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Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 7 (July 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Gene Expression of Sirtuin-1 and Endogenous Secretory Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Healthy and Slightly Overweight Subjects after Caloric Restriction and Resveratrol Administration
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070937 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
Sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) and an endogenous secretory receptor for an advanced glycation end product (esRAGE) are associated with vascular protection. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resveratrol (RSV) and caloric restriction (CR) on gene expression of Sirt-1 and esRAGE
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Sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) and an endogenous secretory receptor for an advanced glycation end product (esRAGE) are associated with vascular protection. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resveratrol (RSV) and caloric restriction (CR) on gene expression of Sirt-1 and esRAGE on serum levels of Sirt1 and esRAGE in healthy and slightly overweight subjects. The study included 48 healthy subjects randomized to 30 days of RSV (500 mg/day) or CR (1000 cal/day). Waist circumference (p = 0.011), TC (p = 0.007), HDL (p = 0.031), non-HDL (p = 0.025), ApoA1 (p = 0.011), and ApoB (p = 0.037) decreased in the CR group. However, TC (p = 0.030), non-HDL (p = 0.010), ApoB (p = 0.034), and HOMA-IR (p = 0.038) increased in the RSV group. RSV and CR increased serum levels of Sirt-1, respectively, from 1.06 ± 0.71 ng/mL to 5.75 ± 2.98 ng/mL (p < 0.0001) and from 1.65 ± 1.81 ng/mL to 5.80 ± 2.23 ng/mL (p < 0.0001). esRAGE serum levels were similar in RSV (p = NS) and CR (p = NS) groups. Significant positive correlation was observed between gene expression changes of Sirt-1 and esRAGE in RSV (r = 0.86; p < 0.0001) and in CR (r = 0.71; p < 0.0001) groups, but not for the changes in serum concentrations. CR promoted increases in the gene expression of esRAGE (post/pre). Future long-term studies are needed to evaluate the impact of these outcomes on vascular health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Resveratrol Supplementation)
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Open AccessArticle Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism, Blood Lipids and Intestinal Sterols in Human Intervention Studies Using Different Sources of Phosphate as Supplements—Pooled Results and Literature Search
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070936 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Phosphates are associated with negative physiological effects. The objectives of this publication were to compare differential effects of supplementation with calcium phosphate or phosphate alone in healthy humans. Four adult human studies were conducted with pentacalcium hydroxy-trisphosphate supplementation (CaP; 90 subjects) and their
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Phosphates are associated with negative physiological effects. The objectives of this publication were to compare differential effects of supplementation with calcium phosphate or phosphate alone in healthy humans. Four adult human studies were conducted with pentacalcium hydroxy-trisphosphate supplementation (CaP; 90 subjects) and their data were pooled for assessment. For literature search; PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge were used and 21 items were assigned to three main topics. The pooled study results show that following CaP supplementation, faecal calcium and phosphorus and urinary calcium were increased, blood lipids were positively modulated, and faecal bile acids were increased, as compared with placebo. The literature search reveals that following calcium phosphate supplementation, urinary calcium was increased. Following solely phosphate supplementation, urinary phosphorus was increased and urinary calcium was decreased. Postprandial calcium concentrations were increased following calcium phosphate supplementation. Postprandial phosphate concentrations were increased following solely phosphate supplementation. Calcium phosphate supplementation resulted in rather positively modulated blood lipids and gut-related parameters. The presented results show the relevance to distinguish between calcium phosphate and solely phosphate supplementations, and the importance of a balanced calcium and phosphorus intake. Full article
Open AccessReview Dietary Protein, Muscle and Physical Function in the Very Old
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070935 (registering DOI)
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
There is an ongoing debate as to the optimal protein intake in older adults. An increasing body of experimental studies on skeletal muscle protein metabolism as well as epidemiological data suggest that protein requirements with ageing might be greater than many current dietary
