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Mar. Drugs, Volume 12, Issue 3 (March 2014), Pages 1169-1698

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Open AccessArticle Chemoinformatic Analysis as a Tool for Prioritization of Trypanocidal Marine Derived Lead Compounds
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1169-1184; doi:10.3390/md12031169
Received: 5 November 2013 / Revised: 22 January 2014 / Accepted: 30 January 2014 / Published: 4 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1629 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine trypanocidal natural products are, most often, reported with trypanocidal activity and selectivity against human cell lines. The triaging of hits requires a consideration of chemical tractability for drug development. We utilized a combined Lipinski’s rule-of-five, chemical clustering and ChemGPS-NP principle analysis [...] Read more.
Marine trypanocidal natural products are, most often, reported with trypanocidal activity and selectivity against human cell lines. The triaging of hits requires a consideration of chemical tractability for drug development. We utilized a combined Lipinski’s rule-of-five, chemical clustering and ChemGPS-NP principle analysis to analyze a set of 40 antitrypanosomal natural products for their drug like properties and chemical space. The analyses identified 16 chemical clusters with 11 well positioned within drug-like chemical space. This study demonstrated that our combined analysis can be used as an important strategy for prioritization of active marine natural products for further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiprotozoal Marine Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Two New Antibiotic Pyridones Produced by a Marine Fungus, Trichoderma sp. Strain MF106
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1208-1219; doi:10.3390/md12031208
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 22 January 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (834 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two unusual pyridones, trichodin A (1) and trichodin B (2), together with the known compound, pyridoxatin (3), were extracted from mycelia and culture broth of the marine fungus, Trichoderma sp. strain MF106 isolated from the Greenland [...] Read more.
Two unusual pyridones, trichodin A (1) and trichodin B (2), together with the known compound, pyridoxatin (3), were extracted from mycelia and culture broth of the marine fungus, Trichoderma sp. strain MF106 isolated from the Greenland Seas. The structures of the new compounds were characterized as an intramolecular cyclization of a pyridine basic backbone with a phenyl group. The structure and relative configuration of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic means. The new compound 1 and the known compound 3 showed antibiotic activities against the clinically relevant microorganism, Staphylococcus epidermidis, with IC50 values of 24 μM and 4 μM, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dereplication Strategies for Targeted Isolation of New Antitrypanosomal Actinosporins A and B from a Marine Sponge Associated-Actinokineospora sp. EG49
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1220-1244; doi:10.3390/md12031220
Received: 11 October 2013 / Revised: 22 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (11685 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
High resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (HRFTMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed as complementary metabolomic tools to dereplicate the chemical profile of the new and antitrypanosomally active sponge-associated bacterium Actinokineospora sp. EG49 extract. Principal Component (PCA), hierarchical clustering (HCA), [...] Read more.
High resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (HRFTMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed as complementary metabolomic tools to dereplicate the chemical profile of the new and antitrypanosomally active sponge-associated bacterium Actinokineospora sp. EG49 extract. Principal Component (PCA), hierarchical clustering (HCA), and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to evaluate the HRFTMS and NMR data of crude extracts from four different fermentation approaches. Statistical analysis identified the best culture one-strain-many-compounds (OSMAC) condition and extraction procedure, which was used for the isolation of novel bioactive metabolites. As a result, two new O-glycosylated angucyclines, named actinosporins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the broth culture of Actinokineospora sp. strain EG49, which was cultivated from the Red Sea sponge Spheciospongia vagabunda. The structures of actinosporins A and B were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques, as well as high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Testing for antiparasitic properties showed that actinosporin A exhibited activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei with an IC50 value of 15 µM; however no activity was detected against Leishmania major and Plasmodium falciparum, therefore suggesting its selectivity against the parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei; the causative agent of sleeping sickness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Medium Using Response Surface Methodology for Lipid Production by Scenedesmus sp.
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1245-1257; doi:10.3390/md12031245
Received: 28 November 2013 / Revised: 26 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (748 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lipid production is an important indicator for assessing microalgal species for biodiesel production. In this work, the effects of medium composition on lipid production by Scenedesmus sp. were investigated using the response surface methodology. The results of a Plackett–Burman design experiment revealed [...] Read more.
Lipid production is an important indicator for assessing microalgal species for biodiesel production. In this work, the effects of medium composition on lipid production by Scenedesmus sp. were investigated using the response surface methodology. The results of a Plackett–Burman design experiment revealed that NaHCO3, NaH2PO4·2H2O and NaNO3 were three factors significantly influencing lipid production, which were further optimized by a Box–Behnken design. The optimal medium was found to contain 3.07 g L−1 NaHCO3, 15.49 mg L−1 NaH2PO4·2H2O and 803.21 mg L−1 NaNO3. Using the optimal conditions previously determined, the lipid production (304.02 mg·L−1) increased 54.64% more than that using the initial medium, which agreed well with the predicted value 309.50 mg L−1. Additionally, lipid analysis found that palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) dominantly constituted the algal fatty acids (about 60% of the total fatty acids) and a much higher content of neutral lipid accounted for 82.32% of total lipids, which strongly proved that Scenedesmus sp. is a very promising feedstock for biodiesel production. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Novel Lipid Extraction Method from Wet Microalga Picochlorum sp. at Room Temperature
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1258-1270; doi:10.3390/md12031258
Received: 9 December 2013 / Revised: 31 January 2014 / Accepted: 7 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (891 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel method using ethanol was proposed for extracting lipids from wet microalga Picochlorum sp. at room temperature and pressure. In this study, Central Composite design (CCD) was applied to investigate the optimum conditions of lipid extraction. The results revealed that the [...] Read more.
