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Nutrients, Volume 3, Issue 4 (April 2011), Pages 385-514

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Australian Paradox: A Substantial Decline in Sugars Intake over the Same Timeframe that Overweight and Obesity Have Increased
Nutrients 2011, 3(4), 491-504; doi:10.3390/nu3040491
Received: 4 March 2011 / Revised: 14 April 2011 / Accepted: 19 April 2011 / Published: 20 April 2011
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Correction 2 | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ecological research from the USA has demonstrated a positive relationship between sugars consumption and prevalence of obesity; however, the relationship in other nations is not well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the trends in obesity and sugar consumption [...] Read more.
Ecological research from the USA has demonstrated a positive relationship between sugars consumption and prevalence of obesity; however, the relationship in other nations is not well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the trends in obesity and sugar consumption in Australia over the past 30 years and to compare and contrast obesity trends and sugar consumption patterns in Australia with the UK and USA. Data on consumption of sugar in Australia, the UK and USA were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization for the years 1980–2003. The prevalence of obesity has increased 3 fold in Australians since 1980. In Australia, the UK and USA, per capita consumption of refined sucrose decreased by 23%, 10% and 20% respectively from 1980 to 2003. When all sources of nutritive sweeteners, including high fructose corn syrups, were considered, per capita consumption decreased in Australia (−16%) and the UK (−5%), but increased in the USA (+23%). In Australia, there was a reduction in sales of nutritively sweetened beverages by 64 million liters from 2002 to 2006 and a reduction in percentage of children consuming sugar-sweetened beverages between 1995 and 2007. The findings confirm an “Australian Paradox”—a substantial decline in refined sugars intake over the same timeframe that obesity has increased. The implication is that efforts to reduce sugar intake may reduce consumption but may not reduce the prevalence of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrates)
Open AccessArticle Variation in Fatty Acid Distribution of Different Acyl Lipids in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Brans
Nutrients 2011, 3(4), 505-514; doi:10.3390/nu3040505
Received: 8 March 2011 / Revised: 5 April 2011 / Accepted: 18 April 2011 / Published: 21 April 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The lipids extracted from rice brans were classified by thin-layer chromatography into eight fractions, and their fatty acid (FA) compositions were investigated among five different Japanese cultivars. The lipids of these rice brans comprised mainly triacylglycerols (TAG; 84.9–86.0 wt%), free FA (4.2–4.6 [...] Read more.
The lipids extracted from rice brans were classified by thin-layer chromatography into eight fractions, and their fatty acid (FA) compositions were investigated among five different Japanese cultivars. The lipids of these rice brans comprised mainly triacylglycerols (TAG; 84.9–86.0 wt%), free FA (4.2–4.6 wt%), and phospholipids (PL; 6.5–6.7 wt%), whilst other components were also detected in minor proportions (0.2–2.1 wt%). The PL components included phosphatidyl choline (43.3–46.8 wt%) phosphatidyl ethanolamine (25.0–27.3 wt%) and phosphatidyl inositol (20.2–23.2 wt%). Comparison of the different cultivars showed, with a few exceptions, no substantial difference (P > 0.05) in FA distribution. FA distribution of TAG among the five cultivars was characterized as: unsaturated FA predominantly concentrated at the sn-2 position and saturated FA primarily occupying the sn-1 or sn-3 position in these lipids. These results suggest that the rice bran lipids may be well incorporated into our daily diet to improve nutritional value of the Japanese diet. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Vitamin A in Reproduction and Development
Nutrients 2011, 3(4), 385-428; doi:10.3390/nu3040385
Received: 24 November 2010 / Revised: 28 February 2011 / Accepted: 22 March 2011 / Published: 29 March 2011
Cited by 77 | PDF Full-text (819 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The requirement for vitamin A in reproduction was first recognized in the early 1900’s, and its importance in the eyes of developing embryos was realized shortly after. A greater understanding of the large number of developmental processes that require vitamin A emerged first [...] Read more.
The requirement for vitamin A in reproduction was first recognized in the early 1900’s, and its importance in the eyes of developing embryos was realized shortly after. A greater understanding of the large number of developmental processes that require vitamin A emerged first from nutritional deficiency studies in rat embryos, and later from genetic studies in mice. It is now generally believed that all-trans retinoic acid (RA) is the form of vitamin A that supports both male and female reproduction as well as embryonic development. This conclusion is based on the ability to reverse most reproductive and developmental blocks found in vitamin A deficiency induced either by nutritional or genetic means with RA, and the ability to recapitulate the majority of embryonic defects in retinoic acid receptor compound null mutants. The activity of the catabolic CYP26 enzymes in determining what tissues have access to RA has emerged as a key regulatory mechanism, and helps to explain why exogenous RA can rescue many vitamin A deficiency defects. In severely vitamin A-deficient (VAD) female rats, reproduction fails prior to implantation, whereas in VAD pregnant rats given small amounts of carotene or supported on limiting quantities of RA early in organogenesis, embryos form but show a collection of defects called the vitamin A deficiency syndrome or late vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A is also essential for the maintenance of the male genital tract and spermatogenesis. Recent studies show that vitamin A participates in a signaling mechanism to initiate meiosis in the female gonad during embryogenesis, and in the male gonad postnatally. Both nutritional and genetic approaches are being used to elucidate the vitamin A-dependent pathways upon which these processes depend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update)
Open AccessReview The Nutrition Transition in Africa: Can It Be Steered into a More Positive Direction?
Nutrients 2011, 3(4), 429-441; doi:10.3390/nu3040429
Received: 18 February 2011 / Revised: 23 March 2011 / Accepted: 25 March 2011 / Published: 11 April 2011
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this narrative review is to examine the nutrition transition and its consequences when populations in Africa modernize as a result of socio-economic development, urbanization, and acculturation. The focus is on the changes in dietary patterns and nutrient intakes during [...] Read more.
The objective of this narrative review is to examine the nutrition transition and its consequences when populations in Africa modernize as a result of socio-economic development, urbanization, and acculturation. The focus is on the changes in dietary patterns and nutrient intakes during the nutrition transition, the determinants and consequences of these changes as well as possible new approaches in public health nutrition policies, interventions and research needed to steer the nutrition transition into a more positive direction in Africa. The review indicates that non-communicable, nutrition-related diseases have emerged in sub-Saharan Africa at a faster rate and at a lower economic level than in industrialized countries, before the battle against under-nutrition has been won. There is a putative epigenetic link between under- and over-nutrition, explaining the double burden of nutrition-related diseases in Africa. It is concluded that it is possible to steer the nutrition transition into a more positive direction, provided that some basic principles in planning public health promotion strategies, policies and interventions are followed. It is suggested that sub-Saharan African countries join forces to study the nutrition transition and implemented interventions on epidemiological, clinical and molecular (genetic) level for better prevention of both under- and over-nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epidemiology)
Open AccessReview Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in Colostrum and Milk
Nutrients 2011, 3(4), 442-474; doi:10.3390/nu3040442
Received: 2 March 2011 / Revised: 21 March 2011 / Accepted: 12 April 2011 / Published: 14 April 2011
Cited by 73 | PDF Full-text (449 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Immunoglobulins form an important component of the immunological activity found in milk and colostrum. They are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity to the offspring. The mechanism of transfer varies among mammalian species. Cattle provide [...] Read more.
Immunoglobulins form an important component of the immunological activity found in milk and colostrum. They are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity to the offspring. The mechanism of transfer varies among mammalian species. Cattle provide a readily available immune rich colostrum and milk in large quantities, making those secretions important potential sources of immune products that may benefit humans. Immune milk is a term used to describe a range of products of the bovine mammary gland that have been tested against several human diseases. The use of colostrum or milk as a source of immunoglobulins, whether intended for the neonate of the species producing the secretion or for a different species, can be viewed in the context of the types of immunoglobulins in the secretion, the mechanisms by which the immunoglobulins are secreted, and the mechanisms by which the neonate or adult consuming the milk then gains immunological benefit. The stability of immunoglobulins as they undergo processing in the milk, or undergo digestion in the intestine, is an additional consideration for evaluating the value of milk immunoglobulins. This review summarizes the fundamental knowledge of immunoglobulins found in colostrum, milk, and immune milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Nutrients)
Figures

