of Microbial Communities in the Meso- and Bathypelagic Realm of North Pacific Ocean
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3777-3801; doi:10.3390/md11103777
Received: 9 July 2013 / Revised: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 13 September 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Although emerging evidence indicates that deep-sea water contains an untapped reservoir of high metabolic and genetic diversity, this realm has not been studied well compared with surface sea water. The study provided the first integrated meta-genomic and -transcriptomic analysis of the microbial communities
[...] Read more.
Although emerging evidence indicates that deep-sea water contains an untapped reservoir of high metabolic and genetic diversity, this realm has not been studied well compared with surface sea water. The study provided the first integrated meta-genomic and -transcriptomic analysis of the microbial communities in deep-sea water of North Pacific Ocean. DNA/RNA amplifications and simultaneous metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses were employed to discover information concerning deep-sea microbial communities from four different deep-sea sites ranging from the mesopelagic to pelagic ocean. Within the prokaryotic community, bacteria is absolutely dominant (~90%) over archaea in both metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data pools. The emergence of archaeal phyla Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, bacterial phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, sub-phyla Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria, and the decrease of bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria are the main composition changes of prokaryotic communities in the deep-sea water, when compared with the reference Global Ocean Sampling Expedition (GOS) surface water. Photosynthetic Cyanobacteria exist in all four metagenomic libraries and two metatranscriptomic libraries. In Eukaryota community, decreased abundance of fungi and algae in deep sea was observed. RNA/DNA ratio was employed as an index to show metabolic activity strength of microbes in deep sea. Functional analysis indicated that deep-sea microbes are leading a defensive lifestyle. Full article
Open AccessArticle Purified Brominated Indole Derivatives from Dicathais orbita Induce Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3802-3822; doi:10.3390/md11103802
Received: 13 June 2013 / Revised: 6 September 2013 / Accepted: 22 September 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (740 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Dicathais orbita is a large Australian marine gastropod known to produce bioactive compounds with anticancer properties. In this research, we used bioassay guided fractionation from the egg mass extract of D. orbita using flash column chromatography and identified fractions containing tyrindoleninone and 6-bromoisatin
[...] Read more.
Dicathais orbita is a large Australian marine gastropod known to produce bioactive compounds with anticancer properties. In this research, we used bioassay guided fractionation from the egg mass extract of D. orbita using flash column chromatography and identified fractions containing tyrindoleninone and 6-bromoisatin as the most active against colon cancer cells HT29 and Caco-2. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LCMS) and 1H NMR were used to characterize the purity and chemical composition of the isolated compounds. An MTT assay was used to determine effects on cell viability. Necrosis and apoptosis induction using caspase/LDH assay and flow cytometry (PI/Annexin-V) and cell cycle analysis were also investigated. Our results show that semi-purified 6-bromoisatin had the highest anti-cancer activity by inhibiting cell viability (IC50 = ~100 µM) and increasing caspase 3/7 activity in both of the cell lines at low concentration. The fraction containing 6-bromoisatin induced 77.6% apoptosis and arrested 25.7% of the cells in G2/M phase of cell cycle in HT29 cells. Tyrindoleninone was less potent but significantly decreased the viability of HT29 cells at IC50 = 390 µM and induced apoptosis at 195 µM by increasing caspase 3/7 activity in these cells. This research will facilitate the development of these molluscan natural products as novel complementary medicines for colorectal cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Passive Samplers as a Monitoring Tool for Early Warning of Dinophysis Toxins in Shellfish
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3823-3845; doi:10.3390/md11103823
Received: 10 July 2013 / Revised: 19 August 2013 / Accepted: 23 August 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
From June 2006 to January 2007 passive samplers (solid phase adsorbing toxin tracking, SPATT) were tested as a monitoring tool with weekly monitoring of phytoplankton and toxin content (liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, LC-MS) in picked cells of Dinophysis and plankton concentrates. Successive blooms of
[...] Read more.
