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Sustainability, Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Manufacturing industries face the critical challenges to accommodate sustainability issues. To [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Supply Network Maturity Model: Water Scarcity Perspective
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 896; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030896
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Today’s supply chains (SCs) are more than ever prone to disruptions caused by natural and man-made events with water scarcity identified as one of the highest impact events among these. Leading businesses, understanding that natural resource scarcity (NRS) has become a critical supply
[...] Read more.
Today’s supply chains (SCs) are more than ever prone to disruptions caused by natural and man-made events with water scarcity identified as one of the highest impact events among these. Leading businesses, understanding that natural resource scarcity (NRS) has become a critical supply chain risk factor, extensively incorporate sustainable water management programmes into their corporate social responsibility and environmental management agenda. The question of how industries can efficiently evaluate the progress of these water scarcity mitigation practices, however, remains open. In order to address this question, the present study proposes a conceptual maturity model. The model is rooted in strategies for water scarcity mitigation using a framework developed by Yatskovskaya and Srai and develops an extensive literature review of recent publications on maturity frameworks in the fields of sustainability and operations management. In order to test the proposed proposed, model an exploratory case study with a leading pharmaceutical company was conducted. The proposed maturity model presents an evaluation tool that allows systematic assessment and visualisation of organisational routines and practices relevant to sustainable manufacturing in the context of water scarcity. This model was designed to help illustrate mitigation capabilities evolution over time, where future state desired capabilities were considered through alternative supply network (SN) configurations, network structure, process flow, product architecture, and supply partnerships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Footprint in Supply Chain Management)
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Open AccessArticle Cost-Sharing Contracts for Energy Saving and Emissions Reduction of a Supply Chain under the Conditions of Government Subsidies and a Carbon Tax
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030895
Received: 18 February 2018 / Revised: 10 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
To study the cooperation of upstream and downstream enterprises of a supply chain in energy saving and emissions reduction, we establish a Stackelberg game model. The retailer moves first to decide a cost-sharing contract, then the manufacturer determines the energy-saving level, carbon-emission level,
[...] Read more.
To study the cooperation of upstream and downstream enterprises of a supply chain in energy saving and emissions reduction, we establish a Stackelberg game model. The retailer moves first to decide a cost-sharing contract, then the manufacturer determines the energy-saving level, carbon-emission level, and wholesale price successively. In the end, the retailer determines the retail price. As a regulation, the government provides subsidies for energy-saving products, while imposing a carbon tax on the carbon emitted. The results show that (1) both the energy-saving cost-sharing (ECS) and the carbon emissions reduction cost-sharing (CCS) contracts are not the dominant strategy of the two parties by which they can facilitate energy savings and emissions reductions; (2) compared with single cost-sharing contracts, the bivariate cost-sharing (BCS) contract for energy saving and emissions reduction is superior, although it still cannot realise prefect coordination of the supply chain; (3) government subsidy and carbon tax policies can promote the cooperation of both the upstream and downstream enterprises of the supply chain—a subsidy policy can always drive energy saving and emissions reductions, while a carbon tax policy does not always exert positive effects, as it depends on the initial level of pollution and the level of carbon tax; and (4) the subsidy policy reduces the coordination efficiency of the supply chain, while the influences of carbon tax policy upon the coordination efficiency relies on the initial carbon-emission level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainability: Supply Chain Collaboration and Governance)
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Open AccessArticle Migrants’ Role in Enhancing the Economic Development of Host Countries: Empirical Evidence from Europe
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030894
Received: 24 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
This research examines several modellers of immigration flows deployed within the European Union (EU), as well as their economic consequences upon the most targeted ten migrant receiving countries. The paper’s aim is to identify specific ways in which migrants can contribute to host
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This research examines several modellers of immigration flows deployed within the European Union (EU), as well as their economic consequences upon the most targeted ten migrant receiving countries. The paper’s aim is to identify specific ways in which migrants can contribute to host countries’ sustainable development through positive spillover upon natives, labour market performance, and the overall economic activity. A set of methods and macro-econometric models, based on country fixed effects, spatial analysis, and structural equations modelling, was applied on a balanced panel formed by ten EU host economies. We analysed distinctly the labour and humanitarian (asylum seekers) migration flows, considered throughout two separate time periods, namely 2000–2015 and 2000–2019 (2019 being the deadline for Brexit negotiations). The results highlight that the immigration flows were mainly shaped by labour market outcomes, while the primary positive immigration impact was induced upon the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and employment levels, both for natives and the foreign population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Biophysical and Socioeconomic State and Links of Deltaic Areas Vulnerable to Climate Change: Volta (Ghana), Mahanadi (India) and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (India and Bangladesh)
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030893
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2063 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We examine the similarities and differences of specific deltaic areas in parallel, under the project DEltas, vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation (DECCMA). The main reason for studying Deltas is their potential vulnerability to climate change and sea level rise, which generates
[...] Read more.
