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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 7, Issue 5 (May 2010), Pages 1872-2436

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Open AccessArticle Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Assessing Dental Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2423-2436; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7052423
Received: 29 March 2010 / Revised: 26 April 2010 / Accepted: 12 May 2010 / Published: 25 May 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study investigated the distribution profile of dental caries and its association with areas of social deprivation at the individual and contextual level. The cluster sample consisted of 1,002 12-year-old schoolchildren from Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. The DMFT Index was used for dental
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The present study investigated the distribution profile of dental caries and its association with areas of social deprivation at the individual and contextual level. The cluster sample consisted of 1,002 12-year-old schoolchildren from Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. The DMFT Index was used for dental caries and the Care Index was used to determine access to dental services. On the individual level, variables were associated with a better oral status. On the contextual level, areas were not associated with oral status. However, maps enabled determining that the central districts have better social and oral conditions than the deprived outlying districts. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Geography of Diabetes in London, Canada: The Need for Local Level Policy for Prevention and Management
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2407-2422; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7052407
Received: 11 March 2010 / Revised: 14 May 2010 / Accepted: 14 May 2010 / Published: 19 May 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent reports aimed at improving diabetes care in socially disadvantaged populations suggest that interventions must be tailored to meet the unique needs of the local community—specifically, the community’s geography. We have examined the spatial distribution of diabetes in the context of socioeconomic
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Recent reports aimed at improving diabetes care in socially disadvantaged populations suggest that interventions must be tailored to meet the unique needs of the local community—specifically, the community’s geography. We have examined the spatial distribution of diabetes in the context of socioeconomic determinants of health in London (Ontario, Canada) to characterize neighbourhoods in an effort to target these neighbourhoods for local level community-based program planning and intervention. Multivariate spatial-statistical techniques and geographic information systems were used to examine diabetes rates and socioeconomic variables aggregated at the census tract level. Creation of a deprivation index facilitated investigation across multiple determinants of health. Findings from our research identified ‘at risk’ neighbourhoods in London with socioeconomic disadvantage and high diabetes. Future endeavours must continue to identify local level trends in order to support policy development, resource planning and care for improved health outcomes and improved equity in access to care across geographic regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Environmental Health Risk Assessment of Dioxin Exposure through Foods in a Dioxin Hot Spot—Bien Hoa City, Vietnam
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2395-2406; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7052395
Received: 26 March 2010 / Revised: 10 May 2010 / Accepted: 11 May 2010 / Published: 14 May 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of
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This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used as data for this risk assessment. A food frequency survey of 400 randomly selected households in these wards was conducted to provide data for exposure assessment. Results showed that local residents who had consumed locally cultivated foods, especially fresh water fish and bottom-feeding fish, free-ranging chicken, duck, and beef were at a very high risk, with their daily dioxin intake far exceeding the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. Based on the results of this assessment, a multifaceted risk management program was developed and has been recognized as the first public health program ever to have been implemented in Vietnam to reduce the risks of dioxin exposure at dioxin hot-spots. Full article
Open AccessArticle Municipal Wastewater Effluents as a Source of Listerial Pathogens in the Aquatic Milieu of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: A Concern of Public Health Importance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2376-2394; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7052376
Received: 9 April 2010 / Revised: 28 April 2010 / Accepted: 30 April 2010 / Published: 12 May 2010
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We evaluated the effluent quality of an urban wastewater treatment facility in South Africa and its impact on the receiving watershed for a period of 12 months. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of potential Listeria pathogens (L. ivanovii and L. innocua)
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We evaluated the effluent quality of an urban wastewater treatment facility in South Africa and its impact on the receiving watershed for a period of 12 months. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of potential Listeria pathogens (L. ivanovii and L. innocua) and the physicochemical quality of the treated wastewater effluent was assessed, with a view to ascertain the potential health and environmental hazards of the discharged effluent. Total listerial density varied between 2.9 × 100 and 1.2 × 105 cfu/mL; free living Listeria species were more prevalent (84%), compared to Listeria species attached to planktons (59–75%). The treated effluent quality fell short of recommended standards for turbidity, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, nitrite, phosphate and Listeria density; while pH, temperature, total dissolved solids and nitrate contents were compliant with target quality limits after treatment. The Listeria isolates (23) were sensitive to three (15%) of the 20 test antibiotics, and showed varying (4.5–91%) levels of resistance to 17 antibiotics. Of seven resistance gene markers assayed, only sulII genes were detected in five (22%) Listeria strains. The study demonstrates a potential negative impact of the wastewater effluent on the receiving environment and suggests a serious public health implication for those who depend on the receiving watershed for drinking and other purposes. Full article
Open AccessReview The Relationship between Workplace, Job Stress and Nurses’ Tobacco Use: A Review of the Literature
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2362-2375; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7052362