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There is an ongoing debate as to the optimal protein intake in older adults. An increasing body of experimental studies on skeletal muscle protein metabolism as well as epidemiological data suggest that protein requirements with ageing might be greater than many current dietary recommendations. Importantly, none of the intervention studies in this context specifically investigated very old individuals. Data on the fastest growing age group of the oldest old (aged 85 years and older) is very limited. In this review, we examine the current evidence on protein intake for preserving muscle mass, strength and function in older individuals, with emphasis on data in the very old. Available observational data suggest beneficial effects of a higher protein intake with physical function in the oldest old. Whilst, studies estimating protein requirements in old and very old individuals based on whole-body measurements, show no differences between these sub-populations of elderly. However, small sample sizes preclude drawing firm conclusions. Experimental studies that compared muscle protein synthetic (MPS) responses to protein ingestion in young and old adults suggest that a higher relative protein intake is required to maximally stimulate skeletal muscle MPS in the aged. Although, data on MPS responses to protein ingestion in the oldest old are currently lacking. Collectively, the data reviewed for this article support the concept that there is a close interaction of physical activity, diet, function and ageing. An attractive hypothesis is that regular physical activity may preserve and even enhance the responsiveness of ageing skeletal muscle to protein intake, until very advanced age. More research involving study participants particularly aged ≥85 years is warranted to better investigate and determine protein requirements in this specific growing population group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Protein and Muscle in Aging People)
Open AccessArticle Dose-Dependent Increase in Unconjugated Cinnamic Acid Concentration in Plasma Following Acute Consumption of Polyphenol Rich Curry in the Polyspice Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 934; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070934 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Spices that are rich in polyphenols are metabolized to a convergent group of phenolic/aromatic acids. We conducted a dose-exposure nutrikinetic study to investigate associations between mixed spices intake and plasma concentrations of selected, unconjugated phenolic/aromatic acids. In a randomized crossover study, 17 Chinese
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Spices that are rich in polyphenols are metabolized to a convergent group of phenolic/aromatic acids. We conducted a dose-exposure nutrikinetic study to investigate associations between mixed spices intake and plasma concentrations of selected, unconjugated phenolic/aromatic acids. In a randomized crossover study, 17 Chinese males consumed a curry meal containing 0 g, 6 g, and 12 g of mixed spices. Postprandial blood was drawn up to 7 h at regular intervals and plasma phenolic/aromatic acids were quantified via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Cinnamic acid (CNA, p < 0.0001) and phenylacetic acid (PAA, p < 0.0005) concentrations were significantly increased with mixed spices consumption, although none of the other measured phenolic/aromatic acids differ significantly between treatments. CNA displayed a high dose-exposure association (R2 > 0.8, p < 0.0001). The adjusted mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve until 7 h (AUC0–7 h) for CNA during the 3 increasing doses were 8.4 ± 3.4, 376.1 ± 104.7 and 875.7 ± 291.9 nM.h respectively. Plasma CNA concentration may be used as a biomarker of spice intake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lupinus mutabilis Extract Exerts an Anti-Diabetic Effect by Improving Insulin Release in Type 2 Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070933 (registering DOI)
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Lupinus mutabilis (LM) is a legume part of Bolivian traditional diet that has a nutraceutical property reducing blood glucose levels. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide thus; the search for novel anti-diabetic drugs is needed. Based on its
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Lupinus mutabilis (LM) is a legume part of Bolivian traditional diet that has a nutraceutical property reducing blood glucose levels. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide thus; the search for novel anti-diabetic drugs is needed. Based on its traditional use, we evaluated the anti-diabetic effect of LM in the spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, a model of type 2 diabetes and in Wistar (W) rats as healthy control. LM seeds hydroethanolic extract, analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, is a complex mixture of volatile and non-volatile components. A single oral administration of LM extract (2000 mg/kg b.w.) improved glucose tolerance during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (30–120 min) in GK and W rats (p < 0.0001). The long-term treatment with LM (1000 mg/kg b.w.), for 21 days, improved the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose during OGTT at day 20, in both GK (p < 0.01) and W rats (p < 0.01). The HbA1c (GK rats, p < 0.05 and W rats, p < 0.0001) and the non-fasting glucose (GK rats, p < 0.05) were also reduced. LM increased both serum insulin levels (2.4-fold in GK rats and 2.5-fold W rats), and the glucose-induced (16.7 mM glucose) insulin release in isolated islets from treated animals (6.7-fold in GK rats, and 6.6-fold in W rats). Moreover, LM (10 mg/mL) stimulated in vitro glucose induced (16.7 mM glucose) insulin release in batch incubated GK and W rat islets (p < 0.0001). In perifused