We examine the similarities and differences of specific deltaic areas in parallel, under the project DEltas, vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation (DECCMA). The main reason for studying Deltas is their potential vulnerability to climate change and sea level rise, which generates important challenges for livelihoods. We provide insights into the current socioeconomic and biophysical states of the Volta Delta (Ghana), Mahanadi Delta (India) and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (India and Bangladesh). Hybrid methods of input-output (IO) construction are used to develop environmentally extended IO models for comparing the economic characteristics of these delta regions with the rest of the country. The main sources of data for regionalization were country level census data, statistics and economic surveys and data on consumption, trade, agricultural production and fishing harvests. The Leontief demand-driven model is used to analyze land use in the agricultural sector of the Delta and to track the links with final demand. In addition, the Hypothetical Extraction Method is used to evaluate the importance of the hypothetical disappearance of a sector (e.g., agriculture). The results show that, in the case of the Indian deltas, more than 60% of the cropland and pasture land is devoted to satisfying demands from regions outside the delta. While in the case of the Bangladeshi and Ghanaian deltas, close to 70% of the area harvested is linked to internal demand. The results also indicate that the services, trade and transportation sectors represent 50% of the GDP in the deltas. Still, agriculture, an activity directly exposed to climate change, plays a relevant role in the deltas’ economies—we have estimated that the complete disappearance of this activity would entail GDP losses ranging from 18 to 32%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Economic Impact of Government Policy on Market Prices of Low-Fat Pork in South Korea: A Quasi-Experimental Hedonic Price Approach
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030892
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
The implementation of government policy can have an influence on market environment and market prices of pork in consequence. In South Korea, consumers prefer high-fat pork cuts due to the prevalence of roosting pork over a hot grill. This paper examines the impact
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The implementation of government policy can have an influence on market environment and market prices of pork in consequence. In South Korea, consumers prefer high-fat pork cuts due to the prevalence of roosting pork over a hot grill. This paper examines the impact of the government policy which aims to increase the consumption of low-fat pork cuts because of the concerns regarding asymmetric consumption between high-fat and low-fat pork cuts. Using hedonic price methods combined with quasi-experimental approaches we estimate the subsequent impact of food policy on the price of low-fat pork cuts using a time series of sales data. This study utilized an effective approach which has been widely employed for policy evaluation to produce plausible estimates of the economic values generated by the government policy. We find the existence of market segmentation and different impacts of the policy between markets. While the market price for high-fat pork cuts has remained stable, the price for low-fat pork cuts has slightly increased since the policy has been implemented. This paper illustrates that government’s policy can be a good strategy to maintain sustainability of the food industry by improving the balance in pork consumption and the management of stocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle Innovative Financial Approach for Agricultural Sustainability: A Case Study of Alibaba
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030891
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
Sustainability and agricultural finance are two important issues attracting attention from industry and academia. This research adopts an in-depth case study methodology to investigate the agricultural finance initiatives of Alibaba Group, and explores how the agricultural finance practices of an e-commerce platform facilitate
[...] Read more.
