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Nutrients, Volume 1, Issue 2 (December 2009), Pages 111-328

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Development of Rabbit Meat Products Fortified With n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 111-118; doi:10.3390/nu1020111
Received: 25 September 2009 / Accepted: 16 October 2009 / Published: 20 October 2009
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a “functional food” by
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Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a “functional food” by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for n-3 PUFA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
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Open AccessArticle Activation of Hepatic Lipase Expression by Oleic Acid: Possible Involvement of USF1
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 133-147; doi:10.3390/nu1020133
Received: 7 October 2009 / Accepted: 28 October 2009 / Published: 29 October 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyunsaturated fatty acids affect gene expression mainly through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), but how monounsaturated fatty acids affect gene expression is poorly understood. In HepG2 cells, oleate supplementation has been shown to increase secretion of hepatic
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Polyunsaturated fatty acids affect gene expression mainly through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), but how monounsaturated fatty acids affect gene expression is poorly understood. In HepG2 cells, oleate supplementation has been shown to increase secretion of hepatic lipase (HL). We hypothesized that oleate affects HL gene expression at the transcriptional level. To test this, we studied the effect of oleate on HL promoter activity using HepG2 cells and the proximal HL promoter region (700 bp). Oleate increased HL expression and promoter activity 1.3–2.1 fold and reduced SREBP activity by 50%. Downregulation of SREBP activity by incubation with cholesterol+25-hydroxycholesterol had no effect on HL promoter activity. Overexpression of SREBP2, but not SREBP1, reduced HL promoter activity, which was effected mainly through the USF1 binding site at -307/-312. Oleate increased the nuclear abundance of USF1 protein 2.7 ± 0.6 fold, while USF1 levels were reduced by SREBP2 overexpression. We conclude that oleate increases HL gene expression via USF1. USF1 may be an additional fatty acid sensor in liver cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
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Open AccessCommunication NMR-Based Multi Parametric Quality Control of Fruit Juices: SGF Profiling
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 148-155; doi:10.3390/nu1020148
Received: 9 October 2009 / Accepted: 11 November 2009 / Published: 18 November 2009
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (896 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With SGF Profiling™ we introduce an NMR-based screening method for the quality control of fruit juices. This method has been developed in a joint effort by Bruker BioSpin GmbH and SGF International e.V. The system is fully automated with respect to sample transfer,
[...] Read more.
With SGF Profiling™ we introduce an NMR-based screening method for the quality control of fruit juices. This method has been developed in a joint effort by Bruker BioSpin GmbH and SGF International e.V. The system is fully automated with respect to sample transfer, measurement, data analysis and reporting and is set up on an Avance 400 MHz flow-injection NMR spectrometer. For each fruit juice a multitude of parameters related to quality and authenticity are evaluated simultaneously from a single data set acquired within a few minutes. This multimarker/multi-aspect NMR screening approach features low cost-per-sample and is highly competitive with conventional and targeted fruit juice quality control methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
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Open AccessArticle Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Nutraceuticals Produced from the Red Microalga Porphyridium sp. in Rats
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 156-167; doi:10.3390/nu1020156
Received: 8 September 2009 / Accepted: 18 November 2009 / Published: 23 November 2009
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Red microalgae contain functional sulfated polysaccharides (containing dietary fibers), polyunsaturated fatty acids, zeaxanthin, vitamins, minerals, and proteins. Studies in rat models support the therapeutic properties of algal biomass and isolated polysaccharides. Algal products incorporated into rat diets were found to significantly improve total
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Red microalgae contain functional sulfated polysaccharides (containing dietary fibers), polyunsaturated fatty acids, zeaxanthin, vitamins, minerals, and proteins. Studies in rat models support the therapeutic properties of algal biomass and isolated polysaccharides. Algal products incorporated into rat diets were found to significantly improve total serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, hepatic cholesterol levels, HDL/LDL ratios and increased fecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids. Morphological and metabolic changes were induced by consumption of algal products. These results suggest that red microalgae can be used as potent hypocholesterolemic agents, and they support the potential use of red microalgae as novel nutraceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Plus n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Increases Food Intake and Brown Adipose Tissue in Rats
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 178-196; doi:10.3390/nu1020178