A novel method using ethanol was proposed for extracting lipids from wet microalga Picochlorum sp. at room temperature and pressure. In this study, Central Composite design (CCD) was applied to investigate the optimum conditions of lipid extraction. The results revealed that the solvent to biomass ratio had the largest effect on lipid extraction efficiency, followed by extraction time and temperature. A high lipid extraction yield (33.04% of the dry weight) was obtained under the following extraction conditions: 5 mL solvents per gram of wet biomass for 37 min with gentle stirring at room temperature. The extraction yield was comparable to that obtained by the widely used Bligh-Dyer method. Furthermore, no significant differences in the distribution of lipid classes and fatty acid composition were observed according to different extraction methods. In conclusion, these results indicated that the proposed procedure using ethanol could extract lipids from wet biomass efficiently and had giant potential for lipid extraction at large scale. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Spirobisnaphthalenes from the Mangrove-Derived Fungus Rhytidhysteron sp. AS21B
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1271-1280; doi:10.3390/md12031271
Received: 6 January 2014 / Revised: 8 February 2014 / Accepted: 18 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (787 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Three new spirobisnaphthalenes (13) were isolated from the mangrove-derived fungus Rhytidhysteron sp., together with five known derivatives (48). The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data, and the [...] Read more.
Three new spirobisnaphthalenes (13) were isolated from the mangrove-derived fungus Rhytidhysteron sp., together with five known derivatives (48). The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data, and the relative configurations of their stereogenic carbons were determined by a single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compounds 35 displayed cytotoxicity against both cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and CaSki, while 2 was active only on CaSKi cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Phylogenetic Diversity and Biological Activity of Actinobacteria Isolated from the Chukchi Shelf Marine Sediments in the Arctic Ocean
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1281-1297; doi:10.3390/md12031281
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 22 November 2013 / Accepted: 31 December 2013 / Published: 6 March 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine environments are a rich source of Actinobacteria and have the potential to produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we used four selective isolation media to culture Actinobacteria from the sediments collected from the Chukchi Shelf [...] Read more.
Marine environments are a rich source of Actinobacteria and have the potential to produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we used four selective isolation media to culture Actinobacteria from the sediments collected from the Chukchi Shelf in the Arctic Ocean. A total of 73 actinobacterial strains were isolated. Based on repetitive DNA fingerprinting analysis, we selected 30 representatives for partial characterization according to their phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial activities and secondary-metabolite biosynthesis genes. Results from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the 30 strains could be sorted into 18 phylotypes belonging to 14 different genera: Agrococcus, Arsenicicoccus, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Citricoccus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Microlunatus, Nocardioides, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinibacterium and Streptomyces. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the isolation of Microlunatus genus members from marine habitats. Of the 30 isolates, 11 strains exhibited antibacterial and/or antifungal activity, seven of which have activities against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. All 30 strains have at least two biosynthetic genes, one-third of which possess more than four biosynthetic genes. This study demonstrates the significant diversity of Actinobacteria in the Chukchi Shelf sediment and their potential for producing biologically active compounds and novel material for genetic manipulation or combinatorial biosynthesis. Full article
Open AccessArticle Structural Studies of the Lipopolysaccharide from the Fish Pathogen Aeromonas veronii Strain Bs19, Serotype O16
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1298-1316; doi:10.3390/md12031298
Received: 24 December 2013 / Revised: 27 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1051 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Chemical analyses, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy were applied to study the structure of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Aeromonas veronii strain Bs19, serotype O16. ESI-MS revealed that the most abundant LPS glycoforms have tetra-acylated or hexa-acylated lipid A species, consisting of [...] Read more.
Chemical analyses, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy were applied to study the structure of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Aeromonas veronii strain Bs19, serotype O16. ESI-MS revealed that the most abundant LPS glycoforms have tetra-acylated or hexa-acylated lipid A species, consisting of a bisphosphorylated GlcN disaccharide with an AraN residue as a non-stoichiometric substituent, and a core oligosaccharide composed of Hep5Hex3HexN1Kdo1P1. Sugar and methylation analysis together with 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy were the main methods used, and revealed that the O-specific polysaccharide (OPS) of A. veronii Bs19 was built up of tetrasaccharide repeating units with the structure: →4)-α-d-Quip3NAc-(1→3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→4)-β-d-Galp-(1→3)-α-d-GalpNAc-(1→. This composition was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The charge-deconvoluted ESI FT-ICR MS recorded for the LPS preparations identified mass peaks of SR- and R-form LPS species, that differed by Δm = 698.27 u, a value corresponding to the calculated molecular mass of one OPS repeating unit (6dHexNAc6dHexHexHexNAc-H2O). Moreover, unspecific fragmentation spectra confirmed the sequence of the sugar residues in the OPS and allowed to assume that the elucidated structure also represented the biological repeating unit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipopolysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterization of the Diatom Phaeodactylum Δ5-Elongase Gene for Transgenic LC-PUFA Production in Pichia pastoris
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1317-1334; doi:10.3390/md12031317
Received: 12 November 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) up to 30% of the total fatty acids. This species has been targeted for isolating gene encoding desaturases and elongases for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) metabolic engineering. Here we first report the [...] Read more.
