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Nutrients, Volume 4, Issue 4 (April 2012), Pages 243-330

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial The Australian Paradox
Nutrients 2012, 4(4), 258; doi:10.3390/nu4040258
Received: 25 March 2012 / Published: 10 April 2012
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Abstract
Nutrients recently became the target of an unprecedented internet campaign by an individual who disagrees with the content and conclusions of a paper published in the journal last year, viz. “The Australian Paradox: A Substantial Decline in Sugars Intake over the Same Timeframe
[...] Read more.
Nutrients recently became the target of an unprecedented internet campaign by an individual who disagrees with the content and conclusions of a paper published in the journal last year, viz. “The Australian Paradox: A Substantial Decline in Sugars Intake over the Same Timeframe that Overweight and Obesity Have Increased” by Alan W. Barclay and Jennie Brand-Miller, Nutrients 2011, 3, 491–504. Regrettably, his criticism has extended to the journal and its peer review processes for permitting publication of the article. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Sources and Determinants of Vitamin D Intake in Danish Pregnant Women
Nutrients 2012, 4(4), 259-272; doi:10.3390/nu4040259
Received: 8 March 2012 / Revised: 12 March 2012 / Accepted: 22 March 2012 / Published: 16 April 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with the development of several adverse health outcomes, e.g., pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, low birth weight, birth length, and bone mineral content. The aims of the present study were to estimate the intake
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Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with the development of several adverse health outcomes, e.g., pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, low birth weight, birth length, and bone mineral content. The aims of the present study were to estimate the intake and sources of vitamin D in Danish pregnant women and to examine potential determinants of vitamin D intake of the recommended level (10 µg per day). In 68,447 Danish pregnant women the mean ± SD for vitamin D intake was 9.23 ± 5.60 µg per day (diet: 3.56 ± 2.05 µg per day, supplements: 5.67 ± 5.20 µg per day). 67.6% of the women reported use of vitamin D supplements but only 36.9% reported use of vitamin D supplements of at least 10 µg. Supplements were the primary source of vitamin D for the two higher quartiles of total vitamin D intake, with diet being the primary source for the two lower quartiles. Determinants of sufficient total vitamin D intake were: high maternal age, nulliparity, non-smoking, and filling out of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) during summer or fall. We propose that clinicians encourage vitamin D supplementation among pregnant women, with special focus on vulnerable groups such as the young, smokers and multiparous women, in order to improve maternal and fetal health both during and after pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)
Open AccessArticle Disordered Eating among Preadolescent Boys and Girls: The Relationship with Child and Maternal Variables
Nutrients 2012, 4(4), 273-285; doi:10.3390/nu4040273
Received: 2 February 2012 / Revised: 2 April 2012 / Accepted: 6 April 2012 / Published: 17 April 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: (i) To analyze the eating behaviors and body satisfaction of boys and girls and to examine their mothers’ perceptions of these two domains; and (ii) to evaluate eating problem predictors using child body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, and body satisfaction as well
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Objective: (i) To analyze the eating behaviors and body satisfaction of boys and girls and to examine their mothers’ perceptions of these two domains; and (ii) to evaluate eating problem predictors using child body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, and body satisfaction as well as maternal BMI, eating problems, and satisfaction with their child’s body. The participants included 111 children (54.1% girls aged between 9 and 12 years old) and their mothers. Assessment measures included the Child Eating Attitude Test, the Self-Perception Profile for Children, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, and the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child and maternal measures also included BMI and Collins Figure Drawings. Results: (i) No association between child and maternal BMI for either sex was found; (ii) no difference was found between boys and girls with regard to eating behavior; (iii) most children revealed a preference for an ideal body image over their actual body image; (iv) most mothers preferred thinner bodies for their children; (v) greater BMI was related to higher body dissatisfaction; and (vi) child BMI and dissatisfaction with body image predicted eating disturbances in boys, whereas self-esteem, maternal BMI, and eating behavior predicted them in girls. Discussion: Maternal eating problems and BMI were related to female eating problems only. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maladaptive Eating Attitudes in Youth)
Open AccessArticle Maternal Vitamin D Status and Delivery by Cesarean
Nutrients 2012, 4(4), 319-330; doi:10.3390/nu4040319
Received: 29 November 2011 / Revised: 23 February 2012 / Accepted: 13 April 2012 / Published: 20 April 2012
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We examined the association of vitamin D deficiency to risk of cesarean delivery using prospective data in a cohort of 1153 low income and minority gravidae. Circulating maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone were measured at entry to care 13.73 ± 5.6
[...] Read more.
We examined the association of vitamin D deficiency to risk of cesarean delivery using prospective data in a cohort of 1153 low income and minority gravidae. Circulating maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone were measured at entry to care 13.73 ± 5.6 weeks (mean ± SD). Intake of vitamin D and calcium was assessed at three time points during pregnancy. Using recent Institute of Medicine guidelines, 10.8% of the gravidae were at risk of vitamin D deficiency, and 23.8% at risk of insufficiency. Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D was related positively to vitamin D and calcium intakes and negatively to circulating concentrations of parathyroid hormone. Risk for cesarean delivery was increased significantly for vitamin D deficient women; there was no increased risk for gravidae at risk of insufficiency. When specific indications were examined, vitamin D deficiency was linked to a 2-fold increased risk of cesarean for prolonged labor. Results were the similar when prior guidelines for vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 37.5nmol/L) and insufficiency (37.5–80 nmol/L) were utilized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)

