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Nutrients, Volume 4, Issue 5 (May 2012), Pages 331-424

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Chronic Effects of a Wild Green Oat Extract Supplementation on Cognitive Performance in Older Adults: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2012, 4(5), 331-342; doi:10.3390/nu4050331
Received: 5 March 2012 / Revised: 26 April 2012 / Accepted: 26 April 2012 / Published: 3 May 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background and aim: Preliminary evaluation of a wild green oat extract (WGOE) (Neuravena® ELFA®955, Frutarom, Switzerland) revealed an acute cognitive benefit of supplementation. This study investigated whether regular daily WGOE supplementation would result in sustained cognitive improvements. Method: A 12-week
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Background and aim: Preliminary evaluation of a wild green oat extract (WGOE) (Neuravena® ELFA®955, Frutarom, Switzerland) revealed an acute cognitive benefit of supplementation. This study investigated whether regular daily WGOE supplementation would result in sustained cognitive improvements. Method: A 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial of WGOE supplementation (1500 mg/day) versus placebo was undertaken in 37 healthy adults aged 67 ± 0.8 years (mean ± SEM). Cognitive assessments included the Stroop colour-word test, letter cancellation, the rule-shift task, a computerised multi-tasking test battery and the trail-making task. All assessments were conducted in Week 12 and repeated in Week 24 whilst subjects were fasted and at least 18 h after taking the last dose of supplement. Result: Chronic WGOE supplementation did not affect any measures of cognition. Conclusion: It appears that the cognitive benefit of acute WGOE supplementation does not persist with chronic treatment in older adults with normal cognition. It remains to be seen whether sustained effects of WGOE supplementation may be more evident in those with mild cognitive impairment. Full article
Open AccessArticle 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Olive Oils Commercially Available as Italian Products in the United States of America
Nutrients 2012, 4(5), 343-355; doi:10.3390/nu4050343
Received: 19 January 2012 / Revised: 25 April 2012 / Accepted: 26 April 2012 / Published: 4 May 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multivariate analysis of 1H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications
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Multivariate analysis of 1H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy’s leading olive oil producers, Picual (Spain), Kalamata (Greece) and Sfax (Tunisia). The olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the U.S. market clustered into 3 groups. Among them only the first (7 samples) and the second group (2 samples) showed PCA ranges similar to European references. Two oils of the third group (3 samples) were more similar to Tunisian references. In conclusion, our study revealed that most EVOO (extra virgin olive oils) tested were closer to Greek (in particular) and Spanish olive oils than Apulia EVOO. The PCA loadings disclose the components responsible for the discrimination as unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic) and saturated fatty acids. All are of great importance because of their nutritional value and differential effects on the oxidative stability of oils. It is evident that this approach has the potential to reveal the origin of EVOO, although the results support the need for a larger database, including EVOO from other Italian regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2011)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Vitamin D and Musculoskeletal Status in Nova Scotian Women Who Wear Concealing Clothing
Nutrients 2012, 4(5), 399-412; doi:10.3390/nu4050399
Received: 20 April 2012 / Revised: 2 May 2012 / Accepted: 16 May 2012 / Published: 24 May 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone and muscle weakness due to vitamin D deficiency is common among Muslim women who reside in sunny, equatorial countries. The purpose of this study was to determine if living in a northern maritime location additionally disadvantages women who wear concealing clothes. A
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Bone and muscle weakness due to vitamin D deficiency is common among Muslim women who reside in sunny, equatorial countries. The purpose of this study was to determine if living in a northern maritime location additionally disadvantages women who wear concealing clothes. A cross-sectional matched pair design was used to compare women who habitually wore concealing clothing with women who dressed according to western norms. Each premenopausal hijab-wearing woman (n = 11) was matched by age, height, weight and skin tone with a western-dressed woman. Subjects were tested by hand grip dynamometry to assess muscular strength and by quantitative ultrasound at the calcaneus to assess bone status. Nutritional intake was obtained by 24 h recall. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) status was determined in seven matched pairs. The hijab group had lower s-25(OH)D than women who wore western clothes (40 ± 28 vs. 81 ± 32 nmol/L, p = 0.01). Grip strength in the right hand was lower in the hijab-wearing women (p = 0.05) but this appeared to be due to less participation in intense exercise. Bone status did not differ between groups (p = 0.9). Dietary intake of vitamin D was lower in the hijab-wearers (316 ± 353 vs. 601 ± 341 IU/day, p = 0.001). This pilot study suggests that women living in a northern maritime location appear to be at risk for vitamin D insufficiency and therefore should consider taking vitamin D supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)
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Open AccessArticle A Community-Based Study of Enduring Eating Features in Young Women
Nutrients 2012, 4(5), 413-424; doi:10.3390/nu4050413
Received: 2 February 2012 / Revised: 5 April 2012 / Accepted: 18 May 2012 / Published: 24 May 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We conducted a prospective exploration of the temporal course of eating disorder (ED) symptoms in two cohorts of community women. One hundred and twenty-two young women (Cohort 1) identified in a general population based survey with ED symptoms of clinical severity agreed to
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We conducted a prospective exploration of the temporal course of eating disorder (ED) symptoms in two cohorts of community women. One hundred and twenty-two young women (Cohort 1) identified in a general population based survey with ED symptoms of clinical severity agreed to participate in a 5-year follow-up study. A comparative sample (Cohort 2) of 706 similar aged self-selected college women (221 with disordered eating) was recruited one year later. Both ED groups were given a health literacy package in the first year. ED symptoms, health related quality of life, and psychological distress were assessed annually with the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Short Form—12 Health Survey and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, respectively. Forty percent (Cohort 1) and 30.3% (Cohort 2) completed questionnaires at each year of follow-up. In both groups, there was early improvement in ED symptoms which plateaued after the first year, and participants retained high EDE-Q scores at 5 years. BMI increased as expected. Mental health related quality of life scores did not change but there were small improvements in psychological distress scores. The findings suggest little likelihood of spontaneous remission of ED problems in community women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maladaptive Eating Attitudes in Youth)