Open AccessReview Human Folate Bioavailability
Nutrients 2011, 3(4), 475-490; doi:10.3390/nu3040475
Received: 2 March 2011 / Revised: 12 April 2011 / Accepted: 14 April 2011 / Published: 18 April 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The vitamin folate is recognized as beneficial health-wise in the prevention of neural tube defects, anemia, cardiovascular diseases, poor cognitive performance, and some forms of cancer. However, suboptimal dietary folate intake has been reported in a number of countries. Several national health [...] Read more.
The vitamin folate is recognized as beneficial health-wise in the prevention of neural tube defects, anemia, cardiovascular diseases, poor cognitive performance, and some forms of cancer. However, suboptimal dietary folate intake has been reported in a number of countries. Several national health authorities have therefore introduced mandatory food fortification with synthetic folic acid, which is considered a convenient fortificant, being cost-efficient in production, more stable than natural food folate, and superior in terms of bioavailability and bioefficacy. Other countries have decided against fortification due to the ambiguous role of synthetic folic acid regarding promotion of subclinical cancers and other adverse health effects. This paper reviews recent studies on folate bioavailability after intervention with folate from food. Our conclusions were that limited folate bioavailability data are available for vegetables, fruits, cereal products, and fortified foods, and that it is difficult to evaluate the bioavailability of food folate or whether intervention with food folate improves folate status. We recommend revising the classical approach of using folic acid as a reference dose for estimating the plasma kinetics and relative bioavailability of food folate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Folate Metabolism and Nutrition)

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