Review

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Open AccessReview Celiac Disease, Inflammation and Oxidative Damage: A Nutrigenetic Approach
Nutrients 2012, 4(4), 243-257; doi:10.3390/nu4040243
Received: 23 November 2011 / Revised: 2 March 2012 / Accepted: 16 March 2012 / Published: 27 March 2012
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (487 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD), a common heritable chronic inflammatory condition of the small intestine caused by permanent intolerance to gluten/gliadin (prolamin), is characterized by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Developments in proteomics have provided an important contribution to the understanding of
[...] Read more.
Celiac disease (CD), a common heritable chronic inflammatory condition of the small intestine caused by permanent intolerance to gluten/gliadin (prolamin), is characterized by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Developments in proteomics have provided an important contribution to the understanding of the biochemical and immunological aspects of the disease and the mechanisms involved in toxicity of prolamins. It has been demonstrated that some gliadin peptides resistant to complete proteolytic digestion may directly affect intestinal cell structure and functions by modulating gene expression and oxidative stress. In recent years, the creation of the two research fields Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics, has enabled the elucidation of some interactions between diet, nutrients and genes. Various dietary components including long chain ω-3 fatty acids, plant flavonoids, and carotenoids have been demonstrated to modulate oxidative stress, gene expression and production of inflammatory mediators. Therefore their adoption could preserve intestinal barrier integrity, play a protective role against toxicity of gliadin peptides and have a role in nutritional therapy of celiac disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2011)
Open AccessReview Low Glycaemic Index Dietary Interventions in Youth with Cystic Fibrosis: A Systematic Review and Discussion of the Clinical Implications
Nutrients 2012, 4(4), 286-296; doi:10.3390/nu4040286
Received: 13 March 2012 / Revised: 11 April 2012 / Accepted: 17 April 2012 / Published: 18 April 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (186 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A systematic review was conducted to assess what is known about the effect of low glycaemic index (GI) diets on glycaemic control, weight and quality of life in youth with cystic fibrosis (CF). Eligibility criteria were systematic reviews, randomised and non-randomised trials of
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A systematic review was conducted to assess what is known about the effect of low glycaemic index (GI) diets on glycaemic control, weight and quality of life in youth with cystic fibrosis (CF). Eligibility criteria were systematic reviews, randomised and non-randomised trials of low GI dietary interventions in CF. Outcomes examined were glycaemic control, quality of life, anthropometry and respiratory function. Reference lists were manually searched and experts in the field were consulted. Four studies met the eligibility criteria; two were excluded because they did not include data on any of the outcomes. The remaining two were studies that examined GI secondary to any other intervention: one used GI as a factor in enteral feeds and the other incorporated low GI dietary education into its treatment methodology. There is insufficient evidence to recommend use of low GI diets in CF. Since there is evidence to support use of low GI diets in type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes, low GI diets should be tested as an intervention for CF. The potential risks and benefits of a low GI diet in CF are discussed. Full article
Open AccessReview Alcohol and Cardiovascular Disease—Modulation of Vascular Cell Function
Nutrients 2012, 4(4), 297-318; doi:10.3390/nu4040297
Received: 7 March 2012 / Revised: 12 April 2012 / Accepted: 16 April 2012 / Published: 19 April 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (917 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alcohol is a commonly used drug worldwide. Epidemiological studies have identified alcohol consumption as a factor that may either positively or negatively influence many diseases including cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and dementia. Often there seems to be a differential effect of various drinking
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Alcohol is a commonly used drug worldwide. Epidemiological studies have identified alcohol consumption as a factor that may either positively or negatively influence many diseases including cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and dementia. Often there seems to be a differential effect of various drinking patterns, with frequent moderate consumption of alcohol being salutary and binge drinking or chronic abuse being deleterious to one’s health. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the many effects of alcohol consumption is beginning to emerge, as well as a clearer picture as to whether these effects are due to the direct actions of alcohol itself, or caused in part by its metabolites, e.g., acetaldehyde, or by incidental components present in the alcoholic beverage (e.g., polyphenols in red wine). This review will discuss evidence to date as to how alcohol (ethanol) might affect atherosclerosis that underlies cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and the putative mechanisms involved, focusing on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Health)

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