The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) up to 30% of the total fatty acids. This species has been targeted for isolating gene encoding desaturases and elongases for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) metabolic engineering. Here we first report the cloning and characterization of Δ5-elongase gene in P. tricornutum. A full-length cDNA sequence, designated PhtELO5, was shown to contain a 1110 bp open reading frame encoding a 369 amino acid polypeptide. The putative protein contains seven transmembrane regions and two elongase characteristic motifs of FLHXYHH and MYSYY, the latter being typical for microalgal Δ5-elongases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PhtELO5 belongs to the ELO5 group, tightly clustered with the counterpart of Thalassiosira pseudonana. Heterologous expression of PhtELO5 in Pichia pastoris confirmed that it encodes a specific Δ5-elongase capable of elongating arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Co-expression of PhtELO5 and IsFAD4 (a ∆4-desaturase from Isochrysis sphaerica) demonstrated that the high-efficiency biosynthetic pathway of docosahexaenoic acid was assembled in the transgenic yeast. Substrate competition revealed that PhtELO5 exhibited higher activity towards n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA. It is hypothesized that Phaeodactylum ELO5 may preferentially participate in biosynthesis of transgenic LC-PUFA via a n-3 pathway in the yeast host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
Open AccessArticle Cyclic Marinopyrrole Derivatives as Disruptors of Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL Binding to Bim
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1335-1348; doi:10.3390/md12031335
Received: 31 December 2013 / Revised: 17 February 2014 / Accepted: 18 February 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (904 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of novel cyclic marinopyrroles were designed and synthesized. Their activity to disrupt the binding of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bim, to the pro-survival proteins, Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, was evaluated using ELISA assays. Both atropisomers of marinopyrrole A (1 [...] Read more.
A series of novel cyclic marinopyrroles were designed and synthesized. Their activity to disrupt the binding of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bim, to the pro-survival proteins, Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, was evaluated using ELISA assays. Both atropisomers of marinopyrrole A (1) show similar potency. A tetrabromo congener 9 is two-fold more potent than 1. Two novel cyclic marinopyrroles (3 and 4) are two- to seven-fold more potent than 1. Full article
Open AccessArticle Single and Competitive Adsorption of 17α-Ethinylestradiol and Bisphenol A with Estrone, β-Estradiol, and Estriol onto Sediment
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1349-1360; doi:10.3390/md12031349
Received: 19 November 2013 / Revised: 15 January 2014 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (878 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The competitive adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) and17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) with different endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as estrone (E1), β-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) was investigated in the water-sediment system. The primary and interaction effects of coexisted EDCs on the adsorption of [...] Read more.
The competitive adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) and17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) with different endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as estrone (E1), β-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) was investigated in the water-sediment system. The primary and interaction effects of coexisted EDCs on the adsorption of BPA and EE2 were studied in binary and multiple systems. The adsorption selectivity of sediment at different initial concentrations of EDCs was also considered, based on the distribution coefficient (β). In binary systems, coexisted EDCs exhibited a positive effect on the adsorption of BPA, while E3 showed a negative effect on the adsorption of EE2. In ternary systems, the interaction of E1*E3 and E2*BPA showed a synergistic effect on the sorption of BPA and EE2, respectively. In quaternary systems, the interaction of E1*E2*E3 showed a synergistic effect on the adsorption of both BPA and EE2. In the quinary system, coexisted EDCs all showed an antagonistic effect on the adsorption of BPA and EE2, which indicated that the coexisted EDCs competed for adsorption with BPA and EE2. EDCs in the E2-EE2-BPA system presented a superior selectivity of sediment with β values of 43.48–87.86. The order of sediment selectivity (E1 > EE2 > E2 > E3 > BPA) in binary systems was in agreement with EDCs’ adsorption capacity, which suggested that the adsorption was dominated by partition adsorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fish Endocrine Disruption)
Open AccessArticle Rapid and Accurate Identification by Real-Time PCR of Biotoxin-Producing Dinoflagellates from the Family Gymnodiniaceae
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1361-1376; doi:10.3390/md12031361
Received: 10 October 2013 / Revised: 27 January 2014 / Accepted: 18 February 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The identification of toxin-producing dinoflagellates for monitoring programmes and bio-compound discovery requires considerable taxonomic expertise. It can also be difficult to morphologically differentiate toxic and non-toxic species or strains. Various molecular methods have been used for dinoflagellate identification and detection, and this [...] Read more.