GK rat islets, insulin release in 16.7 mM glucose was increased 95.3-fold compared to untreated islets (p < 0.0001), while no significant differences were found in perifused W rat islets. The LM mechanism of action, evaluated using inhibitory compounds of the insulin secretion pathway, showed that LM-dependent insulin secretion was reduced 42% by diazoxide (p < 0.001), 70% by nifedipine (p < 0.001), 86.7% by H89 (p < 0.0001), 70.8% by calphostine-C (p < 0.0001) and 93% by pertussis toxin (p < 0.0001). A similar effect was observed in W rats islets. Our findings provide evidence that LM has an anti-diabetic effect through stimulation of insulin release. The effect is-dependent on L-type calcium channel, protein kinase A and C systems, and G protein-coupled exocytosis and is partially mediated by K-ATP channels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Supplementation-Dependent Effects of Vegetable Oils with Varying Fatty Acid Compositions on Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters in Obese Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070932 (registering DOI)
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Fatty acid (FA) composition is a determinant of the physiological effects of dietary oils. This study investigated the effects of vegetable oil supplementation with different FA compositions on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in obese women on a hypocaloric diet with lifestyle modifications. Seventy-five
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Fatty acid (FA) composition is a determinant of the physiological effects of dietary oils. This study investigated the effects of vegetable oil supplementation with different FA compositions on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in obese women on a hypocaloric diet with lifestyle modifications. Seventy-five women (body mass index, BMI, 30–39.9kg/m2) were randomized based on 8-week oil supplementation into four experimental groups: the coconut oil group (CoG, n = 18), the safflower oil group (SafG, n = 19), the chia oil group (ChG, n = 19), and the soybean oil placebo group (PG, n = 19). Pre- and post-supplementation weight, anthropometric parameters, and body fat (%BF), and lean mass percentages (%LM) were evaluated, along with biochemical parameters related to lipid and glycidemic profiles. In the anthropometric evaluation, the CoG showed greater weight loss (Δ% = −8.54 ± 2.38), and reduced BMI (absolute variation, Δabs = −2.86 ± 0.79), waist circumference (Δabs = −6.61 ± 0.85), waist-to-height ratio (Δabs = −0.041 ± 0.006), conicity index (Δabs = −0.03 ± 0.016), and %BF (Δabs = −2.78 ± 0.46), but increased %LM (Δabs = 2.61 ± 1.40) (p < 0.001). Moreover, the CoG showed a higher reduction in biochemical parameters of glycemia (Δabs = −24.71 ± 8.13) and glycated hemoglobin (Δabs = −0.86 ± 0.28) (p < 0.001). The ChG showed a higher reduction in cholesterol (Δabs = −45.36 ± 0.94), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc; Δabs = −42.53 ± 22.65), and triglycerides (Δabs = −49.74 ± 26.3), but an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc; abs = 3.73 ± 1.24, p = 0.007). Coconut oil had a more pronounced effect on abdominal adiposity and glycidic profile, whereas chia oil had a higher effect on improving the lipid profile. Indeed, supplementation with different fatty acid compositions resulted in specific responses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Aqueous Extract of Pepino (Solanum muriactum Ait) Leaves Ameliorate Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress in Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070931 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Chronic alcohol intake leads to alcoholic fatty liver. The pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver is related to abnormal lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, endotoxins, and cytokines. Solanum muricatum Ait. (Pepino) is a plant food commonly cultivated in the Penghu island, Taiwan. Previous studies indicated
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Chronic alcohol intake leads to alcoholic fatty liver. The pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver is related to abnormal lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, endotoxins, and cytokines. Solanum muricatum Ait. (Pepino) is a plant food commonly cultivated in the Penghu island, Taiwan. Previous studies indicated that the aqueous extract of pepino was able to attenuate diabetic progression via its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanisms of the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of pepino leaf in preventing alcoholic fatty liver remain unknown. In this study, Lieber–DeCarli ethanol-containing liquid diet was used to induce alcoholic hepatic injury in C57BL/6 mice. The hepatoprotective effects and the related mechanisms of aqueous extract of pepino leaf (AEPL) were examined. Our results showed that 2% AEPL treatments protected the liver from ethanol-induced injury through reducing serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) (all p < 0.05). AEPL had the effects in improving the ethanol-induced lipid accumulation in mice under histological examination. Molecular data indicated that the anti-lipid accumulation effect of AEPL might be mediated via inducing hepatic levels of phospho-adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (p-AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and reducing the expressions of hepatic lipogenic enzymes, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) (all p < 0.05). AEPL also decreased hepatic levels of thiobarbituric acid relative substances (TBARS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6, as well as the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) (all p < 0.05). Moreover, AEPL significantly elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH) content compared to the ethanol-fed group (all p < 0.05). Our present study suggests that AEPL could protect the liver against ethanol-induced oxidative injury and lipid accumulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle New Iodine Food Composition Database and Updated Calculations of Iodine Intake among Norwegians
