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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 10, Issue 9 (September 2013), Pages 3801-4506

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Open AccessArticle Genetic Analysis of West Nile Virus Isolates from an Outbreak in Idaho, United States, 2006–2007
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4486-4506; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10094486
Received: 9 July 2013 / Revised: 12 September 2013 / Accepted: 16 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (724 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
West Nile virus (WNV) appeared in the U.S. in 1999 and has since become endemic, with yearly summer epidemics causing tens of thousands of cases of serious disease over the past 14 years. Analysis of WNV strains isolated during the 2006–2007 epidemic seasons
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West Nile virus (WNV) appeared in the U.S. in 1999 and has since become endemic, with yearly summer epidemics causing tens of thousands of cases of serious disease over the past 14 years. Analysis of WNV strains isolated during the 2006–2007 epidemic seasons demonstrates that a new genetic variant had emerged coincidentally with an intense outbreak in Idaho during 2006. The isolates belonging to the new variant carry a 13 nt deletion, termed ID-Δ13, located at the variable region of the 3′UTR, and are genetically related. The analysis of deletions and insertions in the 3′UTR of two major lineages of WNV revealed the presence of conserved repeats and two indel motifs in the variable region of the 3′UTR. One human and two bird isolates from the Idaho 2006–2007 outbreaks were sequenced using Illumina technology and within-host variability was analyzed. Continued monitoring of new genetic variants is important for public health as WNV continues to evolve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus)
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Open AccessReview Lung Deposition Analyses of Inhaled Toxic Aerosols in Conventional and Less Harmful Cigarette Smoke: A Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4454-4485; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10094454
Received: 26 June 2013 / Revised: 4 September 2013 / Accepted: 5 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (1922 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inhaled toxic aerosols of conventional cigarette smoke may impact not only the health of smokers, but also those exposed to second-stream smoke, especially children. Thus, less harmful cigarettes (LHCs), also called potential reduced exposure products (PREPs), or modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) have
[...] Read more.
Inhaled toxic aerosols of conventional cigarette smoke may impact not only the health of smokers, but also those exposed to second-stream smoke, especially children. Thus, less harmful cigarettes (LHCs), also called potential reduced exposure products (PREPs), or modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) have been designed by tobacco manufacturers to focus on the reduction of the concentration of carcinogenic components and toxicants in tobacco. However, some studies have pointed out that the new cigarette products may be actually more harmful than the conventional ones due to variations in puffing or post-puffing behavior, different physical and chemical characteristics of inhaled toxic aerosols, and longer exposure conditions. In order to understand the toxicological impact of tobacco smoke, it is essential for scientists, engineers and manufacturers to develop experiments, clinical investigations, and predictive numerical models for tracking the intake and deposition of toxicants of both LHCs and conventional cigarettes. Furthermore, to link inhaled toxicants to lung and other diseases, it is necessary to determine the physical mechanisms and parameters that have significant impacts on droplet/vapor transport and deposition. Complex mechanisms include droplet coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, vapor formation and changes in composition. Of interest are also different puffing behavior, smoke inlet conditions, subject geometries, and mass transfer of deposited material into systemic regions. This review article is intended to serve as an overview of contributions mainly published between 2009 and 2013, focusing on the potential health risks of toxicants in cigarette smoke, progress made in different approaches of impact analyses for inhaled toxic aerosols, as well as challenges and future directions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Content Analysis of Media Coverage of the Introduction of a Smoke-Free Bylaw in Vancouver Parks and Beaches
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4444-4453; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10094444
Received: 4 July 2013 / Revised: 3 September 2013 / Accepted: 4 September 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Board of Parks and Recreation in Vancouver, BC approved a smoke-free bylaw in the city’s parks, beaches and recreational facilities, effective 1 September 2010. We analyzed local news coverage and portrayal of the bylaw to understand the potential influence of news media