From June 2006 to January 2007 passive samplers (solid phase adsorbing toxin tracking, SPATT) were tested as a monitoring tool with weekly monitoring of phytoplankton and toxin content (liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, LC-MS) in picked cells of Dinophysis and plankton concentrates. Successive blooms of Dinophysis acuminata, D. acuta and D. caudata in 2006 caused a long mussel harvesting closure (4.5 months) in the Galician Rías (NW Spain) and a record (up to 9246 ng·g resin-week−1) accumulation of toxins in SPATT discs. Best fit of a toxin accumulation model was between toxin accumulation in SPATT and the product of cell densities by a constant value, for each species of Dinophysis, of toxin content (average) in picked cells. Detection of Dinophysis populations provided earlier warning of oncoming diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) outbreaks than the SPATT, which at times overestimated the expected toxin levels in shellfish because: (i) SPATT accumulated toxins did not include biotransformation and depuration loss terms and (ii) accumulation of toxins not available to mussels continued for weeks after Dinophysis cells were undetectable and mussels were toxin-free. SPATT may be a valuable environmental monitoring and research tool for toxin dynamics, in particular in areas with no aquaculture, but does not provide a practical gain for early warning of DSP outbreaks. Full article
Open AccessArticle Functional Metabolomics Uncovers Metabolic Alterations Associated to Severe Oxidative Stress in MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells Exposed to Ascididemin
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3846-3860; doi:10.3390/md11103846
Received: 18 July 2013 / Revised: 26 August 2013 / Accepted: 29 August 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1112 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine natural products are a source of promising agents for cancer treatment. However, there is a need to improve the evaluation of their mechanism of action in tumors. Metabolomics of the response to anti-tumor agents is a tool to reveal candidate biomarkers and
[...] Read more.
Marine natural products are a source of promising agents for cancer treatment. However, there is a need to improve the evaluation of their mechanism of action in tumors. Metabolomics of the response to anti-tumor agents is a tool to reveal candidate biomarkers and metabolic targets. We used two-dimensional high-resolution magic angle spinning proton-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics to investigate the response of MCF7 breast cancer cells to ascididemin, a marine alkaloid and lead molecule for anti-cancer treatment. Ascididemin induced severe oxidative stress and apoptosis within 48 h of exposure. Thirty-three metabolites were quantified. Metabolic response involved downregulation of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and phospholipid metabolism alterations. Candidate metabolic biomarkers of the response of breast cancer cells to ascididemin were proposed including citrate, gluconate, polyunsaturated fatty acids, glycerophospho-choline and -ethanolamine. In addition, candidate metabolic targets were identified. Overall, the response to Asc could be related to severe oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Inflammation)
Open AccessArticle Chlorella 11-Peptide Inhibits the Production of Macrophage-Induced Adhesion Molecules and Reduces Endothelin-1 Expression and Endothelial Permeability
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3861-3874; doi:10.3390/md11103861
Received: 6 August 2013 / Revised: 13 September 2013 / Accepted: 17 September 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The inflammation process in large vessels involves the up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules such as endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) which are also known as the markers of atherosclerosis. We have reported that
[...] Read more.
The inflammation process in large vessels involves the up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules such as endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) which are also known as the markers of atherosclerosis. We have reported that Chlorella 11-peptide exhibited effective anti-inflammatory effects. This peptide with an amino sequence Val-Glu-Cys-Tyr-Gly-Pro-Asn-Arg-Pro-Gln-Phe was further examined for its potential in preventing atherosclerosis in this study. In particular, the roles of Chlorella 11-peptide in lowering the production of vascular adhesion molecules, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) and expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) from endothelia (SVEC4-10 cells) were studied. The production of E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in SVEC4-10 cells was measured with ELISA. The mRNA expression of ET-1 was analyzed by RT-PCR and agarose gel. Results showed that Chlorella 11-peptide significantly suppressed the levels of E-selectin, ICAM, VCAM, MCP-1 as well as ET-1 gene expression. The inhibition of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 production by Chlorella 11-peptide was reversed in the presence of protein kinase A inhibitor (H89) which suggests that the cAMP pathway was involved in the inhibitory cause of the peptide. In addition, this peptide was shown to reduce the extent of increased intercellular permeability induced by combination of 50% of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells medium and 50% normal SEVC cell culture medium (referred to as 50% RAW-conditioned medium). These data demonstrate that Chlorella 11-peptide is a promising biomolecule in preventing chronic inflammatory-related vascular diseases. Full article
Open AccessArticle Harnessing the Potential of Halogenated Natural Product Biosynthesis by Mangrove-Derived Actinomycetes
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3875-3890; doi:10.3390/md11103875
Received: 4 September 2013 / Revised: 26 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (509 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Mangrove-derived actinomycetes are promising sources of bioactive natural products. In this study, using homologous screening of the biosynthetic genes and anti-microorganism/tumor assaying, 163 strains of actinomycetes isolated from mangrove sediments were investigated for their potential to produce halogenated metabolites. The FADH2-dependent
[...] Read more.