The identification of toxin-producing dinoflagellates for monitoring programmes and bio-compound discovery requires considerable taxonomic expertise. It can also be difficult to morphologically differentiate toxic and non-toxic species or strains. Various molecular methods have been used for dinoflagellate identification and detection, and this study describes the development of eight real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) gene of species from the genera Gymnodinium, Karenia, Karlodinium, and Takayama. Assays proved to be highly specific and sensitive, and the assay for G. catenatum was further developed for quantification in response to a bloom in Manukau Harbour, New Zealand. The assay estimated cell densities from environmental samples as low as 0.07 cells per PCR reaction, which equated to three cells per litre. This assay not only enabled conclusive species identification but also detected the presence of cells below the limit of detection for light microscopy. This study demonstrates the usefulness of real-time PCR as a sensitive and rapid molecular technique for the detection and quantification of micro-algae from environmental samples. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic Effects of Fascaplysin against Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1377-1389; doi:10.3390/md12031377
Received: 1 November 2013 / Revised: 17 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 February 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fascaplysin, the natural product of a marine sponge, exhibits anticancer activity against a broad range of tumor cells, presumably through interaction with DNA, and/or as a highly selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) inhibitor. In this study, cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin against a [...] Read more.
Fascaplysin, the natural product of a marine sponge, exhibits anticancer activity against a broad range of tumor cells, presumably through interaction with DNA, and/or as a highly selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) inhibitor. In this study, cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin against a panel of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and putative synergism with chemotherapeutics was investigated. SCLC responds to first-line chemotherapy with platinum-based drugs/etoposide, but relapses early with topotecan remaining as the single approved therapeutic agent. Fascaplysin was found to show high cytotoxicity against SCLC cells and to induce cell cycle arrest in G1/0 at lower and S-phase at higher concentrations, respectively. The compound generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced apoptotic cell death in the chemoresistant NCI-H417 SCLC cell line. Furthermore, fascaplysin revealed marked synergism with the topoisomerase I-directed camptothecin and 10-hydroxy-camptothecin. The Poly(ADP-ribose)-Polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor BYK 204165 antagonized the cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin, pointing to the involvement of DNA repair in response to the anticancer activity of the drug. In conclusion, fascaplysin seems to be suitable for treatment of SCLC, based on high cytotoxic activity through multiple routes of action, affecting topoisomerase I, integrity of DNA and generation of ROS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Identification of the Major ACE-Inhibitory Peptides Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis of a Protein Concentrate from Cuttlefish Wastewater
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1390-1405; doi:10.3390/md12031390
Received: 8 February 2014 / Revised: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 28 February 2014 / Published: 10 March 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (524 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this work was the purification and identification of the major angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate recovered from a cuttlefish industrial manufacturing effluent. This process consisted on the ultrafiltration of cuttlefish [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was the purification and identification of the major angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate recovered from a cuttlefish industrial manufacturing effluent. This process consisted on the ultrafiltration of cuttlefish softening wastewater, with a 10 kDa cut-off membrane, followed by the hydrolysis with alcalase of the retained fraction. Alcalase produced ACE inhibitors reaching the highest activity (IC50 = 76.8 ± 15.2 μg mL−1) after 8 h of proteolysis. Sequential ultrafiltration of the 8 h hydrolysate with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes of 10 and 1 kDa resulted in the increased activity of each permeate, with a final IC50 value of 58.4 ± 4.6 μg mL−1. Permeate containing peptides lower than 1 kDa was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Four fractions (A–D) with potent ACE inhibitory activity were isolated and their main peptides identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ion trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-IT-FTICR) followed by comparison with databases and de novo sequencing. The amino acid sequences of the identified peptides contained at least one hydrophobic and/or a proline together with positively charged residues in at least one of the three C-terminal positions. The IC50 values of the fractions ranged from 1.92 to 8.83 μg mL−1, however this study fails to identify which of these peptides are ultimately responsible for the potent antihypertensive activity of these fractions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Monogalactosyl Diacylglycerols and a Monoacylglycerol from the Edible Brown Seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1406-1418; doi:10.3390/md12031406
Received: 9 December 2013 / Revised: 29 January 2014 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 11 March 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (700 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A monoacylglycerol (1) and a 1:1 mixture of two monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDGs) (2 and 3) were isolated from the brown seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means (NMR and MS) and by comparison with [...] Read more.
A monoacylglycerol (1) and a 1:1 mixture of two monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDGs) (2 and 3) were isolated from the brown seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means (NMR and MS) and by comparison with the literature. Compound 1 was composed of a glycerol moiety linked to oleic acid (C18:1 Ω9). Compounds 2 and 3 contained a glycerol moiety linked to a galactose unit and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 Ω3) combined with octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4 Ω3) or linolenic acid (C18:3 Ω3), respectively. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. All of them inhibited NO production at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The fraction consisting of compounds 2 and 3, in a ratio of 1:1, was slightly more effective than compound 1 (IC50 of 60.06 and 65.70 µg/mL, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report of these compounds from F. spiralis and on their anti-inflammatory capacity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Genomic Sequence and Experimental Tractability of a New Decapod Shrimp Model, Neocaridina denticulata
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1419-1437; doi:10.3390/md12031419
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 23 February 2014 / Accepted: 28 February 2014 / Published: 11 March 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The speciose Crustacea is the largest subphylum of arthropods on the planet after the Insecta. To date, however, the only publically available sequenced crustacean genome is that of the water flea, Daphnia pulex, a member of the Branchiopoda. While Daphnia is [...] Read more.