Review

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Open AccessReview The Adverse Effects of Alcohol on Vitamin A Metabolism
Nutrients 2012, 4(5), 356-371; doi:10.3390/nu4050356
Received: 29 March 2012 / Revised: 30 April 2012 / Accepted: 3 May 2012 / Published: 7 May 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in
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The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in human alcoholics, an observation that has been confirmed in animal models of chronic alcohol consumption. Indeed, alcohol consumption has been associated with declines in hepatic levels of retinol (vitamin A), as well as retinyl ester and retinoic acid; collectively referred to as retinoids. Through the use of animal models, the complex interplay between alcohol metabolism and vitamin A homeostasis has been studied; the reviewed research supports the notion that chronic alcohol consumption precipitates a decline in hepatic retinoid levels through increased breakdown, as well as increased export to extra-hepatic tissues. While the precise biochemical mechanisms governing alcohol’s effect remain to be elucidated, its profound effect on hepatic retinoid status is irrefutable. In addition to a review of the literature related to studies on tissue retinoid levels and the metabolic interactions between alcohol and retinoids, the significance of altered hepatic retinoid metabolism in the context of alcoholic liver disease is also considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Health)

Other

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Open AccessMeeting Report Report from the Biennial Scientific Meeting of the Australasian Section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS) Held in Adelaide, November 2011
Nutrients 2012, 4(5), 372-398; doi:10.3390/nu4050372
Received: 17 April 2012 / Revised: 22 May 2012 / Accepted: 22 May 2012 / Published: 23 May 2012
PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Australasian section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS) held their biennial meeting in Adelaide, Australia on 8–11 November 2011. Over 70 scientists, researchers and industry representatives gathered for three days of talks and discussions on lipid related topics. A highlight was
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The Australasian section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS) held their biennial meeting in Adelaide, Australia on 8–11 November 2011. Over 70 scientists, researchers and industry representatives gathered for three days of talks and discussions on lipid related topics. A highlight was the hot topic symposium on the new olive oil standard being introduced in Australia. Paul Miller, Australian Olives Association, gave a compelling address on why the standard was needed. He demonstrated that the increase in price and demand for high quality olive oils has led to products falsely or misleadingly labelled. Furthermore, the genetic and seasonal variation in minor components of olive oil has led to misclassifications. An extensive scientific and political process in Australia and overseas led to development of this new standard. Dr. Leandro Ravetti, Mordern Olives, demonstrated the development of two new methods, for analysis of pyropheophytins and diacylglycerols, are good indicators of modification by deodorisation of oils and show excellent correlation with organoleptic assessment with aging/degradation of extra virgin olive oils. Professor Rod Mailer finished this session with studies of actual adulteration cases in Australia and overseas, further highlighting the need for this new standard. [...] Full article

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