Received: 15 October 2009 / Accepted: 24 November 2009 / Published: 26 November 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (830 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3) was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose
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The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3) was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression measurements revealed increased expression of orexigenic and decreased expression of anorexigenic signals. Thus, CLA/n-3 increases food intake without affecting body weight potentially through increasing BAT size and up-regulating UCP-1 in rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity, Nutrition and Dietetics)
Open AccessArticle Development and Optimization of a Fluorescent Differential Display PCR System for Analyzing the Stress Response in Lactobacillus sakei Strains
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 210-223; doi:10.3390/nu1020210
Received: 17 September 2009 / Accepted: 25 November 2009 / Published: 30 November 2009
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lactobacillus sakei is widely used as starter in the production process of Italian fermented sausages and its growth and survival are affected by various factors. We studied the differential expression of genome in response to different stresses by the fluorescent differential display (FDD)
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Lactobacillus sakei is widely used as starter in the production process of Italian fermented sausages and its growth and survival are affected by various factors. We studied the differential expression of genome in response to different stresses by the fluorescent differential display (FDD) technique. This study resulted in the development and optimization of an innovative technique, with a high level of reproducibility and quality, which allows the identification of gene expression changes associated with different microbial behaviours under different growth conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
Open AccessArticle Bovine Colostrum Supplementation During Running Training Increases Intestinal Permeability
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 224-234; doi:10.3390/nu1020224
Received: 16 November 2009 / Accepted: 30 November 2009 / Published: 2 December 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (105 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Endurance exercise training can increase intestinal permeability which may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in some athletes. Bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation reduces intestinal permeability induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study aimed to determine whether BC could also reduce intestinal permeability
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Endurance exercise training can increase intestinal permeability which may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in some athletes. Bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation reduces intestinal permeability induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study aimed to determine whether BC could also reduce intestinal permeability induced by endurance exercise. Thirty healthy adult males (25.0 ± 4.7 yr; mean ± SD) completed eight weeks of running three times per week for 45 minutes at their lactate threshold while consuming 60 g/day of BC, whey protein (WP) or control (CON). Intestinal permeability was assessed at baseline and after eight weeks by measuring the ratio of urinary lactulose (L) and rhamnose (R) excretion. After eight weeks the L/R ratio increased significantly more in volunteers consuming BC (251 ± 140%) compared with WP (21 ± 35%, P < 0.05) and CON (−7 ± 13%, P < 0.02). The increase in intestinal permeability with BC may have been due to BC inducing greater leakiness of tight junctions between enterocytes or by increasing macromolecular transport as it does in neonatal gut. Further research should investigate the potential for BC to increase intestinal macromolecular transport in adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle A Tool for Sheep Product Quality: Custom Microarrays from Public Databases
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 235-250; doi:10.3390/nu1020235
Received: 20 October 2009 / Accepted: 1 December 2009 / Published: 4 December 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Milk and dairy products are an essential food and an economic resource in many countries. Milk component synthesis and secretion by the mammary gland involve expression of a large number of genes whose nutritional regulation remains poorly defined. The purpose of this study
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Milk and dairy products are an essential food and an economic resource in many countries. Milk component synthesis and secretion by the mammary gland involve expression of a large number of genes whose nutritional regulation remains poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the genomic influence on milk quality and synthesis by comparing two sheep breeds with different milking attitude (Sarda and Gentile di Puglia) using sheep-specific microarray technology. From sheep ESTs deposited at NCBI, we have generated the first annotated microarray developed for sheep with a coverage of most of the genome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
Open AccessArticle Traceability of Plant Diet Contents in Raw Cow Milk Samples
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 251-262; doi:10.3390/nu1020251
Received: 9 October 2009 / Accepted: 1 December 2009 / Published: 4 December 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of molecular marker in the dairy sector is gaining large acceptance as a reliable diagnostic approach for food authenticity and traceability. Using a PCR approach, the rbcL marker, a chloroplast-based gene, was selected to amplify plant DNA fragments in raw cow
[...] Read more.