The speciose Crustacea is the largest subphylum of arthropods on the planet after the Insecta. To date, however, the only publically available sequenced crustacean genome is that of the water flea, Daphnia pulex, a member of the Branchiopoda. While Daphnia is a well-established ecotoxicological model, previous study showed that one-third of genes contained in its genome are lineage-specific and could not be identified in any other metazoan genomes. To better understand the genomic evolution of crustaceans and arthropods, we have sequenced the genome of a novel shrimp model, Neocaridina denticulata, and tested its experimental malleability. A library of 170-bp nominal fragment size was constructed from DNA of a starved single adult and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Core eukaryotic genes, the mitochondrial genome, developmental patterning genes (such as Hox) and microRNA processing pathway genes are all present in this animal, suggesting it has not undergone massive genomic loss. Comparison with the published genome of Daphnia pulex has allowed us to reveal 3750 genes that are indeed specific to the lineage containing malacostracans and branchiopods, rather than Daphnia-specific (E-value: 10−6). We also show the experimental tractability of N. denticulata, which, together with the genomic resources presented here, make it an ideal model for a wide range of further aquacultural, developmental, ecotoxicological, food safety, genetic, hormonal, physiological and reproductive research, allowing better understanding of the evolution of crustaceans and other arthropods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Potential Polyunsaturated Aldehydes in the Strait of Gibraltar under Two Tidal Regimes
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1438-1459; doi:10.3390/md12031438
Received: 19 November 2013 / Revised: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 18 February 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Diatoms, a major component of the large-sized phytoplankton, are able to produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes after cell disruption (potential PUAs or pPUA). These organisms are dominant in the large phytoplankton fraction (>10 µm) in the Strait of Gibraltar, the only [...] Read more.
Diatoms, a major component of the large-sized phytoplankton, are able to produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes after cell disruption (potential PUAs or pPUA). These organisms are dominant in the large phytoplankton fraction (>10 µm) in the Strait of Gibraltar, the only connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. In this area, the hydrodynamics exerts a strong control on the composition and physiological state of the phytoplankton. This environment offers a great opportunity to analyze and compare the little known distribution of larger sized PUA producers in nature and, moreover, to study how environmental variables could affect the ranges and potential distribution of these compounds. Our results showed that, at both tidal regimes studied (Spring and Neap tides), diatoms in the Strait of Gibraltar are able to produce three aldehydes: Heptadienal, Octadienal and Decadienal, with a significant dominance of Decadienal production. The PUA released by mechanical cell disruption of large-sized collected cells (pPUA) ranged from 0.01 to 12.3 pmol from cells in 1 L, and from 0.1 to 9.8 fmol cell−1. Tidal regime affected the abundance, distribution and the level of physiological stress of diatoms in the Strait. During Spring tides, diatoms were more abundant, usually grouped nearer the coastal basin and showed less physiological stress than during Neap tides. Our results suggest a significant general increase in the pPUA productivity with increasing physiological stress for the cell also significantly associated to low nitrate availability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
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Open AccessArticle Carotenoids of Sea Angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the Perspective of the Food Chain
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1460-1470; doi:10.3390/md12031460
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 19 February 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
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Abstract
Sea angels, Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis, are small, floating sea slugs belonging to Gastropoda, and their gonads are a bright orange-red color. Sea angels feed exclusively on a small herbivorous sea snail, Limacina helicina. Carotenoids in C. limacina, [...] Read more.
Sea angels, Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis, are small, floating sea slugs belonging to Gastropoda, and their gonads are a bright orange-red color. Sea angels feed exclusively on a small herbivorous sea snail, Limacina helicina. Carotenoids in C. limacina, P. doliiformis, and L. helicina were investigated for comparative biochemical points of view. β-Carotene, zeaxanthin, and diatoxanthin were found to be major carotenoids in L. helicina. L. helicina accumulated dietary algal carotenoids without modification. On the other hand, keto-carotenoids, such as pectenolone, 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin, and adonixanthin were identified as major carotenoids in the sea angels C. limacina and P. doliiformis. Sea angels oxidatively metabolize dietary carotenoids and accumulate them in their gonads. Carotenoids in the gonads of sea angels might protect against oxidative stress and enhance reproduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids (Special Issue))
Open AccessArticle Construction and Characterization of an Escherichia coli Mutant Producing Kdo2-Lipid A
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1495-1511; doi:10.3390/md12031495
Received: 8 December 2013 / Revised: 6 February 2014 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
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Abstract
3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo)2-lipid A is the conserved structure domain of lipopolysaccharide found in most Gram-negative bacteria, and it is believed to stimulate the innate immune system through the TLR4/MD2 complex. Therefore, Kdo2-lipid A is an important [...] Read more.
