Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Nutrients, Volume 4, Issue 6 (June 2012), Pages 425-567

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-10
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle The Effect of Three Gums on the Retrogradation of Indica Rice Starch
Nutrients 2012, 4(6), 425-435; doi:10.3390/nu4060425
Received: 21 April 2012 / Revised: 6 May 2012 / Accepted: 18 May 2012 / Published: 29 May 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Retrograded starch (RS3) was produced from indica rice starch with three kinds of gums (konjac glucomannan, KGM; carrageenan, CA, USA; and gellan, GA, USA) by autoclaving, respectively, and the effect of the gums on the retrogradation behavior of starch was [...] Read more.
Retrograded starch (RS3) was produced from indica rice starch with three kinds of gums (konjac glucomannan, KGM; carrageenan, CA, USA; and gellan, GA, USA) by autoclaving, respectively, and the effect of the gums on the retrogradation behavior of starch was estimated. The influences of polysaccharide concentration, sodium chloride concentration, autoclaving time, refrigerated time, and pH value on RS3 formation were discussed. Except for sodium chloride’s persistent restraint on RS3, the others all forced RS3 yields higher at first, but lowered it after the peak value. The influencing sequence of these impact factors was: sodium chloride concentration > polysaccharide concentration > autoclaving time > refrigerated time > pH value. The results also proved that in the three gums, KGM plays the most significant role in RS3 changing. It was concluded that the incorporation of each of these three gums into starch, especially KGM, results in an increase or decrease of RS3 under different conditions. This phenomenon could be taken into consideration when developing starchy food with appropriate amount of RS3. Full article
Open AccessArticle Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters in Vivo and in Vitro Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs
Nutrients 2012, 4(6), 436-448; doi:10.3390/nu4060436
Received: 29 April 2012 / Revised: 22 May 2012 / Accepted: 24 May 2012 / Published: 31 May 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4) deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW) were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P), supra-adequate (1.2% total P) in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P) in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured in vitro for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (P < 0.05) sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (P < 0.05) feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. In vivo satellite cell proliferation was reduced (P < 0.05) among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered in vitro expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Minerals)
Open AccessArticle Plasma and Tissue Concentrations of α-Tocopherol and δ-Tocopherol Following High Dose Dietary Supplementation in Mice
Nutrients 2012, 4(6), 467-490; doi:10.3390/nu4060467
Received: 29 March 2012 / Revised: 25 May 2012 / Accepted: 29 May 2012 / Published: 6 June 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Vitamin E isoforms are essential nutrients that are widely used as dietary supplements and therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases. However, their pharmacokinetic (PK) properties remain poorly characterized, and high dosage animal studies may provide further information on their in vivo [...] Read more.
Vitamin E isoforms are essential nutrients that are widely used as dietary supplements and therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases. However, their pharmacokinetic (PK) properties remain poorly characterized, and high dosage animal studies may provide further information on their in vivo functions and pharmacological effects. In this study, alpha-tocopherol (α-toc) and delta-tocopherol (δ-toc) levels were measured in mouse plasma and tissues following their high dosage dietary supplementation. Average α-toc levels at 5, 10 and 20 g α-toc/kg diet increased over baseline levels 6-fold in plasma, 1.6-fold in brain, and 4.9-fold in liver. These elevated α-toc concentrations remained constant from 5 to 20 g α-toc/kg diet, rather than showing further increases across these dosages. No α-toc-related toxicity occurred at these high dosages, and strain-specific differences in liver and brain α-toc levels between Balb/cJ and C57Bl/6J mice were observed. Relatively high-dosage administration of dietary δ-toc for 1 or 4 weeks resulted in 6–30-fold increases in plasma and liver levels between dosages of 0.33 and 1.67 g δ-toc/kg diet. Co-administration of sesamin with δ-toc further increased δ-toc levels between 1.3- and 14-fold in plasma, liver, and brain. These results provide valuable PK information on high dosage α-toc and δ-toc in mouse and show that supplementation of sesamin with δ-toc further increases δ-toc levels over those seen with δ-toc supplementation alone. Full article
Open AccessArticle Nutrition Education by a Registered Dietitian Improves Dietary Intake and Nutrition Knowledge of a NCAA Female Volleyball Team
Nutrients 2012, 4(6), 506-516; doi:10.3390/nu4060506
Received: 23 April 2012 / Revised: 30 May 2012 / Accepted: 5 June 2012 / Published: 8 June 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Zinc Biofortification of Rice in China: A Simulation of Zinc Intake with Different Dietary Patterns
Nutrients 2012, 4(6), 517-528; doi:10.3390/nu4060517
Received: 4 May 2012 / Revised: 4 June 2012 / Accepted: 11 June 2012 / Published: 14 June 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A cross-sectional survey of 2819 adults aged 20 years and above was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province. Zinc intake was assessed using a consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recall method. Insufficient and excess intake was determined according to the Chinese Dietary Recommended [...] Read more.
