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Sustainability, Volume 9, Issue 1 (January 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Green infrastructure is a unique combination of economic, social, and environmental goals and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Positioning Nuclear Power in the Low-Carbon Electricity Transition
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010163
Received: 4 December 2016 / Revised: 15 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Addressing climate change requires de-carbonizing future energy supplies in an increasingly energy-dependent world. The IEA and the IPCC (2014) mention the following as low-carbon energy supply options: ‘renewable energy, nuclear power and fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage’. Positioning nuclear power in
[...] Read more.
Addressing climate change requires de-carbonizing future energy supplies in an increasingly energy-dependent world. The IEA and the IPCC (2014) mention the following as low-carbon energy supply options: ‘renewable energy, nuclear power and fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage’. Positioning nuclear power in the decarbonization transition is a problematic issue and is overridden by ill-conceived axioms. Before probing these axioms, we provide an overview of five major, postwar energy-related legacies and some insight into who is engaged in nuclear activities. We check whether low-carbon nuclear power passes the full sustainability test and whether it is compatible with the unfettered deployment of variable renewable power sourced from the sun and from wind and water currents, which delivers two negative answers. We show that the best approach of the sustainable energy transition was Germany’s 2011 decision to phase out nuclear power for a fast development and full deployment of renewable power. This is the best approach for the sustainable energy transition. We offer five practical suggestions to strengthen and accelerate carbon- and nuclear-free transitions. They are related to institutional issues like the role of cost-benefit analysis and the mission of the International Atomic Energy Agency, to the costs of nuclear risks and catastrophes, and to the historical record of nuclear technology and business. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Nuclear Power)
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Open AccessArticle Decomposition of the Urban Water Footprint of Food Consumption: A Case Study of Xiamen City
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010135
Received: 10 December 2016 / Revised: 8 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1526 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Decomposition of the urban water footprint can provide insight for water management. In this paper, a new decomposition method based on the log-mean Divisia index model (LMDI) was developed to analyze the driving forces of water footprint changes, attributable to food consumption. Compared
[...] Read more.
Decomposition of the urban water footprint can provide insight for water management. In this paper, a new decomposition method based on the log-mean Divisia index model (LMDI) was developed to analyze the driving forces of water footprint changes, attributable to food consumption. Compared to previous studies, this new approach can distinguish between various factors relating to urban and rural residents. The water footprint of food consumption in Xiamen City, from 2001 to 2012, was calculated. Following this, the driving forces of water footprint change were broken down into considerations of the population, the structure of food consumption, the level of food consumption, water intensity, and the population rate. Research shows that between 2001 and 2012, the water footprint of food consumption in Xiamen increased by 675.53 Mm3, with a growth rate of 88.69%. Population effects were the leading contributors to this change, accounting for 87.97% of the total growth. The food consumption structure also had a considerable effect on this increase. Here, the urban area represented 94.96% of the water footprint increase, driven by the effect of the food consumption structure. Water intensity and the urban/rural population rate had a weak positive cumulative effect. The effects of the urban/rural population rate on the water footprint change in urban and rural areas, however, were individually significant. The level of food consumption was the only negative factor. In terms of food categories, meat and grain had the greatest effects during the study period. Controlling the urban population, promoting a healthy and less water-intensive diet, reducing food waste, and improving agriculture efficiency, are all elements of an effective approach for mitigating the growth of the water footprint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Facilitation as a Governance Strategy: Unravelling Governments’ Facilitation Frames
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010160
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Governments increasingly choose facilitation as a strategy to entice others to produce public goods and services, including in relation to the realisation of sustainable energy innovations. An important instrument to implement this governance strategy is discursive framing. To learn how public authorities use
[...] Read more.