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The Board of Parks and Recreation in Vancouver, BC approved a smoke-free bylaw in the city’s parks, beaches and recreational facilities, effective 1 September 2010. We analyzed local news coverage and portrayal of the bylaw to understand the potential influence of news media on public perception of the bylaw in order to inform the media advocacy work of public health interest groups. We compiled a data set of newspaper articles (n = 90) and conducted a quantitative content analysis to examine content related to the outdoor smoke-free policy, including article slant, topics related to smoking and tobacco control, and any equity-related concerns raised. Newspaper coverage in Vancouver was largely supportive of the outdoor smoke-free bylaw. However, concerns over rights were frequently discussed in letters to the editor. Such equity concerns were rarely discussed in news articles, showing a potential disconnect between the concerns expressed in the media by members of the public and the coverage provided by print media. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Natural Exposure of Horses to Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses in South-East Queensland, Australia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4432-4443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10094432
Received: 5 August 2013 / Revised: 9 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In 2011 an unprecedented epidemic of equine encephalitis occurred in south-eastern (SE) Australia following heavy rainfall and severe flooding in the preceding 2–4 months. Less than 6% of the documented cases occurred in Queensland, prompting the question of pre-existing immunity in Queensland horses.
[...] Read more.
In 2011 an unprecedented epidemic of equine encephalitis occurred in south-eastern (SE) Australia following heavy rainfall and severe flooding in the preceding 2–4 months. Less than 6% of the documented cases occurred in Queensland, prompting the question of pre-existing immunity in Queensland horses. A small-scale serological survey was conducted on horses residing in one of the severely flood-affected areas of SE-Queensland. Using a flavivirus-specific blocking-ELISA we found that 63% (39/62) of horses older than 3 years were positive for flavivirus antibodies, and of these 18% (7/38) had neutralizing antibodies to Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Kunjin virus (WNVKUN) and/or Alfuy virus (ALFV). The remainder had serum-neutralizing antibodies to viruses in the Kokobera virus (KOKV) complex or antibodies to unknown/untested flaviviruses. Amongst eight yearlings one presented with clinical MVEV-encephalomyelitis, while another, clinically normal, had MVEV-neutralizing antibodies. The remaining six yearlings were flavivirus antibody negative. Of 19 foals born between August and November 2011 all were flavivirus antibody negative in January 2012. This suggests that horses in the area acquire over time active immunity to a range of flaviviruses. Nevertheless, the relatively infrequent seropositivity to MVEV, WNVKUN and ALFV (15%) suggests that factors other than pre-existing immunity may have contributed to the low incidence of arboviral disease in SE-Queensland horses during the 2011 epidemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus)
Open AccessArticle Patterns of Smoking Prevalence among the Elderly in Europe
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4418-4431; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10094418
Received: 28 June 2013 / Revised: 6 September 2013 / Accepted: 13 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Scant information is available on determinants of smoking prevalence in the vulnerable population of the elderly, particularly in Europe. Therefore, we analyzed smoking patterns among older adults (≥65 years old), using data from a representative survey based on 3,071 elderly, conducted in 17
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Scant information is available on determinants of smoking prevalence in the vulnerable population of the elderly, particularly in Europe. Therefore, we analyzed smoking patterns among older adults (≥65 years old), using data from a representative survey based on 3,071 elderly, conducted in 17 European countries in 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project. Overall smoking prevalence in 17 European countries was 11.5% (15.3% in men and 8.6% in women). An inverse relation with level of education was observed among men, while no specific pattern was evident among women. Smoking prevalence was highest in eastern/central Europe for men (20.3%) and northern Europe for women (13.1%). In both sexes combined, smokers were more frequent in countries with low implementation of tobacco control activities (14.9%). Anti-tobacco campaigns and smoking cessation interventions specifically targeted to the elderly are urgently needed in Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control in Vulnerable Population Groups)
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Open AccessReview Microbial Anaerobic Digestion (Bio-Digesters) as an Approach to the Decontamination of Animal Wastes in Pollution Control and the Generation of Renewable Energy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4390-4417; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10094390
Received: 1 July 2013 / Revised: 9 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways
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With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester) via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas) and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications. Full article
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Open AccessReview Neural Tube Defects, Folic Acid and Methylation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4352-4389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10094352
Received: 27 July 2013 / Revised: 30 August 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 54 | PDF Full-text (802 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common complex congenital malformations resulting from failure of the neural tube closure during embryogenesis. It is established that folic acid supplementation decreases the prevalence of NTDs, which has led to national public health policies regarding folic acid. To
[...] Read more.