Mangrove-derived actinomycetes are promising sources of bioactive natural products. In this study, using homologous screening of the biosynthetic genes and anti-microorganism/tumor assaying, 163 strains of actinomycetes isolated from mangrove sediments were investigated for their potential to produce halogenated metabolites. The FADH2-dependent halogenase genes, identified in PCR-screening, were clustered in distinct clades in the phylogenetic analysis. The coexistence of either polyketide synthase (PKS) or nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) as the backbone synthetases in the strains harboring the halogenase indicated that these strains had the potential to produce structurally diversified antibiotics. As a validation, a new enduracidin producer, Streptomyces atrovirens MGR140, was identified and confirmed by gene disruption and HPLC analysis. Moreover, a putative ansamycin biosynthesis gene cluster was detected in Streptomyces albogriseolus MGR072. Our results highlight that combined genome mining is an efficient technique to tap promising sources of halogenated natural products synthesized by mangrove-derived actinomycetes. Full article
Open AccessArticle New Spirotetronate Antibiotics, Lobophorins H and I, from a South China Sea-Derived Streptomyces sp. 12A35
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3891-3901; doi:10.3390/md11103891
Received: 4 July 2013 / Revised: 12 August 2013 / Accepted: 22 August 2013 / Published: 15 October 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (988 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Strain 12A35 was isolated from a deep-sea sediment collected from the South China Sea and showed promising antibacterial activities. It was identified as Streptomyces sp. by the 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Bioassay-guided fractionation using HP20 adsorption, flash chromatography over silica gel and octadecylsilyl
[...] Read more.
Strain 12A35 was isolated from a deep-sea sediment collected from the South China Sea and showed promising antibacterial activities. It was identified as Streptomyces sp. by the 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Bioassay-guided fractionation using HP20 adsorption, flash chromatography over silica gel and octadecylsilyl (ODS) and semi-preparative HPLC, led to the isolation and purification of five metabolites from the fermentation culture of 12A35. Two new spirotetronate antibiotics, lobophorins H (1) and I (2), along with three known analogues, O-β-kijanosyl-(1→17)-kijanolide (3), lobophorins B (4) and F (5) were characterized by 1D, 2D-NMR and MS data. These compounds exhibited significant inhibitory activities against Bacillus subtilis. Compounds 1 and 5 exhibited moderate activities against Staphylococcus aureus. In particular, the new compound lobophorin H (1) showed similar antibacterial activities against B. subtilis CMCC63501 to ampicillin. Full article
Open AccessArticle Enhanced Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Mold Dioscorea When Fermented Using Deep Ocean Water as the Culture Water
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3902-3925; doi:10.3390/md11103902
Received: 9 August 2013 / Revised: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 29 September 2013 / Published: 15 October 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (884 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deep ocean water (DOW) has, in previous studies, been found to be a novel anti-obesity drink and useful in raising Monascus-produced monascin and ankaflavin levels. This may resolve the limited anti-obesity ability of red mold dioscorea (RMD) known as the Monascus purpureus
[...] Read more.