The use of molecular marker in the dairy sector is gaining large acceptance as a reliable diagnostic approach for food authenticity and traceability. Using a PCR approach, the rbcL marker, a chloroplast-based gene, was selected to amplify plant DNA fragments in raw cow milk samples collected from stock farms or bought on the Italian market. rbcL-specific DNA fragments could be found in total milk, as well as in the skimmed and the cream fractions. When the PCR amplified fragments were sent to sequence, the nucleotide composition of the chromatogram reflected the multiple contents of the polyphytic diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
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Open AccessArticle Whey Protein Ingestion Activates mTOR-dependent Signalling after Resistance Exercise in Young Men: A Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 263-275; doi:10.3390/nu1020263
Received: 10 November 2009 / Accepted: 4 December 2009 / Published: 14 December 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The effect of resistance exercise with the ingestion of supplementary protein on the activation of the mTOR cascade, in human skeletal muscle has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the impact of a single bout of resistance exercise, immediately followed by a
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The effect of resistance exercise with the ingestion of supplementary protein on the activation of the mTOR cascade, in human skeletal muscle has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the impact of a single bout of resistance exercise, immediately followed by a single dose of whey protein isolate (WPI) or placebo supplement, on the activation of mTOR signalling was analyzed. Young untrained men completed a maximal single-legged knee extension exercise bout and were randomized to ingest either WPI supplement (n = 7) or the placebo (n = 7). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before, and 2, 4 and 24 hr post-exercise. WPI or placebo ingestion consumed immediately post-exercise had no impact on the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473). However, WPI significantly enhanced phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser2448), 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46) and p70S6K (Thr389) at 2 hr post-exercise. This study demonstrates that a single dose of WPI, when consumed in modest quantities, taken immediately after resistance exercise elicits an acute and transient activation of translation initiation within the exercised skeletal muscle. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Immunogenicity Characterization of Two Ancient Wheat α-Gliadin Peptides Related to Coeliac Disease
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 276-290; doi:10.3390/nu1020276
Received: 9 October 2009 / Accepted: 15 December 2009 / Published: 17 December 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The immunogenic potential of α-gliadin protein from two ancient wheats was studied with reference to coeliac disease. To this aim we investigated Graziella Ra® and Kamut® (the latter is considered an ancient relative of modern durum wheat) in comparison to four durum wheat
[...] Read more.
The immunogenic potential of α-gliadin protein from two ancient wheats was studied with reference to coeliac disease. To this aim we investigated Graziella Ra® and Kamut® (the latter is considered an ancient relative of modern durum wheat) in comparison to four durum wheat accessions (Senatore Cappelli, Flaminio, Grazia and Svevo). ELISA and Western Blot analyses - carried out by two monoclonal antibodies raised against the α-gliadin peptides p31-49 (LGQQQPFPQQPYPQPQPF) and p56-75 (LQLQPFPQPQLPYPQPQLPY) containing a core region (underlined) reported to be toxic for coeliac patients - always showed an antibody-antigen positive reaction. For all accessions, an α-gliadin gene has also been cloned and sequenced. Deduced amino acid sequences constantly showed the toxic motifs. In conclusion, we strongly recommend that coeliac patients should avoid consuming Graziella Ra® or Kamut®. In fact their α-gliadin not only is as toxic as one of the other wheat accessions, but also occurs in greater amount, which is in line with the higher level of proteins in ancient wheats when compared to modern varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
Open AccessArticle Comparison among Different Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Farming Systems: Activity of Intestinal and Hepatic Enzymes and 13C-NMR Analysis of Lipids
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 291-301; doi:10.3390/nu1020291
Received: 9 October 2009 / Accepted: 15 December 2009 / Published: 18 December 2009
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (389 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to evaluate differences in general health and nutritional values of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), the effects of semi-intensive, land-based tanks and sea-cages intensive rearing systems were investigated, and results compared with captured wild fish. The physiological state was
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In order to evaluate differences in general health and nutritional values of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), the effects of semi-intensive, land-based tanks and sea-cages intensive rearing systems were investigated, and results compared with captured wild fish. The physiological state was determined by measuring the activity of three different intestinal digestive enzymes: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and maltase; and the activity of the hepatic ALP. Also, the hepatic content in protein, cholesterol, and lipid were assessed. 13C-NMR analysis for qualitative and quantitative characterization of the lipid fraction extracted from fish muscles for semiintensive and land based tanks intensive systems was performed. The lipid fraction composition showed small but significant differences in the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio, with the semi-intensive characterized by higher monounsaturated and lower saturated fatty acid content with respect to land based tanks intensive rearing system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM) Proteins of Chianina and Holstein Cattle Breed Milk Samples Through Proteomics Methods
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 302-315; doi:10.3390/nu1020302
Received: 30 November 2009 / Accepted: 15 December 2009 / Published: 22 December 2009
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (500 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Identification of proteins involved in milk production is important to understand the biology of lactation. Many studies have advanced the understanding of mammary function and milk secretion, but the critical molecular mechanisms implicated in milk fat secretion is still incomplete. Milk Fat Globules
[...] Read more.