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common complex congenital malformations resulting from failure of the neural tube closure during embryogenesis. It is established that folic acid supplementation decreases the prevalence of NTDs, which has led to national public health policies regarding folic acid. To date, animal studies have not provided sufficient information to establish the metabolic and/or genomic mechanism(s) underlying human folic acid responsiveness in NTDs. However, several lines of evidence suggest that not only folates but also choline, B12 and methylation metabolisms are involved in NTDs. Decreased B12 vitamin and increased total choline or homocysteine in maternal blood have been shown to be associated with increased NTDs risk. Several polymorphisms of genes involved in these pathways have also been implicated in risk of development of NTDs. This raises the question whether supplementation with B12 vitamin, betaine or other methylation donors in addition to folic acid periconceptional supplementation will further reduce NTD risk. The objective of this article is to review the role of methylation metabolism in the onset of neural tube defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Birth Defect Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle New Zealand’s Drug Development Industry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4339-4351; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10094339
Received: 25 July 2013 / Revised: 9 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 September 2013 / Published: 13 September 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The pharmaceutical industry’s profitability depends on identifying and successfully developing new drug candidates while trying to contain the increasing costs of drug development. It is actively searching for new sources of innovative compounds and for mechanisms to reduce the enormous costs of developing
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The pharmaceutical industry’s profitability depends on identifying and successfully developing new drug candidates while trying to contain the increasing costs of drug development. It is actively searching for new sources of innovative compounds and for mechanisms to reduce the enormous costs of developing new drug candidates. There is an opportunity for academia to further develop as a source of drug discovery. The rising levels of industry outsourcing also provide prospects for organisations that can reduce the costs of drug development. We explored the potential returns to New Zealand (NZ) from its drug discovery expertise by assuming a drug development candidate is out-licensed without clinical data and has anticipated peak global sales of $350 million. We also estimated the revenue from NZ’s clinical research industry based on a standard per participant payment to study sites and the number of industry-sponsored clinical trials approved each year. Our analyses found that NZ’s clinical research industry has generated increasing foreign revenue and appropriate policy support could ensure that this continues to grow. In addition the probability-based revenue from the out-licensing of a drug development candidate could be important for NZ if provided with appropriate policy and financial support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economics of New Drug Development and Approval)
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Open AccessArticle Appraisal of Hygiene Indicators and Farming Practices in the Production of Leafy Vegetables by Organic Small-Scale Farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4323-4338; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10094323
Received: 30 June 2013 / Revised: 9 August 2013 / Accepted: 4 September 2013 / Published: 13 September 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed), irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) were analyzed monthly for the presence of
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During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed), irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN) technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range of 6.5–8.5 for agricultural use. Fecal coliform levels were <1,000 MPN per 100 mL irrigation water and <1,000 MPN per g of compost. The vegetables produced by Agri-Hub small-scale farmers met the requirements for total coliforms of <200/g set by the South African Department of Health at the time of sampling. E. coli MPN values for irrigation water and vegetables were below the limit of detection. In addition, the farming practices of 73 farmers were assessed via a survey. The results revealed that more than 40% of farmers used microbiologically safe tap water for irrigation and that trained farmers have a significantly better understanding of the importance of production hygiene than untrained farmers. These results reiterate the importance of interventions that build capacity in the area of food safety and hygiene of small-scale farmers for market access of formal value chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle Differential Impact of Tobacco Control Policies on Youth Sub-Populations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4306-4322; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10094306