Deep ocean water (DOW) has, in previous studies, been found to be a novel anti-obesity drink and useful in raising Monascus-produced monascin and ankaflavin levels. This may resolve the limited anti-obesity ability of red mold dioscorea (RMD) known as the Monascus purpureus-fermented Disocorea batatas. This study aims to compare the anti-obesity effect of DOW-cultured RMD (DOW-RMD) and ultra-pure water-cultured RMD (UPW-RMD) in rats fed on a high fat diet. Moreover, the effect of ions composition of DOW and DOW-influenced functional metabolites change of RMD on the differentiation and lipogenesis regulation were investigated using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. In the animal test, compared to UPW-RMD, DOW-RMD possessed better ability to inhibit increases in weight gain, and better feed efficiency, body-fat pad and cross-sectional area of adipocytes. In the cell test, the anti-obesity abilities of DOW-RMD in inhibiting PPARγ and C/EBPα expression in differentiation and lipoprotein lipase activity in lipogenesis were contributed to by the DOW-increased monascin and ankaflavin levels and the ions of DOW, respectively. Full article
Open AccessArticle Reporter Dyes Demonstrate Functional Expression of Multidrug Resistance Proteins in the Marine Flatworm Macrostomum lignano: The Sponge-Derived Dye Ageladine A Is Not a Substrate of These Transporters
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3951-3969; doi:10.3390/md11103951
Received: 10 July 2013 / Revised: 26 August 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 16 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (802 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The marine plathyhelminth Macrostomum lignano was recently isolated from Adriatic shore sediments where it experiences a wide variety of environmental challenges, ranging from hypoxia and reoxygenation, feeding on toxic algae, to exposure to anthropogenic contaminants. As multidrug resistance transporters constitute the first line
[...] Read more.
The marine plathyhelminth Macrostomum lignano was recently isolated from Adriatic shore sediments where it experiences a wide variety of environmental challenges, ranging from hypoxia and reoxygenation, feeding on toxic algae, to exposure to anthropogenic contaminants. As multidrug resistance transporters constitute the first line of defense against toxins and toxicants we have studied the presence of such transporters in M. lignano in living animals by applying optical methods and pharmacological inhibitors that had been developed for mammalian cells. Application of the MDR1 inhibitor Verapamil or of the MRP1 inhibitors MK571 or Probenecid increased the intracellular fluorescence of the reporter dyes Fura-2 am, Calcein am, Fluo-3 am in the worms, but did not affect their staining with the dyes Rhodamine B, CMFDA or Ageladine A. The marine sponge alkaloid Ageladine A remained intracellularly trapped for several days in the worms, suggesting that it does not serve as substrate of multidrug resistance exporters. In addition, Ageladine A did not affect multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)-mediated dye export from M. lignano or the MRP1-mediated glutathione (GSH) export from cultured rat brain astrocytes. The data obtained demonstrate that life-imaging is a useful tool to address physiological drug export from intact marine transparent flatworms by using multiphoton scanning microscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytogenetic and Molecular Effects of Marine Compounds)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Assessment of Dual Life Stage Antiplasmodial Activity of British Seaweeds
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 4019-4034; doi:10.3390/md11104019
Received: 13 August 2013 / Revised: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (749 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Terrestrial plants have proven to be a prolific producer of clinically effective antimalarial drugs, but the antimalarial potential of seaweeds has been little explored. The main aim of this study was to assess the in vitro chemotherapeutical and prophylactic potential of the extracts
[...] Read more.
Terrestrial plants have proven to be a prolific producer of clinically effective antimalarial drugs, but the antimalarial potential of seaweeds has been little explored. The main aim of this study was to assess the in vitro chemotherapeutical and prophylactic potential of the extracts of twenty-three seaweeds collected from the south coast of England against blood stage (BS) and liver stage (LS) Plasmodium parasites. The majority (14) of the extracts were active against BS of P. falciparum, with brown seaweeds Cystoseira tamariscifolia, C. baccata and the green seaweed Ulva lactuca being the most active (IC50s around 3 μg/mL). The extracts generally had high selectivity indices (>10). Eight seaweed extracts inhibited the growth of LS parasites of P. berghei without any obvious effect on the viability of the human hepatoma (Huh7) cells, and the highest potential was exerted by U. lactuca and red seaweeds Ceramium virgatum and Halopitys incurvus (IC50 values 14.9 to 28.8 μg/mL). The LS-active extracts inhibited one or more key enzymes of the malarial type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) pathway, a drug target specific for LS. Except for the red seaweed Halopitys incurvus, all LS-active extracts showed dual activity versus both malarial intracellular stage parasites. This is the first report of LS antiplasmodial activity and dual stage inhibitory potential of seaweeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiprotozoal Marine Natural Products)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Identification of Two Novel Anti-Fibrotic Benzopyran Compounds Produced by Engineered Strains Derived from Streptomyces xiamenensis M1-94P that Originated from Deep-Sea Sediments
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 4035-4049; doi:10.3390/md11104035
Received: 17 August 2013 / Revised: 16 September 2013 / Accepted: 26 September 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The benzopyran compound obtained by cultivating a mangrove-derived strain, Streptomyces xiamenensis strain 318, shows multiple biological effects, including anti-fibrotic and anti-hypertrophic scar properties. To increase the diversity in the structures of the available benzopyrans, by means of biosynthesis, the strain was screened for
[...] Read more.