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070930 (registering DOI)
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Iodine food composition data of Norwegian foods have been sparse and knowledge about different dietary iodine sources limited. We compiled a comprehensive iodine food composition database and estimated dietary iodine intake among adults in the latest Norwegian national dietary survey (Norkost 3). The
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Iodine food composition data of Norwegian foods have been sparse and knowledge about different dietary iodine sources limited. We compiled a comprehensive iodine food composition database and estimated dietary iodine intake among adults in the latest Norwegian national dietary survey (Norkost 3). The iodine content of food and beverages were compiled using international guidelines and standards. Iodine content of 3259 food items were compiled, including analytical values, values from other food composition databases, estimated values, and values that were based on recipes. Estimated iodine intake in the Norkost 3 population ranged from 15 to 1462 µg/day. Men had significantly higher intake of iodine than women (p < 0.001). The proportion of men and women with estimated iodine intake below average requirement was 19% and 33%, respectively. In young women, 46% had estimated iodine intakes below average requirement and a high probability of inadequate iodine intake. Several dietary sources contributed to iodine intake and differences in the consumption pattern may put subgroups at risk of insufficient iodine intake. In the coming years, the determination of iodine in foods and national dietary surveys should be regularly performed to monitor the iodine intake in the Norwegian population. Full article
Open AccessReview Dietary Protein and Muscle in Aging People: The Potential Role of the Gut Microbiome
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070929 (registering DOI)
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Muscle mass, strength, and physical function are known to decline with age. This is associated with the development of geriatric syndromes including sarcopenia and frailty. Dietary protein is essential for skeletal muscle function. Resistance exercise appears to be the most beneficial form of
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Muscle mass, strength, and physical function are known to decline with age. This is associated with the development of geriatric syndromes including sarcopenia and frailty. Dietary protein is essential for skeletal muscle function. Resistance exercise appears to be the most beneficial form of physical activity for preserving skeletal muscle and a synergistic effect has been noted when this is combined with dietary protein. However, older adults have shown evidence of anabolic resistance, where greater amounts of protein are required to stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and response is variable. Thus, the recommended daily amount of protein is greater for older people. The aetiologies and mechanisms responsible for anabolic resistance are not fully understood. The gut microbiota is implicated in many of the postulated mechanisms for anabolic resistance, either directly or indirectly. The gut microbiota change with age, and are influenced by dietary protein. Research also implies a role for the gut microbiome in skeletal muscle function. This leads to the hypothesis that the gut microbiome might modulate individual response to protein in the diet. We summarise the existing evidence for the role of the gut microbiota in anabolic resistance and skeletal muscle in aging people, and introduce the metabolome as a tool to probe this relationship in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Protein and Muscle in Aging People)
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Open AccessArticle Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Serum Adiponectin Levels in Pregnancy: Results from a Cohort Study in Normal Weight Caucasian Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070928 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is significantly associated with anti-inflammatory effects and a favorable health outcome. During pregnancy, both inflammatory changes and oxidative balance are essential for a successful outcome, while an unbalanced inflammatory response can be a key mediator of obstetrical syndromes. The
