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Nutrients, Volume 2, Issue 1 (January 2010), Pages 1-98

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Research

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Open AccessArticle NMR-Metabolic Methodology in the Study of GM Foods
Nutrients 2010, 2(1), 1-15; doi:10.3390/nu2010001
Received: 8 December 2009 / Accepted: 8 January 2010 / Published: 13 January 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The 1H-NMR methodology used in the study of genetically modified (GM) foods is discussed. Transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv \"Luxor\") over-expressing the Arabidopsis KNAT1 gene is presented as a case study. Twenty-two water-soluble metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, sugars) present [...] Read more.
The 1H-NMR methodology used in the study of genetically modified (GM) foods is discussed. Transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv \"Luxor\") over-expressing the Arabidopsis KNAT1 gene is presented as a case study. Twenty-two water-soluble metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, sugars) present in leaves of conventional and GM lettuce were monitored by NMR and quantified at two developmental stages. The NMR spectra did not reveal any difference in metabolite composition between the GM lettuce and the wild type counterpart. Statistical analyses of metabolite variables highlighted metabolism variation as a function of leaf development as well as the transgene. A main effect of the transgene was in altering sugar metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
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Open AccessArticle Regiospecific Profiles of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Adzuki Beans (Vigna angularis)
Nutrients 2010, 2(1), 49-59; doi:10.3390/nu2010049
Received: 30 November 2009 / Accepted: 14 January 2010 / Published: 19 January 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Regiospecific distributions of fatty acids (FA) of triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) isolated from five cultivars of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis) were investigated. The lipids comprised mainly PL (72.2–73.4 wt-%) and TAG (20.6–21.9 wt-%), whilst other components were detected in [...] Read more.
Regiospecific distributions of fatty acids (FA) of triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) isolated from five cultivars of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis) were investigated. The lipids comprised mainly PL (72.2–73.4 wt-%) and TAG (20.6–21.9 wt-%), whilst other components were detected in minor proportions (0.1–3.4 wt-%). The principal profiles of the FA distribution in the TAG and PL were evident in the beans among the five cultivars: unsaturated FA were predominantly distributed in the sn-2 position, whilst saturated FA primarily occupied the sn-1 or the sn-3 position in the these lipids. The results would be useful information to both producers and consumers for manufacturing traditional adzuki confectionaries such as wagashi in Japan. Full article
Open AccessArticle Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Thai Adults: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey
Nutrients 2010, 2(1), 60-74; doi:10.3390/nu2010060
Received: 30 December 2009 / Accepted: 19 January 2010 / Published: 21 January 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We evaluated the associations between overweight and obesity and socio-economic status (SES), behavioral factors, and dietary intake in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 6,445 Thais adults (18–70 years) was surveyed during 2004–2005. Information including demographics, SES characteristics, dietary intake, and [...] Read more.
We evaluated the associations between overweight and obesity and socio-economic status (SES), behavioral factors, and dietary intake in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 6,445 Thais adults (18–70 years) was surveyed during 2004–2005. Information including demographics, SES characteristics, dietary intake, and anthropometrics were obtained. Overall, 35.0% of men, and 44.9% of women were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) using the Asian cut-points. Regression models demonstrated that age was positively associated with being overweight in both genders. In gender-stratified analyses, male respondents who were older, lived in urban areas, had higher annual household income, and did not smoke were more likely to be classified as overweight and obese. Women who were older, had higher education, were not in a marriage-like relationship and were in semi-professional occupation were at greater risk for being overweight and obese. High carbohydrate and protein intake were found to be positively associated with BMI whereas the frequent use of dairy foods was found to be negatively associated with BMI among men. The present study found that SES factors are associated with being classified as overweight and obese in Thai adults, but associations were different between genders. Health promotion strategies regarding obesity and its related co-morbidity are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity, Nutrition and Dietetics)

Review

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Open AccessReview The Gluten-Free Diet: Safety and Nutritional Quality
Nutrients 2010, 2(1), 16-34; doi:10.3390/nu2010016
Received: 2 December 2009 / Accepted: 8 January 2010 / Published: 14 January 2010
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The prevalence of Celiac Disease (CD), an autoimmune enteropathy, characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, atrophy of intestinal villi and several clinical manifestations has increased in recent years. Subjects affected by CD cannot tolerate gluten protein, a mixture of storage [...] Read more.
The prevalence of Celiac Disease (CD), an autoimmune enteropathy, characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, atrophy of intestinal villi and several clinical manifestations has increased in recent years. Subjects affected by CD cannot tolerate gluten protein, a mixture of storage proteins contained in several cereals (wheat, rye, barley and derivatives). Gluten free-diet remains the cornerstone treatment for celiac patients. Therefore the absence of gluten in natural and processed foods represents a key aspect of food safety of the gluten-free diet. A promising area is the use of minor or pseudo-cereals such as amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff. The paper is focused on the new definition of gluten-free products in food label, the nutritional properties of the gluten-free cereals and their use to prevent nutritional deficiencies of celiac subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
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Open AccessReview Epidemiologic Studies of Isoflavones & Mammographic Density
Nutrients 2010, 2(1), 35-48; doi:10.3390/nu2010035
Received: 12 November 2009 / Accepted: 15 January 2010 / Published: 19 January 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in [...] Read more.
Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isoflavones and Lignans)
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Open AccessReview Effects of Beta-Alanine on Muscle Carnosine and Exercise Performance: A Review of the Current Literature
Nutrients 2010, 2(1), 75-98; doi:10.3390/nu2010075
Received: 16 November 2009 / Accepted: 6 January 2010 / Published: 25 January 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Muscle carnosine has been reported to serve as a physiological buffer, possess antioxidant properties, influence enzyme regulation, and affect sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium regulation.Beta-alanine (β-ALA) is a non-essential amino acid. β-ALA supplementation (e.g., 2–6 grams/day) has been shown to increase carnosine concentrations in [...] Read more.
Muscle carnosine has been reported to serve as a physiological buffer, possess antioxidant properties, influence enzyme regulation, and affect sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium regulation.Beta-alanine (β-ALA) is a non-essential amino acid. β-ALA supplementation (e.g., 2–6 grams/day) has been shown to increase carnosine concentrations in skeletal muscle by 20–80%.Several studies have reported that β-ALA supplementation can increase high-intensity intermittent exercise performance and/or training adaptations. Although the specific mechanism remains to be determined, the ergogenicity of β-ALA has been most commonly attributed to an increased muscle buffering capacity.More recently, researchers have investigated the effects of co-ingesting β-ALA with creatine monohydrate to determine whether there may be synergistic and/or additive benefits. This paper overviews the theoretical rationale and potential ergogenic value of β-ALA supplementation with or without creatine as well as provides future research recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Nutrition)

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