Sustainability and agricultural finance are two important issues attracting attention from industry and academia. This research adopts an in-depth case study methodology to investigate the agricultural finance initiatives of Alibaba Group, and explores how the agricultural finance practices of an e-commerce platform facilitate its sustainability goal. A reference framework is proposed to prove the adoption of agricultural finance. The influence of three moderating variables, namely, IT support, financial attractiveness, and cooperation with other entities, is analyzed. We find that advanced IT support and financial attractiveness are two indispensable enablers for agricultural finance initiatives, and collaboration with other entities is necessary in adopting agricultural supply chain finance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Using the Ecosystem Services Framework for Policy Impact Analysis: An Application to the Assessment of the Common Agricultural Policy 2014–2020 in the Province of Ferrara (Italy)
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030890
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
The objective of this study is to test a methodology for the classification of areas according to the provision of ecosystem services and for the evaluation of the effects of different agricultural policy scenarios. The evaluation focuses on the different categories of Ecosystem
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The objective of this study is to test a methodology for the classification of areas according to the provision of ecosystem services and for the evaluation of the effects of different agricultural policy scenarios. The evaluation focuses on the different categories of Ecosystem Services (ES) and applies a set of indicators available from secondary data sources. Two scenarios were compared, represented by the pre-2014 CAP and the CAP 2014–2020, based on the measures of the RDP 2014–2020 focused on enhancing ecosystems. The approach was implemented under two weighting solutions. First, we assumed that all indicators have equal weight. As a further step, the framework was integrated with a weighting procedure in order to account for the different importance of the various ES indicators. All municipalities offer a significant number of provisioning and cultural services, mainly connected to recreational opportunities. The indicators with higher importance in the area represent provisioning, supporting and regulating services, while cultural services have received less attention. Comparing the results of the simulation of different policy scenarios, there are no significant differences since the CAP 2014–2020 does not provide for measures likely to affect substantially the overall production of ecosystem services. While this result is plausible, the study confirms the limitations of available secondary data in providing a full account of ecosystem services provision and of their variations as a result of policy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Multi-Response Optimization of Thrust Forces, Torques, and the Power of Tapping Operations by Cooling Air in Reinforced and Unreinforced Polyamide PA66
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030889
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
The use of cooling air during machining is an environmentally conscious procedure, and its applicability to different processes is a research priority. We studied tapping operations, an important operation in the assembly process, using cooling air with unreinforced polyamide (PA66) and polyamide reinforced
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The use of cooling air during machining is an environmentally conscious procedure, and its applicability to different processes is a research priority. We studied tapping operations, an important operation in the assembly process, using cooling air with unreinforced polyamide (PA66) and polyamide reinforced with glass fiber (PA66-GF30). These materials are widely used in industry, but their behavior with respect to tapping has not been studied. We analyze the outcomes regarding the thrust force, torque, and power at cutting speeds between 15 and 60 m/min. The experimental tests were executed using cooling air at 22 °C, 2 °C, and −18 °C in dry conditions. The M12 × 1.75 mm taps were high-speed steel, with cobalt as the base material and coatings of TiN and AlCrN. To identify the more influential factors, an analysis of variance was performed, along with multi-response optimization to identify the desirability values. This optimization shows that the optimum for PA66can be found in environments close to 3 °C, while the optimum for PA66-GF30 is found at the minimal temperature studied (−18 °C). Thus, cooling air can be considered an adequate procedure for tapping operations, to increase the sustainability of the manufacturing processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Materials and Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Analysis of the Environmental Benefits of Drone-Based Delivery Services in Urban and Rural Areas
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 888; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030888
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, drones) used as delivery vehicles have received increasing attention due to their mobility and accessibility to remote areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts of drone versus motorcycle delivery and to compare the expected
[...] Read more.
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, drones) used as delivery vehicles have received increasing attention due to their mobility and accessibility to remote areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts of drone versus motorcycle delivery and to compare the expected environmental improvements due to drone delivery in urban and rural areas. In addition, the potential environmental contributions of electric motorcycles were assessed to determine the effects of introducing this new type of vehicle. Changes in the national electricity generation plan were also examined. The results showed that global warming potential (GWP) per 1 km delivery by drone was one-sixth that of motorcycle delivery, and the particulates produced by drone delivery were half that of motorcycle delivery. The actual environmental impact reduction in consideration of the delivery distance was 13 times higher in a rural area than in an urban area. Increasing the use of environmentally friendly electricity systems, such as solar and wind power, would further enhance the environmental effects of a drone delivery system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluating the Collaborative Ecosystem for an Innovation-Driven Economy: A Systems Analysis and Case Study of Science Parks
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030887
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
National policies for science parks and innovation have been identified as one of the major driving forces for the innovation-driven economy, especially for publicly funded science parks. To investigate this collaborative ecosystem (government-academia-industry) for growth and sustainable development, this paper proposes a nation-wide
[...] Read more.