Received: 12 July 2013 / Revised: 29 August 2013 / Accepted: 6 September 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: While previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of tobacco control interventions in reducing tobacco use among youth overall, there have been very few studies that examine the potential differential impact of tobacco control policies on various youth subgroups, defined by socio-economic
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Background: While previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of tobacco control interventions in reducing tobacco use among youth overall, there have been very few studies that examine the potential differential impact of tobacco control policies on various youth subgroups, defined by socio-economic status (SES), race/ethnicity, and gender. Objective: We examined the relationship between state-level cigarette prices and smoke-free air laws and youth smoking prevalence and intensity for various youth sub-populations in the United States. Methods: We estimated a 2-part model of cigarette demand using data from the 1991 through 2010 nationally representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students as part of the Monitoring the Future project. Findings: We found that real cigarette prices are strong determinants of youth smoking. Blacks, females, Hispanics, and low-SES subpopulations are found to have a larger price response with respect to smoking prevalence than the full sample. Smoke-free air laws are found to have a negative effect on smoking prevalence for the full sample and for the male, white, and high-SES sub-populations. Conclusions: This research concludes that higher cigarette prices will reduce smoking prevalence rates of Blacks, Hispanics, females, and low-SES subpopulations faster than the overall youth population and other youth sub-populations. Moreover, this research concludes that smoke-free air laws will reduce smoking prevalence for the overall youth population with the largest reductions in high SES and male subpopulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control in Vulnerable Population Groups)
Open AccessReview Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4274-4305; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10094274
Received: 5 August 2013 / Revised: 2 September 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
Cited by 67 | PDF Full-text (723 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), clinical response, and effects on the microbiota,
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Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care), the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students) regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing). The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control)
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Open AccessReview Epigenetic Findings in Autism: New Perspectives for Therapy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4261-4273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10094261
Received: 21 June 2013 / Revised: 14 August 2013 / Accepted: 6 September 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (156 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by dysfunctions in social interactions, communications, restricted interests, and repetitive stereotypic behaviors. Despite extensive genetic and biological research, significant controversy surrounds our understanding of the specific mechanisms of their pathogenesis. However, accumulating
[...] Read more.
Autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by dysfunctions in social interactions, communications, restricted interests, and repetitive stereotypic behaviors. Despite extensive genetic and biological research, significant controversy surrounds our understanding of the specific mechanisms of their pathogenesis. However, accumulating evidence points to the involvement of epigenetic modifications as foundational in creating ASD pathophysiology. Epigenetic modifications or the alteration of DNA transcription via variations in DNA methylation and histone modifications but without alterations in the DNA sequence, affect gene regulation. These alterations in gene expression, obtained through DNA methylation and/or histone modifications, result from transcriptional regulatory influences of environmental factors, such as nutritional deficiencies, various toxicants, immunological effects, and pharmaceuticals. As such these effects are epigenetic regulators which determine the final biochemistry and physiology of the individual. In contrast to psychopharmacological interventions, bettering our understanding of how these gene-environmental interactions create autistic symptoms should facilitate the development of therapeutic targeting of gene expression for ASD biomedical care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environment Risk of Autism)
Open AccessArticle Interference in Pheromone-Responsive Conjugation of a High-Level Bacitracin Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Plasmid of Poultry Origin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4245-4260; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10094245
Received: 1 August 2013 / Revised: 29 August 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013
PDF Full-text (356 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The current study reports on contact interference of a high-level bacitracin- resistant pheromone-responsive plasmid of Enterococcus faecalis strain 543 of poultry origin during conjugative transfer of bcr antimicrobial resistance genes using a polyclonal antiserum aggregation substance44–560 (AS). After induction with pheromones produced
[...] Read more.