3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo)2-lipid A is the conserved structure domain of lipopolysaccharide found in most Gram-negative bacteria, and it is believed to stimulate the innate immune system through the TLR4/MD2 complex. Therefore, Kdo2-lipid A is an important stimulator for studying the mechanism of the innate immune system and for developing bacterial vaccine adjuvants. Kdo2-lipid A has not been chemically synthesized to date and could only be isolated from an Escherichia coli mutant strain, WBB06. WBB06 cells grow slowly and have to grow in the presence of tetracycline. In this study, a novel E. coli mutant strain, WJW00, that could synthesize Kdo2-lipid A was constructed by deleting the rfaD gene from the genome of E. coli W3110. The rfaD gene encodes ADP-l-glycero-d-manno-heptose-6-epimerase RfaD. Based on the analysis by SDS-PAGE, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS), WJW00 could produce similar levels of Kdo2-lipid A to WBB06. WJW00 cells grow much better than WBB06 cells and do not need to add any antibiotics during growth. Compared with the wild-type strain, W3110, WJW00 showed increased hydrophobicity, higher cell permeability, greater autoaggregation and decreased biofilm-forming ability. Therefore, WJW00 could be a more suitable strain than WBB06 for producing Kdo2-lipid A and a good base strain for developing lipid A adjuvants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipopolysaccharides)
Open AccessArticle Anti-Diabetic Effects of CTB-APSL Fusion Protein in Type 2 Diabetic Mice
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1512-1529; doi:10.3390/md12031512
Received: 27 December 2013 / Revised: 19 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
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Abstract
To determine whether cholera toxin B subunit and active peptide from shark liver (CTB-APSL) fusion protein plays a role in treatment of type 2 diabetic mice, the CTB-APSL gene was cloned and expressed in silkworm (Bombyx mori) baculovirus expression vector [...] Read more.
To determine whether cholera toxin B subunit and active peptide from shark liver (CTB-APSL) fusion protein plays a role in treatment of type 2 diabetic mice, the CTB-APSL gene was cloned and expressed in silkworm (Bombyx mori) baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), then the fusion protein was orally administrated at a dose of 100 mg/kg for five weeks in diabetic mice. The results demonstrated that the oral administration of CTB-APSL fusion protein can effectively reduce the levels of both fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb), promote insulin secretion and improve insulin resistance, significantly improve lipid metabolism, reduce triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and increase high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, as well as effectively improve the inflammatory response of type 2 diabetic mice through the reduction of the levels of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Histopathology shows that the fusion protein can significantly repair damaged pancreatic tissue in type 2 diabetic mice, significantly improve hepatic steatosis and hepatic cell cloudy swelling, reduce the content of lipid droplets in type 2 diabetic mice, effectively inhibit renal interstitial inflammatory cells invasion and improve renal tubular epithelial cell nucleus pyknosis, thus providing an experimental basis for the development of a new type of oral therapy for type 2 diabetes. Full article
Open AccessArticle CS5931, a Novel Polypeptide in Ciona savignyi, Represses Angiogenesis via Inhibiting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs)
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1530-1544; doi:10.3390/md12031530
Received: 15 November 2013 / Revised: 9 January 2014 / Accepted: 22 January 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
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Abstract
CS5931 is a novel polypeptide from Ciona savignyi with anticancer activities. Previous study in our laboratory has shown that CS5931 can induce cell death via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In the present study, we found that the polypeptide could inhibit angiogenesis both in [...] Read more.
CS5931 is a novel polypeptide from Ciona savignyi with anticancer activities. Previous study in our laboratory has shown that CS5931 can induce cell death via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In the present study, we found that the polypeptide could inhibit angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. CS5931 inhibited the proliferation, migration and formation of capillary-like structures of HUVECs (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, CS5931 repressed spontaneous angiogenesis of the zebrafish vessels. Further studies showed that CS5931 also blocked vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production but without any effect on its mRNA expression. Moreover, CS5931 reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) both on protein and mRNA levels in HUVEC cells. We demonstrated that CS5931 possessed strong anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo, possible via VEGF and MMPs. This study indicates that CS5931 has the potential to be developed as a novel therapeutic agent as an inhibitor of angiogenesis for the treatment of cancer. Full article
Open AccessArticle Three New and Eleven Known Unusual C25 Steroids: Activated Production of Silent Metabolites in a Marine-Derived Fungus by Chemical Mutagenesis Strategy using Diethyl Sulphate
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1545-1568; doi:10.3390/md12031545
Received: 11 January 2014 / Revised: 25 February 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
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Abstract
Three new (13) and 11 known (414) C25 steroids with an unusual bicyclo[4.4.1]A/B ring system were isolated by tracing newly produced metabolites in the EtOAc extract of an antitumor mutant AD-1-2 obtained by the [...] Read more.