Governments increasingly choose facilitation as a strategy to entice others to produce public goods and services, including in relation to the realisation of sustainable energy innovations. An important instrument to implement this governance strategy is discursive framing. To learn how public authorities use discursive framing to implement a facilitation strategy, we conducted a comparative case study on two Dutch examples in which the government aims to facilitate non-governmental actors to exploit public waterworks for the production of renewable energy. Using content analysis, we identify ten ‘facilitation frame’ elements. We find two configurations of elements: restrained facilitation and invitational facilitation, which both have their advantages, ambivalences and drawbacks. It is often unclear what governments want to achieve and what they have to offer in terms of facilitation. The (discursively) offered support, ranging from ‘giving space’ to ‘creating beneficial conditions’, is often elusive. We conclude that, to avoid deadlock, false expectations and the inactiveness of external actors, the government’s communication should both enthuse and inform these actors about what they can expect. If, however, the potential, non-governmental initiators just lack the necessary capacity to act, there is only so much discursive framing can do. Then authorities should reconsider their ‘facilitative’ role. Full article
Open AccessArticle Exploring the Effects of Sampling Locations for Calibrating the Huff Model Using Mobile Phone Location Data
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010159
Received: 18 November 2016 / Revised: 14 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
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Abstract
The introduction of the Huff model is of critical significance in many fields, including urban transport, optimal location planning, economics and business analysis. Moreover, parameters calibration is a crucial procedure before using the model. Previous studies have paid much attention to calibrating the
[...] Read more.
The introduction of the Huff model is of critical significance in many fields, including urban transport, optimal location planning, economics and business analysis. Moreover, parameters calibration is a crucial procedure before using the model. Previous studies have paid much attention to calibrating the spatial interaction model for human mobility research. However, are whole sampling locations always the better solution for model calibration? We use active tracking data of over 16 million cell phones in Shenzhen, a metropolitan city in China, to evaluate the calibration accuracy of Huff model. Specifically, we choose five business areas in this city as destinations and then randomly select a fixed number of cell phone towers to calibrate the parameters in this spatial interaction model. We vary the selected number of cell phone towers by multipliers of 30 until we reach the total number of towers with flows to the five destinations. We apply the least square methods for model calibration. The distribution of the final sum of squared error between the observed flows and the estimated flows indicates that whole sampling locations are not always better for the outcomes of this spatial interaction model. Instead, fewer sampling locations with higher volume of trips could improve the calibration results. Finally, we discuss implications of this finding and suggest an approach to address the high-accuracy model calibration solution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Government Subsidy for Remanufacturing or Carbon Tax Rebate: Which Is Better for Firms and a Low-Carbon Economy
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010156
Received: 25 September 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2123 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The government as a policy maker wishing to promote remanufacturing and proper disposal of hazardous old products which are harmful to environment has taken many actions, ranging from carbon regulation and financial incentives such as trade-in subsidy. However, carbon tax can result in
[...] Read more.
The government as a policy maker wishing to promote remanufacturing and proper disposal of hazardous old products which are harmful to environment has taken many actions, ranging from carbon regulation and financial incentives such as trade-in subsidy. However, carbon tax can result in loss of profit for firms to some degree, so the government has to give other subsidy to balance the profits and carbon emission. Thus, this article investigates two subsidy mechanisms: remanufacturing subsidy or tax rebate. The optimal pricing and production decision under these policies are examined. Our results show that carbon tax has a great impact on pricing strategies. Trade-in subsidy can encourage customers to replace their existing products with new and remanufactured products. Both remanufacture subsidy and tax rebate are beneficial to manufacturer and can further promote remanufacturing development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sustainability Evaluation of Railways in China Using a Two-Stage Network DEA Model with Undesirable Outputs and Shared Resources
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010150
Received: 17 November 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2876 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper constructs an additive two-stage network DEA (data envelopment analysis) model with consideration of undesirable outputs and shared inputs. Following the triple bottom line standard of sustainability, we calculate both the overall and sub-stage sustainability performance of railway transportation in China from
[...] Read more.
This paper constructs an additive two-stage network DEA (data envelopment analysis) model with consideration of undesirable outputs and shared inputs. Following the triple bottom line standard of sustainability, we calculate both the overall and sub-stage sustainability performance of railway transportation in China from 2002 to 2013, from the aspects of economy, environment and society. The results show that the overall sustainability of China’s railway presents a character of first declining, then rising and declining again. Moreover, the railway sustainability of China’s eastern areas are much better than that of the western and central areas, and the gap has become much larger since 2009. As for the sub-stage efficiency, neither the production stage nor the service stage of the railway is efficient in sustainability, and the efficiency of the production stage is lower than that of service stage and plays a greater impact on the overall sustainability. Therefore, in order to improve the overall sustainability of China’s railways, it is essential to improve the level of railway engineering construction and develop technological innovations in railway production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Prediction of Climate Change Induced Temperature & Precipitation: The Case of Iran
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010146
Received: 17 November 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3708 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Concern about the effects of climatic change on numerous aspects of human life in general and on agricultural production in particular is growing. The utility of HadCM3 as a tool in climate change predictions in cross cultural studies is scarce. Therefore, this study
[...] Read more.