Received: 26 January 2010 / Revised: 6 April 2010 / Accepted: 16 April 2010 / Published: 11 May 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (69 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to provide a summary of the existing published knowledge on the possible relationship between the workplace as a stressor factor and nurses’ tobacco use. A systematic review of the literature from 1995 to 2009, using the MEDLINE
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The aim of this study was to provide a summary of the existing published knowledge on the possible relationship between the workplace as a stressor factor and nurses’ tobacco use. A systematic review of the literature from 1995 to 2009, using the MEDLINE database took place. Studies, that referred to nurses’ smoking habit exclusively or as a part of the study, were included in the review. 491 studies were retrieved and their titles/abstracts were examined systematically. Twenty one studies were retrieved for further consideration by a comprehensive literature review. Ten studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and they were examined further. There is a conflict on the possible relationship between workplace as a stressor factor and nurses’ smoking habits, because there is no evidence on if the nurses’ work environment causes smoking initiation. Full article
Open AccessReview Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2337-2361; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7052337
Received: 28 January 2010 / Revised: 24 March 2010 / Accepted: 31 March 2010 / Published: 10 May 2010
Cited by 119 | PDF Full-text (162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone
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Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals and Health)
Open AccessArticle Binge Drinking Effects on EEG in Young Adult Humans
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2325-2336; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7052325
Received: 2 February 2010 / Revised: 1 April 2010 / Accepted: 7 May 2010 / Published: 10 May 2010
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Young adult (N = 96) university students who varied in their binge drinking history were assessed by electroencephalography (EEG) recording during passive viewing. Groups consisted of male and female non-binge drinkers (>1 to 5/4 drinks/ounces in under two hours), low-binge drinkers (5/4–7/6 drinks/ounces
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Young adult (N = 96) university students who varied in their binge drinking history were assessed by electroencephalography (EEG) recording during passive viewing. Groups consisted of male and female non-binge drinkers (>1 to 5/4 drinks/ounces in under two hours), low-binge drinkers (5/4–7/6 drinks/ounces in under two hours), and high-binge drinkers (≥ 10 drinks/ounces in under two hours), who had been drinking alcohol at their respective levels for an average of 3 years. The non- and low-binge drinkers exhibited less spectral power than the high-binge drinkers in the delta (0–4 Hz) and fast-beta (20–35 Hz) bands. Binge drinking appears to be associated with a specific pattern of brain electrical activity in young adults that may reflect the future development of alcoholism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle Built Environmental Correlates of Walking and Cycling in Dutch Urban Children: Results from the SPACE Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2309-2324; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7052309
Received: 26 February 2010 / Revised: 28 April 2010 / Accepted: 30 April 2010 / Published: 6 May 2010
Cited by 60 | PDF Full-text (237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined built environmental correlates of children’s walking and cycling behavior. Four hundred and forty-eight children from 10 Dutch neighborhoods completed a seven-day physical activity diary in which the number of walking and cycling trips for transportation, to school, and for recreation
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This study examined built environmental correlates of children’s walking and cycling behavior. Four hundred and forty-eight children from 10 Dutch neighborhoods completed a seven-day physical activity diary in which the number of walking and cycling trips for transportation, to school, and for recreation were assessed. The associations between observed built environmental characteristics and children’s walking and cycling behavior were examined with multivariate linear regression analyses. The results showed that built environmental correlates of children’s walking and cycling behavior differ by purpose and by commuting mode implying a behavior-specific approach for interventions and for future, preferably prospective, studies. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Geography of Fast Food Outlets: A Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2290-2308; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7052290
Received: 25 January 2010 / Revised: 26 April 2010 / Accepted: 30 April 2010 / Published: 6 May 2010
Cited by 73 | PDF Full-text (75 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty
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The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity and Public Health)
Open AccessReview Outcome Measurement in Economic Evaluations of Public Health Interventions: a Role for the Capability Approach?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2274-2289; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7052274
Received: 5 March 2010 / Revised: 30 April 2010 / Accepted: 4 May 2010 / Published: 6 May 2010
Cited by 60 | PDF Full-text (79 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Public health interventions have received increased attention from policy makers, and there has been a corresponding increase in the number of economic evaluations within the domain of public health. However, methods to evaluate public health interventions are less well established than those for
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Public health interventions have received increased attention from policy makers, and there has been a corresponding increase in the number of economic evaluations within the domain of public health. However, methods to evaluate public health interventions are less well established than those for medical interventions. Focusing on health as an outcome measure is likely to underestimate the impact of many public health interventions. This paper provides a review of outcome measures in public health; and describes the benefits of using the capability approach as a means to developing an all encompassing outcome measure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Economics)
Open AccessArticle Surveillance of Summer Mortality and Preparedness to Reduce the Health Impact of Heat Waves in Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2256-2273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7052256
Received: 6 April 2010 / Revised: 21 April 2010 / Accepted: 29 April 2010 / Published: 6 May 2010
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since 2004, the Italian Department for Civil Protection and the Ministry of Health have implemented a national program for the prevention of heat-health effects during summer, which to-date includes 34 major cities and 93% of the residents aged 65 years and over. The