The benzopyran compound obtained by cultivating a mangrove-derived strain, Streptomyces xiamenensis strain 318, shows multiple biological effects, including anti-fibrotic and anti-hypertrophic scar properties. To increase the diversity in the structures of the available benzopyrans, by means of biosynthesis, the strain was screened for spontaneous rifampicin resistance (Rif), and a mutated rpsL gene to confer streptomycin resistance (Str), was introduced into the S. xiamenensis strain M1-94P that originated from deep-sea sediments. Two new benzopyran derivatives, named xiamenmycin C (1) and D (2), were isolated from the crude extracts of a selected Str-Rif double mutant (M6) of M1-94P. The structures of 1 and 2 were identified by analyzing extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibit the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (WI26), and 1 exhibits better anti-fibrotic activity than xiamenmycin. Our study presents the novel bioactive compounds isolated from S. xiamenensis mutant strain M6 constructed by ribosome engineering, which could be a useful approach in the discovery of new anti-fibrotic compounds. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Red Algal Bromophenols as Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 4050-4057; doi:10.3390/md11104050
Received: 8 August 2013 / Revised: 31 August 2013 / Accepted: 2 September 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract Five bromophenols isolated from three Rhodomelaceae algae (Laurencia nipponica, Polysiphonia morrowii, Odonthalia corymbifera) showed inhibitory effects against glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Among them, the symmetric bromophenol dimer (5) showed the highest inhibitory activity against G6PD. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Advances in the Study of the Structures and Bioactivities of Metabolites Isolated from Mangrove-Derived Fungi in the South China Sea
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3601-3616; doi:10.3390/md11103601
Received: 1 August 2013 / Revised: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many metabolites with novel structures and biological activities have been isolated from the mangrove fungi in the South China Sea, such as anthracenediones, xyloketals, sesquiterpenoids, chromones, lactones, coumarins and isocoumarin derivatives, xanthones, and peroxides. Some compounds have anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties,
[...] Read more.
Many metabolites with novel structures and biological activities have been isolated from the mangrove fungi in the South China Sea, such as anthracenediones, xyloketals, sesquiterpenoids, chromones, lactones, coumarins and isocoumarin derivatives, xanthones, and peroxides. Some compounds have anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties, but the biosynthesis of these compounds is still limited. This review summarizes the advances in the study of secondary metabolites from the mangrove-derived fungi in the South China Sea, and their biological activities reported between 2008 and mid-2013. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytogenetic and Molecular Effects of Marine Compounds)
Open AccessReview Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Proteobacteria
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3632-3660; doi:10.3390/md11103632
Received: 12 July 2013 / Revised: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 5 August 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
After years of inadequate use and the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains, the efficiency of “classical” antibiotics has decreased significantly. New drugs to fight MDR strains are urgently needed. Bacteria hold much promise as a source of unusual bioactive metabolites. However, the
[...] Read more.
After years of inadequate use and the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains, the efficiency of “classical” antibiotics has decreased significantly. New drugs to fight MDR strains are urgently needed. Bacteria hold much promise as a source of unusual bioactive metabolites. However, the potential of marine bacteria, except for Actinomycetes and Cyanobacteria, has been largely underexplored. In the past two decades, the structures of several antimicrobial compounds have been elucidated in marine Proteobacteria. Of these compounds, polyketides (PKs), synthesised by condensation of malonyl-coenzyme A and/or acetyl-coenzyme A, and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs), obtained through the linkage of (unusual) amino acids, have recently generated particular interest. NRPs are good examples of naturally modified peptides. Here, we review and compile the data on the antimicrobial peptides isolated from marine Proteobacteria, especially NRPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Peptides and Their Mimetics)
Open AccessReview Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin Induced Alterations in Chromatin Organization of Plant Cells
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3689-3717; doi:10.3390/md11103689
Received: 17 June 2013 / Revised: 19 August 2013 / Accepted: 22 August 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1014 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyanobacteria produce metabolites with diverse bioactivities, structures and pharmacological properties. The effects of microcystins (MCYs), a family of peptide type protein-phosphatase inhibitors and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), an alkaloid type of protein synthesis blocker will be discussed in this review. We are focusing mainly on
[...] Read more.