Concern about the effects of climatic change on numerous aspects of human life in general and on agricultural production in particular is growing. The utility of HadCM3 as a tool in climate change predictions in cross cultural studies is scarce. Therefore, this study sought to investigate and predict climate change induced temperature and precipitation in Iran. The calibration and validation using the HadCM3 was performed during 1961–2001, using daily temperatures and precipitation. The data on temperature and precipitation from 1961 to 1990 were used for calibration, and, for model validation, data from 1991 to 2001 were used. Moreover, in order to downscale general circulation models to station scales, SDSM version 4.2 was utilized. The least difference between observed data and simulation data during calibration and validation showed that the parameter was precisely modeled for most of the year. Simulation under the A2 scenario was performed for three time periods (2020, 2050, and 2080). According to our simulated model, precipitation showed a decreasing trend whereas temperature showed an increasing trend. The result of this research paper makes a significant contribution to climate smart agriculture in Iran. For example, rural development practitioners can devise effective policies and programs in order to reduce the vulnerability of local communities to climate change impacts. Moreover, the result of this study can be used as an optimal model for land allocation in agriculture. Moreover, a shortage of rainfall and decreased temperatures also have implications for agricultural land allocation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land and Food Policy)
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Open AccessArticle Costs, Benefits and Challenges of Sustainable Livestock Intensification in a Major Deforestation Frontier in the Brazilian Amazon
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010158
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
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Abstract
Extensive livestock production is a major deforestation driver in the Brazilian Amazon. This study presents an assessment of the economic and environmental feasibility of sustainable livestock intensification in São Félix do Xingu municipality, a deforestation frontier with an area of more than 8.5
[...] Read more.
Extensive livestock production is a major deforestation driver in the Brazilian Amazon. This study presents an assessment of the economic and environmental feasibility of sustainable livestock intensification in São Félix do Xingu municipality, a deforestation frontier with an area of more than 8.5 million hectares, and home to the largest cattle herd in Brazil. Proposed intensification was limited to approximately three animal units per hectare to avoid negative environmental impacts. Transition costs to sustainable cattle intensification were estimated for thirteen pilot farms taking into account adoption of good agriculture practices, pasture maintenance/restoration, and restoration of environmental liabilities. To move to sustainable intensification practices, a mean total annual investment of US$1335/ha ± US$619/ha would be necessary, varying from US$750 to US$2595/ha. Internal rate of return and net present value estimates indicated that the sustainable livestock intensification approach proposed was profitable in farms with more than 400 hectares of pastureland, but not in those where the pasture areas were smaller than 150 hectares. Livestock sustainable intensification also had the potential to promote social and environmental benefits, including a 54% increase in the number of contract workers, improvement of landowners’ managerial skills, and workers’ training, in addition to avoiding emission of 1.9 Mt CO2eq and sequestration of 0.36 Mt CO2eq. We conclude that the sustainable intensification of pasture areas has the potential to prevent further deforestation in the Amazon while generating social and other environmental benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Climate Change on Service Life of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete Subjected to Carbonation—A Korean Case Study
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010157
Received: 18 December 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2136 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increase in CO2 concentrations and global warming will increase the carbonation depth of concrete. Furthermore, temperature rise will increase the rate of corrosion of steel rebar after carbonation. On the other hand, compared with normal concrete, high volume fly ash (HVFA)
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The increase in CO2 concentrations and global warming will increase the carbonation depth of concrete. Furthermore, temperature rise will increase the rate of corrosion of steel rebar after carbonation. On the other hand, compared with normal concrete, high volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete is more vulnerable to carbonation-induced corrosion. Carbonation durability design with climate change is crucial to the rational use of HVFA concrete. This study presents a probabilistic approach that predicts the service life of HVFA concrete structures subjected to carbonation-induced corrosion resulting from increasing CO2 concentrations and temperatures. First, in the corrosion initiation stage, a hydration-carbonation integration model is used to evaluate the contents of the carbonatable material, porosity, and carbonation depth of HVFA concrete. The Monte Carlo method is adopted to determine the probability of corrosion initiation. Second, in the corrosion propagation stage, an updated model is proposed to evaluate the rate of corrosion, degree of corrosion for cover cracking of concrete, and probability of corrosion cracking. Third, the whole service life is determined considering both corrosion initiation stage and corrosion propagation stage. The analysis results show that climate change creates a significant impact on the service life of durable concrete. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Land Suitability Assessment for Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) Development in Chile
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010154
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
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Abstract
Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) is an oilseed with potential for use as a raw material in second-generation biofuels. Camelina has a seed yield of up to 2380 kg·ha−1 and contains around 45% fatty acids. Selection of a suitable site is critical
[...] Read more.
Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) is an oilseed with potential for use as a raw material in second-generation biofuels. Camelina has a seed yield of up to 2380 kg·ha−1 and contains around 45% fatty acids. Selection of a suitable site is critical for production optimization. The objective of this study was to determine Chilean agro-climatic suitability for establishing camelina as a productive alternative. Climate and soil requirements and geographical restraints were evaluated for the species, considering the climatological characteristics of its regions of origin, as well as regions where camelina is successfully grown in the rest of the world. The variables considered included factors (maximum temperatures of the warmest month, water deficits, and degree days) and limitations (altitude, geomorphology, and current land use), which permitted the evaluation of the national territory for a certain level of suitability. It was determined that 1.3% of the national territory (960,664 ha) has some degree of suitability for camelina adoption. Between the Biobío and Los Lagos regions, 49.0% of the land (471,203 ha) is in the category of no thermic restrictions, with mild water restrictions, and mild soil restrictions or without information, which can be used for camelina production. The Los Ríos region has 21.4% surface area (321,176 ha) with some level of suitability for camelina, the most suitable region to establish this crop in Chile. This research has provided valuable information applicable to new species and geographic areas which facilitate the adaptation of agricultural and forestry production to global changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Energy Conversion)
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Open AccessArticle The Allocation of Carbon Intensity Reduction Target by 2020 among Industrial Sectors in China
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010148
Received: 12 October 2016 / Revised: 28 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2369 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to realize the national carbon intensity reduction target, China has decided to establish a unified national carbon emissions trading market in 2017. At the initial stage, eight industrial sectors will be covered in the carbon market and the other industrial sectors
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In order to realize the national carbon intensity reduction target, China has decided to establish a unified national carbon emissions trading market in 2017. At the initial stage, eight industrial sectors will be covered in the carbon market and the other industrial sectors will be included gradually. The aim of this paper is to study the issue of how to allocate the carbon emissions quotas among different industrial sectors fairly and effectively. We try to provide theoretical support for how to determine the coverage scope and access order of the carbon market. In this paper, we construct a comprehensive reduction index based on indicators of equity and efficiency principle. We adopt entropy method to get the objective weights of the three indicators. Then, an allocation model is developed to determine each sector’s reduction target for the year of 2020. The result shows that our allocation scheme based on entropy method is more reasonable, and our allocation method will promote the equity of carbon quotas allocation and the efficiency of carbon emissions. With consideration of China’s current economic situation and industrial background, we discuss some policy implications regarding the construction of carbon market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal by Woody Plants with Deep-Planting Technique for the Potential Environmental Management of Carcass Burial Sites
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010155
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3086 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phytoremediation is a promising technology to remediate carcass burial sites where deep soil layers are contaminated with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and other potential contaminants by leachate. The current study was conducted to examine the remedial efficiency of two different woody plants, poplar
[...] Read more.