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The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is significantly associated with anti-inflammatory effects and a favorable health outcome. During pregnancy, both inflammatory changes and oxidative balance are essential for a successful outcome, while an unbalanced inflammatory response can be a key mediator of obstetrical syndromes. The aim of this study is to investigate the adherence to MedDiet during pregnancy in the 1st and in the 3rd trimester, and to test whether the adherence was associated with serum adiponectin levels. The study was carried out on 99 normal weight Caucasian women. The adherence to MedDiet was measured by a 13-point Mediterranean scale. The whole sample scored 7.2 ± 1.5, with no difference between first and third trimester (p = 0.7). Critical points were: fruit < 3 servings/day in 77% of the sample, beans < 3 times/week in 89%, fish < 2 times/week in 69%, and nut weekly intake < 30 g in 75%. The serum adiponectin levels significantly decreased from the first to the third trimester (−16% ± 4%, p = 0.008), which confirms a low-grade inflammatory condition associated with advancing gestational age. The women who were in the highest tertile of the adherence to MedDiet had a lower percentage decrease, as compared with those in the lowest tertile (10% ± 11% vs. −34% ± 3%, p = 0.01). Even if in pregnancy the adiponectin levels are strongly influenced by the low-grade inflammation, the adherence to MedDiet may modulate this state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Determinants of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) Status in a High Fish-Eating Cohort during Pregnancy
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070927 (registering DOI)
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for neurodevelopment and the developing foetus depends on an optimal maternal status. Fish is a rich source of PUFA. The current study investigated dietary patterns, and associations with PUFA status in a high-fish consuming cohort of pregnant
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Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for neurodevelopment and the developing foetus depends on an optimal maternal status. Fish is a rich source of PUFA. The current study investigated dietary patterns, and associations with PUFA status in a high-fish consuming cohort of pregnant women in the Seychelles. At 28 weeks’ gestation, pregnant women provided a blood sample, from which serum total PUFA concentrations were measured, A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and Fish Use Questionnaire (FUQ) were also completed. Principal component analysis (PCA) of dietary information identified four patterns. Regression analyses found dietary pattern 2, containing foods traditionally eaten in the Seychelles e.g., fish, fruit and vegetables was positively associated with serum docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (β = 0.134; CI = 0.001, 0.022), and serum total n-3 PUFA (β = 0.139; CI = 0.001, 0.023) concentrations. Dietary pattern 1, high in processed foods, snacks, white meat and eggs, was not significantly associated with any of the serum PUFA concentrations. The FUQ indicated that fatty fish was associated with EPA status (β = 0.180; CI = 0.001, 0.005) in high consumers. The second dietary pattern, consisting of higher consumption of fish and fruit, was positively associated with n-3 PUFA status during pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessArticle Neuroprotective Effects of Taraxacum officinale Wigg. Extract on Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Stress in HT22 Cells via HO-1/Nrf2 Pathways
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070926
Received: 16 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
Oxidative stress-mediated neuron damage is considered an important contributor to the pathogenesis and development of neurodegenerative diseases. Taraxacum officinale has been reported to possess antioxidant activities. However, whether it can protect neurons against oxidative damage and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been
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Oxidative stress-mediated neuron damage is considered an important contributor to the pathogenesis and development of neurodegenerative diseases. Taraxacum officinale has been reported to possess antioxidant activities. However, whether it can protect neurons against oxidative damage and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully determined. In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective effects of ethanol extracts of this plant (ETOW) on glutamate-induced oxidative stress in HT22 cells. Both cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays showed that ETOW effectively attenuated glutamate-induced cytotoxicity and ROS generation. Furthermore, our results revealed that ETOW increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and promoted the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). The inhibitory effects of ETOW on glutamate-stimulated cell toxicity and ROS production were partially reversed by tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), an HO activity inhibitor. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ETOW can protect HT22 cells against glutamate-induced oxidative damage by inducing the Nrf2/HO-1 pathways. Our study supports the idea that Taraxacum officinale Wigg. is a promising agent for preventing neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Combined Supplementation of Pre-Exercise Carbohydrate, Alanine, and Proline and Continuous Intake of Green Tea Catechins Effectively Boost Endurance Performance in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070925
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