National policies for science parks and innovation have been identified as one of the major driving forces for the innovation-driven economy, especially for publicly funded science parks. To investigate this collaborative ecosystem (government-academia-industry) for growth and sustainable development, this paper proposes a nation-wide economic impact analysis of science parks and innovation policy based on historical data drawn from one of the globally recognized high-technology industrial clusters in Taiwan. Systems thinking with causal loop analysis are adopted to improve our understanding of the collaborative ecosystem with science park policies. First, from a holistic viewpoint, the role of government in a science parks and innovation ecosystem is reviewed. A systems analysis of an innovation-driven economy with a science park policy is presented as a strategy map for policy implementers. Second, the added economic value and employment of the benchmarked science parks is evaluated from a long range perspective. Third, the concepts of government-academia-industry collaboration and policies to innovation ecosystem are introduced while addressing the measures and performance of innovation and applied R&D in the science parks. We conclude with a discussion of lessons learned and the policy implications of science park development and an innovation ecosystem. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Flexible Acceleration Mechanism of China’s Capital Adjustment with the Goal of Consumption-Driven Sustainable Growth
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030886
Received: 10 February 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 18 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
China has had an investment-led growth pattern that is unsustainable. It is struggling to shift to a consumption-driven economy, and capital adjustment is crucial to the transition. In response, the principal objective of this study is to analyze the internal market mechanism of
[...] Read more.
China has had an investment-led growth pattern that is unsustainable. It is struggling to shift to a consumption-driven economy, and capital adjustment is crucial to the transition. In response, the principal objective of this study is to analyze the internal market mechanism of China’s capital adjustment. Due to the imperfections of the market, we use the flexible acceleration model, which we put in an IS (Investment – Saving equation)–LM (Liquidity preference – Money supply equation) framework in order to reflect the guiding role of demand. The results show that the flexible acceleration model fits China’s investment well, and the demand-oriented market mechanism of capital adjustment has been formed; however, China’s market adjustment ability is not strong. The adjustment coefficient is only 0.22, and shows a decreasing trend. So, in the capital optimization process, relying on the market alone is not realistic. Furthermore, the calculated replacement rate is up to 0.429, which indicates that China’s capital is less efficient, and there are duplicated assets, idle assets, and wasted investments. The error correction model’s results show that the impact of the interest rate on the investments is not significant in the short term, so the existence of invalid capital is more likely to stem from the soft budget constraints, which require attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Change of the Extractability of Cadmium Added to Different Soils: Aging Effect and Modeling
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030885
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is known to be a chelating agent and has been widely used for estimating the total extractable metals in soil. The effect of aging on EDTA-extractable cadmium (Cd) was investigated in five different soils at three Cd concentrations incubated for
[...] Read more.
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is known to be a chelating agent and has been widely used for estimating the total extractable metals in soil. The effect of aging on EDTA-extractable cadmium (Cd) was investigated in five different soils at three Cd concentrations incubated for 180 days. The EDTA-extractable Cd rapidly decreased after incubated during 30–60 days, followed by slow processes, and for 90 days the EDTA-extractable Cd tended to be stable. The decrease in EDTA-extractable Cd may be due to precipitation/nucleation processes, diffusion of Cd into the micropores/mesopores, and occlusion within organic matter in soils. A semi-mechanistic model to predict the extractability of Cd during incubation, based on processes of Cd precipitation/nucleation, diffusion, and occlusion within organic matter, was developed and calibrated. The results showed that the processes of micropore/mesopore diffusion were predominant processes affecting the extractability of Cd added to soils, and were slow. However, the proportions of the processes of precipitation/nucleation and occlusion within organic matter to the non-EDTA-extractable Cd added to soils were only 0.03–21.0% and 0.41–6.95%, respectively. The measured EDTA-extractable Cd from incubated soils were in good agreement with those predicted by the semi-mechanistic model (R2 = 0.829). The results also indicated that soil pH, organic matter, and incubation time were the most important factors affecting Cd aging. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Land-Acquisition and Resettlement (LAR) Conflicts: A Perspective of Spatial Injustice of Urban Public Resources Allocation
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 884; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030884
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
Land acquisition and resettlement (LAR) is an important step in urban development. As one of the ‘externalities of development’, LAR conflicts have affected social stability and development in rural areas of China. With social conflict research shifting from value identity to resource allocation,