The current study reports on contact interference of a high-level bacitracin- resistant pheromone-responsive plasmid of Enterococcus faecalis strain 543 of poultry origin during conjugative transfer of bcr antimicrobial resistance genes using a polyclonal antiserum aggregation substance44–560 (AS). After induction with pheromones produced by the recipient strain E. faecalis JH2-2, clumping of the donor E. faecalis strain 543 was observed as well as high transfer frequencies of bcr in short time broth mating. Filter mating assays from donor strain E. faecalis 543 to the recipient strain E. faecalis JH2-2 revealed conjugative transfer of asa1 (AS), bcrRAB and traB (negative regulator pheromone response) genes. The presence of these genes in transconjugants was confirmed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR, Southern hybridization and sequencing. A significant reduction in formation of aggregates was observed when the polyclonal anti-AS44–560 was added in the pheromone-responsive conjugation experiments as compared to the induced state. Moreover, interference of anti-AS44–560 antibodies in pheromone-responsive conjugation was demonstrated by a reduction in horizontal transfer of asa1 and bcr genes between E. faecalis strain 543 and E. faecalis JH2-2. Reducing the pheromone-responsive conjugation of E. faecalis is of interest because of its clinical importance in the horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control)
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Open AccessReview Achieving Smoke-Free Mental Health Services: Lessons from the Past Decade of Implementation Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4224-4244; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10094224
Received: 27 July 2013 / Revised: 2 September 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 10 September 2013
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The culture of smoking by patients and staff within mental health systems of care has a long and entrenched history. Cigarettes have been used as currency between patients and as a patient management tool by staff. These settings have traditionally been exempt from
[...] Read more.
The culture of smoking by patients and staff within mental health systems of care has a long and entrenched history. Cigarettes have been used as currency between patients and as a patient management tool by staff. These settings have traditionally been exempt from smoke-free policy because of complex held views about the capacity of people with mental disorder to tolerate such policy whilst they are acutely unwell, with stakeholders’ continuing fierce debate about rights, choice and duty of care. This culture has played a significant role in perpetuating physical, social and economic smoking associated impacts experienced by people with mental disorder who receive care within mental health care settings. The past decade has seen a clear policy shift towards smoke-free mental health settings in several countries. While many services have been successful in implementing this change, many issues remain to be resolved for genuine smoke-free policy in mental health settings to be realized. This literature review draws on evidence from the international published research, including national audits of smoke-free policy implementation in mental health units in Australia and England, in order to synthesise what we know works, why it works, and the remaining barriers to smoke-free policy and how appropriate interventions are provided to people with mental disorder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control in Vulnerable Population Groups)
Open AccessReview A Review of Vaccine Approaches for West Nile Virus
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4200-4223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10094200
Received: 8 July 2013 / Revised: 2 September 2013 / Accepted: 5 September 2013 / Published: 10 September 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The West Nile virus (WNC) first appeared in North America in 1999. The North American lineages of WNV were characterized by the presence of neuroinvasive and neurovirulent strains causing disease and death in humans, birds and horses. The 2012 WNV season in the
[...] Read more.
The West Nile virus (WNC) first appeared in North America in 1999. The North American lineages of WNV were characterized by the presence of neuroinvasive and neurovirulent strains causing disease and death in humans, birds and horses. The 2012 WNV season in the United States saw a massive spike in the number of neuroinvasive cases and deaths similar to what was seen in the 2002–2003 season, according to the West Nile virus disease cases and deaths reported to the CDC by year and clinical presentation, 1999–2012, by ArboNET (Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). In addition, the establishment and recent spread of lineage II WNV virus strains into Western Europe and the presence of neurovirulent and neuroinvasive strains among them is a cause of major concern. This review discusses the advances in the development of vaccines and biologicals to combat human and veterinary West Nile disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus)
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