Continuous intake of green tea catechins (GTC) increases fatty acid utilization as an energy source and improves endurance capacity. Conversely, the single pre-exercise intake of maltodextrin (MD) as a carbohydrate source and the gluconeogenic amino acids alanine (Ala) and proline (Pro) effectively maintain
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Continuous intake of green tea catechins (GTC) increases fatty acid utilization as an energy source and improves endurance capacity. Conversely, the single pre-exercise intake of maltodextrin (MD) as a carbohydrate source and the gluconeogenic amino acids alanine (Ala) and proline (Pro) effectively maintain blood glucose levels and increase endurance performance. In this study, we investigated the synergistic combinational effect of these interventions on endurance performance in mice. Male BALB/c mice were fed a 0.5% GTC diet or Control diet for 8 weeks. Maximum running time was measured every 2 weeks. MD (2 g/kg body weight (B.W.)), MD (1 g/kg B.W.) + AlaPro (9:1, 1 g/kg B.W.), and vehicle were orally administrated 60 mins before measurements in each diet group. The GTC + MD + AlaPro group showed significantly higher endurance performance than the Control-Vehicle group at all measurements. Indirect calorimetry analysis during running exercise at 4 weeks in the Control and GTC groups supplemented with pre-exercise MD + AlaPro administration revealed significantly higher fat oxidation in the GTC groups compared to the Control group. The combined increase in fatty acid utilization through continuous GTC intake and pre-exercise MD + AlaPro carbohydrate energy supplementation synergistically improves endurance capacity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle “Benifuuki” Extract Reduces Serum Levels of Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 Ligands Containing Apolipoprotein B: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070924
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: Arteriosclerosis is associated with high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. O-methylated catechins in “Benifuuki” green tea are expected to reduce cholesterol levels, although there is limited research regarding this topic; (2) Methods: This trial evaluated 159 healthy volunteers who
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(1) Background: Arteriosclerosis is associated with high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. O-methylated catechins in “Benifuuki” green tea are expected to reduce cholesterol levels, although there is limited research regarding this topic; (2) Methods: This trial evaluated 159 healthy volunteers who were randomized to receive ice cream containing a high-dose of “Benifuuki” extract including 676 mg of catechins (group H), a low-dose of “Benifuuki” extract including 322 mg of catechins (group L), or no “Benifuuki” extract (group C). Each group consumed ice cream (with or without extract) daily for 12 weeks, and their lipid-related parameters were compared; (3) Results: A significant reduction in the level of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 ligand containing ApoB (LAB) was detected in group H, compared to groups L and C. No significant differences between the three groups were detected in their levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol; (4) Conclusions: “Benifuuki” extract containing O-methylated catechins may help prevent arteriosclerosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Testing the Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of an 8-Week Exercise and Compensatory Eating Intervention
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 923; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070923
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an intervention comprised of regular exercise alongside educational and motivational support for participants’ avoidance of unhealthy compensatory eating. Forty-five sedentary individuals were randomized to an 8-week exercise plus compensatory
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an intervention comprised of regular exercise alongside educational and motivational support for participants’ avoidance of unhealthy compensatory eating. Forty-five sedentary individuals were randomized to an 8-week exercise plus compensatory eating avoidance program (CEAP; n = 24), or an 8-week exercise intervention only (control; n = 21). The feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the intervention were assessed using quantitative measures and supplemented with written responses to open-ended questions. The CEAP workshop was well-received; however, self-reported use of some of the included behavior change strategies was lower than expected. Post-intervention, there was evidence of reduced self-reported compensatory eating for participants in the CEAP group but not controls, with CEAP participants also reporting greater use of coping plans relative to controls post-intervention. The exercise program had benefits for waist circumference, body fat percentage, blood pressure, and cardiovascular fitness; however, improvements were similar between groups. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that the CEAP is feasible and may reduce compensatory eating around exercise; however, this effect is small. Potential modifications to the CEAP are discussed within the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity And Diet For Health Optimisation)
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