Cyanobacteria produce metabolites with diverse bioactivities, structures and pharmacological properties. The effects of microcystins (MCYs), a family of peptide type protein-phosphatase inhibitors and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), an alkaloid type of protein synthesis blocker will be discussed in this review. We are focusing mainly on cyanotoxin-induced changes of chromatin organization and their possible cellular mechanisms. The particularities of plant cells explain the importance of such studies. Preprophase bands (PPBs) are premitotic cytoskeletal structures important in the determination of plant cell division plane. Phragmoplasts are cytoskeletal structures involved in plant cytokinesis. Both cyanotoxins induce the formation of multipolar spindles and disrupted phragmoplasts, leading to abnormal sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. Thus, MCY and CYN are probably inducing alterations of chromosome number. MCY induces programmed cell death: chromatin condensation, nucleus fragmentation, necrosis, alterations of nuclease and protease enzyme activities and patterns. The above effects may be related to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or disfunctioning of microtubule associated proteins. Specific effects: MCY-LR induces histone H3 hyperphosphorylation leading to incomplete chromatid segregation and the formation of micronuclei. CYN induces the formation of split or double PPB directly related to protein synthesis inhibition. Cyanotoxins are powerful tools in the study of plant cell organization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytogenetic and Molecular Effects of Marine Compounds)
Open AccessReview Shrimp Lipids: A Source of Cancer Chemopreventive Compounds
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3926-3950; doi:10.3390/md11103926
Received: 15 August 2013 / Revised: 22 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 16 October 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (568 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Shrimp is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide, and its lipids have been studied for biological activity in both, muscle and exoskeleton. Free fatty acids, triglycerides, carotenoids, and other lipids integrate this fraction, and some of these compounds have been reported with
[...] Read more.
Shrimp is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide, and its lipids have been studied for biological activity in both, muscle and exoskeleton. Free fatty acids, triglycerides, carotenoids, and other lipids integrate this fraction, and some of these compounds have been reported with cancer chemopreventive activities. Carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied for chemopreventive properties, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Their mechanisms of action depend on the lipid chemical structure and include antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities, among others. The purpose of this review is to lay groundwork for future research about the properties of the lipid fraction of shrimp. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessReview Dithiolopyrrolone Natural Products: Isolation, Synthesis and Biosynthesis
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3970-3997; doi:10.3390/md11103970
Received: 30 July 2013 / Revised: 25 September 2013 / Accepted: 26 September 2013 / Published: 17 October 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (2047 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dithiolopyrrolones are a class of antibiotics that possess the unique pyrrolinonodithiole (4H-[1,2] dithiolo [4,3-b] pyrrol-5-one) skeleton linked to two variable acyl groups.To date, there are approximately 30 naturally occurring dithiolopyrrolone compounds, including holomycin, thiolutin, and aureothricin, and more
[...] Read more.