Three new (13) and 11 known (414) C25 steroids with an unusual bicyclo[4.4.1]A/B ring system were isolated by tracing newly produced metabolites in the EtOAc extract of an antitumor mutant AD-1-2 obtained by the diethyl sulphate (DES) mutagenesis of a marine-derived Penicillium purpurogenum G59. HPLC-PDAD-UV and HPLC-ESI-MS analyses indicated that the G59 strain did not produce these metabolites and the production of 114 in the mutant AD-1-2 extract was caused by the activation of silent metabolites in the original G59 strain by DES mutagenesis. The structures of the new compounds, named antineocyclocitrinols A (1) and B (2) and 23-O-methylantineocyclocitrinol (3), including their absolute configurations were determined by various spectroscopic methods, especially the NMR and Mo2-induced CD analyses. Compounds 13 provide the first examples of the C25 bicyclo[4.4.1]A/B ring steroids with the Z-configuration of 20,22-double bond. All of 114 weakly inhibited several human cancer cell lines to varying extents. These results provided additional examples for the successful application of the chemical mutagenesis strategy using DES to discover new compounds by activating silent metabolites in fungal isolates and supported also the effectiveness and usefulness of this new strategy. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Ochracenoids A and B, Guaiazulene-Based Analogues from Gorgonian Anthogorgia ochracea Collected from the South China Sea
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1569-1579; doi:10.3390/md12031569
Received: 24 December 2013 / Revised: 15 January 2014 / Accepted: 6 February 2014 / Published: 14 March 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (797 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two new guaiazulene-based analogues, ochracenoids A (1) and B (2), along with four known analogues (36), were isolated from the gorgonian Anthogorgia ochracea collected from the South China Sea. The planar structures of the [...] Read more.
Two new guaiazulene-based analogues, ochracenoids A (1) and B (2), along with four known analogues (36), were isolated from the gorgonian Anthogorgia ochracea collected from the South China Sea. The planar structures of the new compounds were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined as 3R by the comparison of TDDFT calculated electronic circular dichroism with its experimental spectrum. Compound 1 is a rare guaiazulene-based analogue possessing a unique C16 skeleton. The possible generation process of 1 through an intermolecular one-carbon-transfer reaction was also discussed. Compound 2 was previously described as a presumed intermediate involved in the biogenesis of anthogorgienes A and I. Compound 3 exhibited antiproliferative effects on the embryo development of zebrafish Danio rerio. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
Open AccessArticle Largazole Pharmacokinetics in Rats by LC-MS/MS
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1623-1640; doi:10.3390/md12031623
Received: 14 October 2013 / Revised: 30 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 February 2014 / Published: 20 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A highly sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of largazole thiol, the active species of the marine-derived preclinical histone deacetylase inhibitor, largazole (prodrug), was developed and validated. Largazole thiol was extracted with ethyl acetate from human or rat plasma along [...] Read more.
A highly sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of largazole thiol, the active species of the marine-derived preclinical histone deacetylase inhibitor, largazole (prodrug), was developed and validated. Largazole thiol was extracted with ethyl acetate from human or rat plasma along with the internal standard, harmine. Samples were separated on an Onyx Monolithic C18 column by a stepwise gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid in methanol and 0.1% aqueous formic acid employing multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of 12.5–400 ng/mL with 200 µL of human plasma. The overall intra-day precision was from 3.87% to 12.6%, and the inter-day precision was from 7.12% to 9.8%. The accuracy at low, medium and high concentrations ranged from 101.55% to 105.84%. Plasma protein bindings of largazole thiol in human and rat plasma as determined by an ultrafiltration method were 90.13% and 77.14%, respectively. Plasma drug concentrations were measured by this LC-MS/MS method. The pharmacokinetics of largazole thiol in rats was studied following i.v. administration at 10 mg/kg and found to follow a two-compartment model. Largazole thiol was rapidly eliminated from systemic circulation within 2 h. The established LC-MS/MS method is suitable for the analysis of largazole thiol in human plasma, as well. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of the Bifurcaria bifurcata Epiphytic Bacteria
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1676-1689; doi:10.3390/md12031676
Received: 31 December 2013 / Revised: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (764 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface-associated marine bacteria are an interesting source of new secondary metabolites. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of epiphytic bacteria from the marine brown alga, Bifurcaria bifurcata, and the evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of [...] Read more.