Phytoremediation is a promising technology to remediate carcass burial sites where deep soil layers are contaminated with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and other potential contaminants by leachate. The current study was conducted to examine the remedial efficiency of two different woody plants, poplar (Populus euramericana) and willow (Salix alba), by employing the deep-planting technique for the enhanced removal of N and P for the soil affected by leachate. For this, pot trials to assess N and P removal efficiency of poplar and willow in liquid manure-applied soil, and pilot-scale column experiments to evaluate the suitability of the deep-planting technique for the enhanced phytoremediation of deep soil layer were conducted. The results of this study showed that poplar and willow removed N and P from soils effectively while surviving under deep-planting conditions. Notably, compared to the surface planted roots, the roots of the deep-planted poplar and willow could transfer significant amounts of N and P leachate from the deep soil layer to the rhizosphere, from where it can be absorbed by the plants. For the first time, the use of poplar or willow plants are recommended by employing the deep-planting technique for the successful remediation of carcass burial sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Management of Post-Epidemic Mass Carcasses Burial Sites)
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Open AccessArticle An Emergy-Based Hybrid Method for Assessing Sustainability of the Resource-Dependent Region
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010153
Received: 6 November 2016 / Revised: 9 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1926 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the natural resources are getting exhausted, the concept of sustainable development of regions has received increasing attention, especially for resource-dependent cities. In this paper, an innovative method based on emergy analysis and the Human Impact Population Affluence Technology (IPAT) model is developed
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As the natural resources are getting exhausted, the concept of sustainable development of regions has received increasing attention, especially for resource-dependent cities. In this paper, an innovative method based on emergy analysis and the Human Impact Population Affluence Technology (IPAT) model is developed to analyze the quantitative relationship of economic growth, energy consumption and its overall sustainability level. Taiyuan, a traditional, resource-dependent city in China, is selected as the case study region. The main results show that the total emergy of Taiyuan increased from 9.023 × 1023 sej in 2007 to 9.116 × 1023 sej in 2014, with a 38% decline in non-renewable emergy and an increase of imported emergy up to 125%. The regional emergy money ratio (EMB) was reduced by 48% from 5.31 × 1013 sej/$ in 2007 to 2.74 × 1013 sej/$ in 2014, indicating that the increasing speed of consuming resources and energy was faster than the increase of GDP, and that Taiyuan’s money purchasing power declined. The lower emergy sustainability index (ESI) indicates that Taiyuan was explored and produced large quantities of mineral resources, which puts more stress on the environment as a consequence, and that this is not sustainable in the long run. The IPAT analysis demonstrates that Taiyuan sticks to the efforts of energy conservation and environmental protection. In order to promote regional sustainable development, it is necessary to have an integrated effort. Policy insights suggest that resourceful regions should improve energy and resource efficiency, optimize energy and resourceful structure and carry out extensive public participation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Siting of Carsharing Stations Based on Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation: A Case Study of Shanghai EVCARD
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010152
Received: 25 November 2016 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3895 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carsharing is one of the effective ways to relieve the problems of traffic jams, parking difficulties, and air pollution. In recent years, the numbers of carsharing services and their members have remarkably increased around the world. The project of electric carsharing in Shanghai,
[...] Read more.
Carsharing is one of the effective ways to relieve the problems of traffic jams, parking difficulties, and air pollution. In recent years, the numbers of carsharing services and their members have remarkably increased around the world. The project of electric carsharing in Shanghai, called EVCARD, has also developed rapidly with very large demand and supply. Aiming to determine the optimal locations of future stations of the EVCARD, this research employs a novel method combining the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and geographical information system (GIS) with big data. Potential users, potential travel demand, potential travel purposes, and distance from existing stations are selected as the decision criteria. A siting decision system is established, consisting of 15 evaluation indicators which are calculated from multi-source data on mobile phones, taxi trajectory, point of interests (POI), and the EVCARD operation. The method of the AHP is used to determine the indicator weights, and the “Spatial Analyst” tool of ArcGIS is adopted to generate the indicator values for every 1 km × 1 km decision unit. Finally, synthetic scores are calculated to evaluate the candidate sites of EVCARD stations. The results of the case study verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, which can provide a more scientific and feasible method for carsharing operators to site stations, avoiding aimless and random decisions. Full article
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Open AccessReview Characterisation of Nature-Based Solutions for the Built Environment
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9010149
Received: 1 October 2016 / Revised: 7 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1778 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nature has provided humankind with food, fuel, and shelter throughout evolutionary history. However, in contemporary cities, many natural landscapes have become degraded and replaced with impermeable hard surfaces (e.g., roads, paving, car parks and buildings). The reversal of this trend is dynamic, complex
[...] Read more.
Nature has provided humankind with food, fuel, and shelter throughout evolutionary history. However, in contemporary cities, many natural landscapes have become degraded and replaced with impermeable hard surfaces (e.g., roads, paving, car parks and buildings). The reversal of this trend is dynamic, complex and still in its infancy. There are many facets of urban greening initiatives involving multiple benefits, sensitivities and limitations. The aim of this paper is to develop a characterisation method of nature based solutions for designing and retrofitting in the built environment, and to facilitate knowledge transfer between disciplines and for design optimisation. Based on a review of the literature across disciplines, key characteristics could be organised into four groups: policy and community initiatives, multiple benefits assessment, topology, and design options. Challenges and opportunities for developing a characterisation framework to improve the use of nature based solutions in the built environment are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Solutions for Urban Challenges)
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