Identification of proteins involved in milk production is important to understand the biology of lactation. Many studies have advanced the understanding of mammary function and milk secretion, but the critical molecular mechanisms implicated in milk fat secretion is still incomplete. Milk Fat Globules are secreted from the apical surface of the mammary cells, surrounded by a thin membrane bilayer, the Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM), formed by proteins which have been suggested to be cholesterolemia-lowering factors, inhibitors of cancer cell growth, vitamin binders, bactericidal, suppressors of multiple sclerosis. Using a proteomic approach, we compared MFGM from milk samples of individuals belonging to two different cattle breeds, Chianina and Holstein, representative of selection for milk and meat traits, respectively. We were able to isolate some of the major MFGM proteins in the examined samples and to identify differences between the protein fractions of the two breeds. We detected differences in the amount of proteins linked to mammary gland development and lipid droplets formation, as well as host defence mechanisms. We have shown that proteomics is a suitable, unbiased method for the study of milk fractions proteins and a powerful tool in nutritional genomics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
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Open AccessArticle Soft Fruit Traceability in Food Matrices using Real-Time PCR
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 316-328; doi:10.3390/nu1020316
Received: 9 October 2009 / Accepted: 15 December 2009 / Published: 23 December 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Food product authentication provides a means of monitoring and identifying products for consumer protection and regulatory compliance. There is a scarcity of analytical methods for confirming the identity of fruit pulp in products containing Soft Fruit. In the present work we have developed
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Food product authentication provides a means of monitoring and identifying products for consumer protection and regulatory compliance. There is a scarcity of analytical methods for confirming the identity of fruit pulp in products containing Soft Fruit. In the present work we have developed a very sensible qualitative and quantitative method to determine the presence of berry DNAs in different food matrices. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows the applicability, to Soft Fruit traceability, of melting curve analysis and multiplexed fluorescent probes, in a Real-Time PCR platform. This methodology aims to protect the consumer from label misrepresentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Functional Genomics of Allergen Gene Families in Fruits
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 119-132; doi:10.3390/nu1020119
Received: 7 October 2009 / Accepted: 21 October 2009 / Published: 28 October 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (516 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fruit consumption is encouraged for health reasons; however, fruits may harbour a series of allergenic proteins that may cause discomfort or even represent serious threats to certain individuals. Thus, the identification and characterization of allergens in fruits requires novel approaches involving genomic and
[...] Read more.
Fruit consumption is encouraged for health reasons; however, fruits may harbour a series of allergenic proteins that may cause discomfort or even represent serious threats to certain individuals. Thus, the identification and characterization of allergens in fruits requires novel approaches involving genomic and proteomic tools. Since avoidance of fruits also negatively affects the quality of patients’ lives, biotechnological interventions are ongoing to produce low allergenic fruits by down regulating specific genes. In this respect, the control of proteins associated with allergenicity could be achieved by fine tuning the spatial and temporal expression of the relevant genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
Open AccessReview Seedless Fruit Production by Hormonal Regulation of Fruit Set
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 168-177; doi:10.3390/nu1020168
Received: 9 October 2009 / Accepted: 18 November 2009 / Published: 23 November 2009
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Seed and fruit development are intimately related processes controlled by internal signals and environmental cues. The absence of seeds is usually appreciated by consumers and producers because it increases fruit quality and fruit shelf-life. One method to produce seedless fruit is to develop
[...] Read more.
Seed and fruit development are intimately related processes controlled by internal signals and environmental cues. The absence of seeds is usually appreciated by consumers and producers because it increases fruit quality and fruit shelf-life. One method to produce seedless fruit is to develop plants able to produce fruits independently from pollination and fertilization of the ovules. The onset of fruit growth is under the control of phytohormones. Recent genomic studies have greatly contributed to elucidate the role of phytohormones in regulating fruit initiation, providing at the same time genetic methods for introducing seedlessness in horticultural plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
Open AccessReview Pediatric Obesity: Looking into Treatment
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 197-209; doi:10.3390/nu1020197
Received: 30 October 2009 / Accepted: 23 November 2009 / Published: 30 November 2009
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prevalence of pediatric obesity continues to rise worldwide. Increasing the number of health care practitioners as well as pediatricians with expertise in obesity treatment is necessary. Because many obese patients suffer obesity-associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other health complications that could increase the severity
[...] Read more.
Prevalence of pediatric obesity continues to rise worldwide. Increasing the number of health care practitioners as well as pediatricians with expertise in obesity treatment is necessary. Because many obese patients suffer obesity-associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other health complications that could increase the severity of obesity, it is fundamental not only to identify the child prone to obesity as early as possible, but to recognize, treat and monitor obesity-related diseases during adolescence. This short review outlines the treatment of pediatric obesity that may have applications in the primary care setting. It examines current information on eating behavior, sedentary behavior, and details studies of multidisciplinary, behavior-based, obesity treatment programs. We also report the less common and more aggressive forms of treatment, such as medication and bariatric surgery. We emphasize that health care providers have the potential to improve outcomes by performing early identification, helping families create the best possible home environment, and by providing structured guidance to obese children and their families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity, Nutrition and Dietetics)

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