Surface-associated marine bacteria are an interesting source of new secondary metabolites. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of epiphytic bacteria from the marine brown alga, Bifurcaria bifurcata, and the evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of bacteria extracts. The identification of epiphytic bacteria was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacteria extracts were obtained with methanol and dichloromethane (1:1) extraction. The antioxidant activity of extracts was performed by quantification of total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Antimicrobial activities were evaluated against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. A total of 39 Bifurcaria bifurcata-associated bacteria were isolated and 33 were identified as Vibrio sp. (48.72%), Alteromonas sp. (12.82%), Shewanella sp. (12.26%), Serratia sp. (2.56%), Citricoccus sp. (2.56%), Cellulophaga sp. (2.56%), Ruegeria sp. (2.56%) and Staphylococcus sp. (2.56%). Six (15.38%) of the 39 bacteria Bifurcaria bifurcata-associated bacteria presented less than a 90% Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) match, and some of those could be new. The highest antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity (against B. subtilis) was exhibited by strain 16 (Shewanella sp.). Several strains also presented high antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, mainly belonging to Alteromonas sp. and Vibrio sp. There were no positive results against fungi and Gram-negative bacteria. Bifurcaria bifurcata epiphytic bacteria were revealed to be excellent sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview The Role of Biophysical Parameters in the Antilipopolysaccharide Activities of Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Fish
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1471-1494; doi:10.3390/md12031471
Received: 10 February 2014 / Revised: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
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Abstract
Numerous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from marine fish have been identified, isolated and characterized. These peptides act as host defense molecules that exert antimicrobial effects by targeting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria. The LPS-AMP interactions are driven by the biophysical properties of [...] Read more.
Numerous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from marine fish have been identified, isolated and characterized. These peptides act as host defense molecules that exert antimicrobial effects by targeting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria. The LPS-AMP interactions are driven by the biophysical properties of AMPs. In this review, therefore, we will focus on the physiochemical properties of AMPs; that is, the contributions made by their sequences, net charge, hydrophobicity and amphipathicity to their mechanism of action. Moreover, the interactions between LPS and fish AMPs and the structure of fish AMPs with LPS bound will also be discussed. A better understanding of the biophysical properties will be useful in the design of AMPs effective against septic shock and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, including those that commonly produce wound infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipopolysaccharides)
Open AccessReview Chemistry and Biology of Bengamides and Bengazoles, Bioactive Natural Products from Jaspis Sponges
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1580-1622; doi:10.3390/md12031580
Received: 30 December 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 25 February 2014 / Published: 18 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sponges corresponding to the Jaspidae family have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among these, the bengamides and the bengazoles stand out by virtue of their unprecedented molecular architectures and impressive biological profiles, including antitumor, antibiotic and anthelmintic [...] Read more.
Sponges corresponding to the Jaspidae family have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among these, the bengamides and the bengazoles stand out by virtue of their unprecedented molecular architectures and impressive biological profiles, including antitumor, antibiotic and anthelmintic properties. As a consequence, intense research activity has been devoted to these compounds from both chemical and biological standpoints. This review describes in detail the research into these classes of natural products and the benefits they offer in chemistry and biology. Full article
Open AccessReview The Challenge of Ecophysiological Biodiversity for Biotechnological Applications of Marine Microalgae
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1641-1675; doi:10.3390/md12031641
Received: 7 November 2013 / Revised: 31 January 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (963 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this review, we aim to explore the potential of microalgal biodiversity and ecology for biotechnological use. A deeper exploration of the biodiversity richness and ecophysiological properties of microalgae is crucial for enhancing their use for applicative purposes. After describing the actual [...] Read more.
In this review, we aim to explore the potential of microalgal biodiversity and ecology for biotechnological use. A deeper exploration of the biodiversity richness and ecophysiological properties of microalgae is crucial for enhancing their use for applicative purposes. After describing the actual biotechnological use of microalgae, we consider the multiple faces of taxonomical, morphological, functional and ecophysiological biodiversity of these organisms, and investigate how these properties could better serve the biotechnological field. Lastly, we propose new approaches to enhancing microalgal growth, photosynthesis, and synthesis of valuable products used in biotechnological fields, mainly focusing on culture conditions, especially light manipulations and genetic modifications. Full article
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Open AccessReview New and Rare Carotenoids Isolated from Marine Bacteria and Their Antioxidant Activities
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1690-1698; doi:10.3390/md12031690
Received: 10 February 2014 / Revised: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine bacteria have not been examined as extensively as land bacteria. We screened carotenoids from orange or red pigments-producing marine bacteria belonging to rare or novel species. The new acyclic carotenoids with a C30 aglycone, diapolycopenedioc acid xylosylesters A–C and methyl [...] Read more.
Marine bacteria have not been examined as extensively as land bacteria. We screened carotenoids from orange or red pigments-producing marine bacteria belonging to rare or novel species. The new acyclic carotenoids with a C30 aglycone, diapolycopenedioc acid xylosylesters A–C and methyl 5-glucosyl-5,6-dihydro-apo-4,4′-lycopenoate, were isolated from the novel Gram-negative bacterium Rubritalea squalenifaciens, which belongs to phylum Verrucomicrobia, as well as the low-GC Gram-positive bacterium Planococcus maritimus strain iso-3 belonging to the class Bacilli, phylum Firmicutes, respectively. The rare monocyclic C40 carotenoids, (3R)-saproxanthin and (3R,2′S)-myxol, were isolated from novel species of Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes. In this review, we report the structures and antioxidant activities of these carotenoids, and consider relationships between bacterial phyla and carotenoid structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids (Special Issue))

Other

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Open AccessConcept Paper Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(3), 1185-1207; doi:10.3390/md12031185
Received: 12 November 2013 / Revised: 8 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1250 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, [...] Read more.
Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Full article
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