Dithiolopyrrolones are a class of antibiotics that possess the unique pyrrolinonodithiole (4H-[1,2] dithiolo [4,3-b] pyrrol-5-one) skeleton linked to two variable acyl groups. To date, there are approximately 30 naturally occurring dithiolopyrrolone compounds, including holomycin, thiolutin, and aureothricin, and more recently thiomarinols, a unique class of hybrid marine bacterial natural products containing a dithiolopyrrolone framework linked by an amide bridge with an 8-hydroxyoctanoyl chain linked to a monic acid. Generally, dithiolopyrrolone antibiotics have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against various microorganisms, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and even parasites. Holomycin appeared to be active against rifamycin-resistant bacteria and also inhibit the growth of the clinical pathogen methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus N315. Its mode of action is believed to inhibit RNA synthesis although the exact mechanism has yet to be established in vitro. A recent work demonstrated that the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri employs an RNA methyltransferase for self-resistance during the holomycin production. Moreover, some dithiolopyrrolone derivatives have demonstrated promising antitumor activities. The biosynthetic gene clusters of holomycin have recently been identified in S. clavuligerus and characterized biochemically and genetically. The biosynthetic gene cluster of thiomarinol was also identified from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SANK 73390, which was uniquely encoded by two independent pathways for pseudomonic acid and pyrrothine in a novel plasmid. The aim of this review is to give an overview about the isolations, characterizations, synthesis, biosynthesis, bioactivities and mode of action of this unique family of dithiolopyrrolone natural products, focusing on the period from 1940s until now. Full article
Open AccessReview Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Invertebrates: Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3998-4018; doi:10.3390/md11103998
Received: 10 September 2013 / Revised: 3 October 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 21 October 2013
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Virtually all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) originate from primary producers but can be modified by bioconversions as they pass up the food chain in a process termed trophic upgrading. Therefore, although the main primary producers of PUFA in the marine environment are microalgae,
[...] Read more.
Virtually all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) originate from primary producers but can be modified by bioconversions as they pass up the food chain in a process termed trophic upgrading. Therefore, although the main primary producers of PUFA in the marine environment are microalgae, higher trophic levels have metabolic pathways that can produce novel and unique PUFA. However, little is known about the pathways of PUFA biosynthesis and metabolism in the levels between primary producers and fish that are largely filled by invertebrates. It has become increasingly apparent that, in addition to trophic upgrading, de novo synthesis of PUFA is possible in some lower animals. The unequivocal identification of PUFA biosynthetic pathways in many invertebrates is complicated by the presence of other organisms within them. These organisms include bacteria and algae with PUFA biosynthesis pathways, and range from intestinal flora to symbiotic relationships that can involve PUFA translocation to host organisms. This emphasizes the importance of studying biosynthetic pathways at a molecular level, and the continual expansion of genomic resources and advances in molecular analysis is facilitating this. The present paper highlights recent research into the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis in marine invertebrates, particularly focusing on cephalopod molluscs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
Open AccessReview Trypanocidal Activity of Marine Natural Products
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 4058-4082; doi:10.3390/md11104058
Received: 16 August 2013 / Revised: 9 October 2013 / Accepted: 10 October 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1043 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine natural products are a diverse, unique collection of compounds with immense therapeutic potential. This has resulted in these molecules being evaluated for a number of different disease indications including the neglected protozoan diseases, human African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease, for which very
[...] Read more.
Marine natural products are a diverse, unique collection of compounds with immense therapeutic potential. This has resulted in these molecules being evaluated for a number of different disease indications including the neglected protozoan diseases, human African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease, for which very few drugs are currently available. This article will review the marine natural products for which activity against the kinetoplastid parasites; Trypanosoma brucei brucei, T.b. rhodesiense and T. cruzi has been reported. As it is important to know the selectivity of a compound when evaluating its trypanocidal activity, this article will only cover molecules which have simultaneously been tested for cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell line. Compounds have been grouped according to their chemical structure and representative examples from each class were selected for detailed discussion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiprotozoal Marine Natural Products)
Open AccessReview Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Natural Products Isolated from Soft Corals of Taiwan between 2008 and 2012
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 4083-4126; doi:10.3390/md11104083
Received: 30 July 2013 / Revised: 12 September 2013 / Accepted: 13 September 2013 / Published: 23 October 2013
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (1175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review reports details on the natural products isolated from Taiwan soft corals during the period 2008–2012 focusing on their in vitro and/or in vivo anti-inflammatory activities. Chemical structures, names, and literature references are also reported. This review provides useful and specific information
[...] Read more.
This review reports details on the natural products isolated from Taiwan soft corals during the period 2008–2012 focusing on their in vitro and/or in vivo anti-inflammatory activities. Chemical structures, names, and literature references are also reported. This review provides useful and specific information on potent anti-inflammatory marine metabolites for future development of immune-modulatory therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Inflammation)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Marine Drugs Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
marinedrugs@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Marine Drugs
Back to Top