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Land acquisition and resettlement (LAR) is an important step in urban development. As one of the ‘externalities of development’, LAR conflicts have affected social stability and development in rural areas of China. With social conflict research shifting from value identity to resource allocation, few studies have examined the relationship between the spatial injustice of urban public resources and LAR conflict. To mitigate this research gap and formulate effective policies, this study aims to reinterpret the obstacles of LAR conflicts from the perspective of the spatial injustice of urban public facilities allocation in Hangzhou City by examining 195 administrative litigation cases. Spatial accessibility was used for estimating the spatial justice of urban public resources allocation. A classification and regression tree (CART) model was applied to identify the advantage and disadvantage factors behind LAR conflict, and explored the logical and structural relationships among these factors. Results showed that a spatial mismatch between the spatial behavior preferences of human activity and the spatial injustice of urban public resources allocation had significantly accelerated LAR conflicts. When the spatial behavior preferences of human activity and spatial distribution of urban public resources correspond to each other pre- and after LAR, basic rights to social space are safeguarded and various groups can equitably share spatial resources. There are no conflicts. Conversely, respondents expressed a high level of dissatisfaction in comparison to their pre-LAR conditions, and LAR conflict undeniably occurs. This approach also proposes some good LAR policies by regulating the spatial injustice of urban public resources allocation associated with LAR with the aim of long-term urban sustainable development for Hangzhou. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Alternative Use of Extracts of Chipilín Leaves (Crotalaria longirostrata Hook. & Arn) as Antimicrobial
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030883
Received: 24 December 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 18 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
The genus Crotalaria comprises about 600 species that are distributed throughout the tropics and subtropical regions of the world; they are antagonistic to nematodes in sustainable crop production systems, and have also shown antimicrobial capacity. Chipilín (C. longirostrata), which belongs to
[...] Read more.
The genus Crotalaria comprises about 600 species that are distributed throughout the tropics and subtropical regions of the world; they are antagonistic to nematodes in sustainable crop production systems, and have also shown antimicrobial capacity. Chipilín (C. longirostrata), which belongs to this genus, is a wild plant that grows in the state of Chiapas (Mexico) and is traditionally is used as food. Its leaves also have medicinal properties and are used as hypnotics and narcotics; however, the plant has received little research attention to date. In the experimental part of this study, dried leaves were macerated by ethanol. The extract obtained was fractionated with ethyl ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, 2-propanone, and water. The extracts were evaluated against three bacteria—namely, Escherichia coli (Ec), Citrobacter freundii (Cf), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Se)—and three fungi—Fusarium oxysporum A. comiteca (FoC), Fusarium oxysporum A. tequilana (FoT), and Fusarium solani A. comiteca (FSC). During this preliminary study, a statistical analysis of the data showed that there is a significant difference between the control ciprofloxacin (antibacterial), the antifungal activity experiments (water was used as a negative control), and the fractions used. The aqueous fraction (WF) was the most active against FoC, FsC, and FoT (30.65, 20.61, and 27.36% at 96 h, respectively) and the ethyl ether fraction (EEF) was the most active against Se (26.62% at 48 h). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Foodshed as an Example of Preliminary Research for Conducting Environmental Carrying Capacity Analysis
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030882
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (7124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the 1960s, we have had to face challenging problems in relation to uncontrolled urban development, the destruction of farmlands, and the need to protect natural resources. These challenges are still valid, particularly since dynamic increases in population, especially in cities, have created
[...] Read more.
Since the 1960s, we have had to face challenging problems in relation to uncontrolled urban development, the destruction of farmlands, and the need to protect natural resources. These challenges are still valid, particularly since dynamic increases in population, especially in cities, have created an increasing need for natural resources. Therefore, the spatial management of the city should take into account the actual use of resources by its inhabitants, as well as the availability of resources within a city and its surrounding suburban areas. Such surveys could be conducted in order to ensure that the basic needs and safety of the residents are met, i.e., in the context of food security. Thus, we recommend a tool that allows specifying the geographical area of food supply: the foodshed. We determined the foodshed based on the relationship between the places of food production and its consumption. Therefore, we delimitated the extent of foodshed area for the city of Wrocław, which reached ca. 56 km. Our work expanded the determination of foodshed boundaries by the delimitation of the city’s foodshed zones, and provided a more detailed analysis of the obtained product data. We obtained data about 98 places of food origin, 448 products, and 115 types of products. This analysis was conducted using Tableau Software (Seattle, WA, USA) and Dell Statistica Software (Round Rock, TX, USA), and the food zone was mapped using ArcGIS Software (Redlands, CA, USA). The main goal of the study was to present a framework for foodshed assessment that could be integrated into other analyses of a city’s sustainability in the context of environmental carrying capacity, and the development of the spatial management of a city in a more sustainable way. This preliminary analysis was carried out in order to emphasize the need for conducting an environmental carrying capacity analysis for the city. Full article
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