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Since 2004, the Italian Department for Civil Protection and the Ministry of Health have implemented a national program for the prevention of heat-health effects during summer, which to-date includes 34 major cities and 93% of the residents aged 65 years and over. The Italian program represents an important example of an integrated approach to prevent the impact of heat on health, comprising Heat Health Watch Warning Systems, a mortality surveillance system and prevention activities targeted to susceptible subgroups. City-specific warning systems are based on the relationship between temperature and mortality and serve as basis for the modulation of prevention measures. Local prevention activities, based on the guidelines defined by the Ministry of Health, are constructed around the infrastructures and services available. A key component of the prevention program is the identification of susceptible individuals and the active surveillance by General Practitioners, medical personnel and social workers. The mortality surveillance system enables the timely estimation of the impact of heat, and heat waves, on mortality during summer as well as to the evaluation of warning systems and prevention programs. Considering future predictions of climate change, the implementation of effective prevention programs, targeted to high risk subjects, become a priority in the public health agenda. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Human Health Impacts and Adaptation)
Open AccessReview Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment of the Advances in Public Health for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2238-2255; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7052238
Received: 28 December 2009 / Revised: 23 April 2010 / Accepted: 4 May 2010 / Published: 6 May 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year
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To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Sensitivity of Air Pollution-Induced Premature Mortality to Precursor Emissions under the Influence of Climate Change
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2222-2237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7052222
Received: 1 March 2010 / Revised: 23 April 2010 / Accepted: 29 April 2010 / Published: 5 May 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (398 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relative contributions of PM2.5 and ozone precursor emissions to air pollution-related premature mortality modulated by climate change are estimated for the U.S. using sensitivities of air pollutants to precursor emissions and health outcomes for 2001 and 2050. Result suggests that states
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The relative contributions of PM2.5 and ozone precursor emissions to air pollution-related premature mortality modulated by climate change are estimated for the U.S. using sensitivities of air pollutants to precursor emissions and health outcomes for 2001 and 2050. Result suggests that states with high emission rates and significant premature mortality increases induced by PM2.5 will substantially benefit in the future from SO2, anthropogenic NOX and NH3 emissions reductions while states with premature mortality increases induced by O3 will benefit mainly from anthropogenic NOX emissions reduction. Much of the increase in premature mortality expected from climate change-induced pollutant increases can be offset by targeting a specific precursor emission in most states based on the modeling approach followed here. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Human Health Impacts and Adaptation)
Open AccessArticle Publically Funded Recreation Facilities: Obesogenic Environments for Children and Families?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2208-2221; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7052208
Received: 2 March 2010 / Revised: 25 April 2010 / Accepted: 27 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increasing healthy food options in public venues, including recreational facilities, is a health priority. The purpose of this study was to describe the public recreation food environment in British Columbia, Canada using a sequential explanatory mixed methods design. Facility audits assessed policy, programs,
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Increasing healthy food options in public venues, including recreational facilities, is a health priority. The purpose of this study was to describe the public recreation food environment in British Columbia, Canada using a sequential explanatory mixed methods design. Facility audits assessed policy, programs, vending, concessions, fundraising, staff meetings and events. Focus groups addressed context and issues related to action. Eighty-eighty percent of facilities had no policy governing food sold or provided for children/youth programs. Sixty-eight percent of vending snacks were chocolate bars and chips while 57% of beverages were sugar sweetened. User group fundraisers held at the recreation facilities also sold ‘unhealthy’ foods. Forty-two percent of recreation facilities reported providing user-pay programs that educated the public about healthy eating. Contracts, economics, lack of resources and knowledge and motivation of staff and patrons were barriers to change. Recreation food environments were obesogenic but stakeholders were interested in change. Technical support, resources and education are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Trends in Body Mass Index among Icelandic Adolescents and Young Adults from 1992 to 2007
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2191-2207; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7052191
Received: 23 February 2010 / Revised: 27 April 2010 / Accepted: 28 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (182 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Trends in body mass index (BMI) among 51,889 14- to 20-year-old Icelandic adolescents and young adults were examined using data from cross-sectional population surveys conducted from 1992 to 2007. Prevalence of overweight increased for both genders in all age groups, except for 14-
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Trends in body mass index (BMI) among 51,889 14- to 20-year-old Icelandic adolescents and young adults were examined using data from cross-sectional population surveys conducted from 1992 to 2007. Prevalence of overweight increased for both genders in all age groups, except for 14- and 20-year-old girls. Obesity prevalence increased among boys in all age groups, except for 16-year-olds, and among 15- and 20-year-old girls. The largest increase in obesity rates among both genders was found in the oldest age group. Moreover, not only has the prevalence of obesity increased, but also the extent of obesity has grown more severe among 15- and 17-year-olds boys and among girls in the oldest age group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity and Public Health)
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