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Energies 2013, 6(9), 4786-4798; doi:10.3390/en6094786

General and Simple Decision Method for DG Penetration Level in View of Voltage Regulation at Distribution Substation Transformers

1
Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI), Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO), 105 Munji-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Deajeon 305-760, Korea
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2013 / Revised: 28 August 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 10 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grids: The Electrical Power Network and Communication System)
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Abstract

A distribution system was designed and operated by considering unidirectional power flow from a utility source to end-use loads. The large penetrations of distributed generation (DG) into the existing distribution system causes a variety of technical problems, such as frequent tap changing problems of the on-load tap changer (OLTC) transformer, local voltage rise, protection coordination, exceeding short-circuit capacity, and harmonic distortion. In view of voltage regulation, the intermittent fluctuation of the DG output power results in frequent tap changing operations of the OLTC transformer. Thus, many utilities limit the penetration level of DG and are eager to find the reasonable penetration limits of DG in the distribution system. To overcome this technical problem, utilities have developed a new voltage regulation method in the distribution system with a large DG penetration level. In this paper, the impact of DG on the OLTC operations controlled by the line drop compensation (LDC) method is analyzed. In addition, a generalized determination methodology for the DG penetration limits in a distribution substation transformer is proposed. The proposed DG penetration limits could be adopted for a simplified interconnection process in DG interconnection guidelines.
Keywords: on-load tap changer (OLTC); distributed generation (DG); line drop compensation (LDC); penetration limits; interconnection standards/guidelines on-load tap changer (OLTC); distributed generation (DG); line drop compensation (LDC); penetration limits; interconnection standards/guidelines
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Song, I.-K.; Jung, W.-W.; Chu, C.-M.; Cho, S.-S.; Kang, H.-K.; Choi, J.-H. General and Simple Decision Method for DG Penetration Level in View of Voltage Regulation at Distribution Substation Transformers. Energies 2013, 6, 4786-4798.

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