A cross-sectional survey of 2819 adults aged 20 years and above was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province. Zinc intake was assessed using a consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recall method. Insufficient and excess intake was determined according to the Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. Four distinct dietary patterns were identified namely “traditional”, “macho”, “sweet tooth”, and “healthy”. Intake of zinc from biofortified rice was simulated at an intermediate zinc concentration (2.7 mg/100 g) and a high zinc concentration (3.8 mg/100 g) in rice. Average total zinc intake was 12.0 ± 3.7 mg/day, and insufficiency of zinc intake was present in 15.4%. Simulated zinc intake from biofortified rice with intermediate and high zinc concentration decreased the prevalence of low zinc intake to 6.5% and 4.4%, respectively. The effect was most pronounced in the “traditional” pattern, with only 0.7% of insufficiency of zinc intake remaining in the highest quartile of the pattern. Zinc intake was inversely associated with the “sweet tooth” pattern. Zinc biofortifed rice improves dietary zinc intake and lowers risk for insufficient zinc intake, especially for subjects with a more “traditional” food pattern, but less for subjects with a “sweet tooth” food pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zinc in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle Effects of a Leucine and Pyridoxine-Containing Nutraceutical on Fat Oxidation, and Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress in Overweight and Obese Subjects
Nutrients 2012, 4(6), 529-541; doi:10.3390/nu4060529
Received: 22 April 2012 / Revised: 30 May 2012 / Accepted: 11 June 2012 / Published: 15 June 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Leucine stimulates tissue protein synthesis and may also attenuate adiposity by increasing fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle and adipocytes. Accordingly, the effects of a nutraceutical containing 2.25 g leucine and 30 mg pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) (NuFit active blend) were tested in cell culture and in a clinical trial. 3T3L1 adipocytes were treated with leucine (0.25 mM or 0.5 mM) and/or Pyridoxal Phosphate (PLP) (50 nM or 100 nM) for 48 h. For the clinical trial, twenty overweight or obese subjects received the NuFit active blend or placebo three times/day for 4 weeks without energy restriction. Leucine decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression and triglyceride content in adipocytes, and PLP addition significantly augmented this effect. Administration of NuFit active blend in the clinical trial increased fat oxidation by 33.6 g/day (p < 0.04), decreased respiratory quotient, improved HOMAIR, reduced oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers (plasma MDA, 8-isoprostane-F, TNF-α, C-reactive protein), and increased the anti-inflammatory marker adiponectin. These data indicate that the NuFit active blend significantly increased fat oxidation and insulin sensitivity, and reduced oxidative and inflammatory stress. Therefore, the NuFit active blend appears to be a useful nutraceutical in the management of obesity and associated co-morbidities. Full article
Open AccessArticle Changes in the Amino Acid Composition of Bogue (Boops boops) Fish during Storage at Different Temperatures by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy
Nutrients 2012, 4(6), 542-553; doi:10.3390/nu4060542
Received: 30 April 2012 / Revised: 4 June 2012 / Accepted: 11 June 2012 / Published: 20 June 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was employed to obtain information about the changes occurring in Bogue (Boops boops) fish during storage. For this purpose, 1H-NMR spectra were recorded at 600 MHz on trichloroacetic acid extracts of fish flesh stored over [...] Read more.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was employed to obtain information about the changes occurring in Bogue (Boops boops) fish during storage. For this purpose, 1H-NMR spectra were recorded at 600 MHz on trichloroacetic acid extracts of fish flesh stored over a 15 days period both at 4 °C and on ice. Such spectra allowed the identification and quantification of amino acids, together with the main organic acids and alcohols. The concentration of acidic and basic free amino acids was generally found to increase and decrease during storage, respectively. These concentration changes were slow during the first days, as a consequence of protein autolysis, and at higher rates afterward, resulting from microbial development. Two of the amino acids that showed the greatest concentration change were alanine and glycine, known to have a key role in determining the individual taste of different fish species. The concentration of serine decreased during storage, as highlighted in the literature for frozen fish samples. Differences in the amino acids concentration trends were found to be related to the different storage temperatures from day 4 onwards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2011)
Open AccessArticle Everyday Eating Experiences of Chocolate and Non-Chocolate Snacks Impact Postprandial Anxiety, Energy and Emotional States
Nutrients 2012, 4(6), 554-567; doi:10.3390/nu4060554
Received: 16 March 2012 / Revised: 11 May 2012 / Accepted: 11 June 2012 / Published: 20 June 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of [...] Read more.
Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28) and female (n = 62) Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m2 and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control), which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2011)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Dietary Zinc Deficiency in Rodents: Effects on T-Cell Development, Maturation and Phenotypes
Nutrients 2012, 4(6), 449-466; doi:10.3390/nu4060449
Received: 17 April 2012 / Revised: 17 May 2012 / Accepted: 29 May 2012 / Published: 6 June 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zinc deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for developing disease and yet we do not have a clear understanding of the mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility to infection. This review will examine the interrelationships among the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal stress axis, p56 [...] Read more.
Zinc deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for developing disease and yet we do not have a clear understanding of the mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility to infection. This review will examine the interrelationships among the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal stress axis, p56lck, and T-cell maturation in both zinc deficiency and responses during zinc repletion. We will highlight differences between the adult mouse model (wasting malnutrition) and growing rat model (stunting malnutrition) of dietary zinc deficiency and discuss the use of various controls to separate out the effects of zinc deficiency from the associated malnutrition. Elevated serum corticosterone in both zinc deficient and pair-fed rats does not support the hypothesis that zinc deficiency per se leads to corticosterone-induced apoptosis and lymphopenia. In fact, the zinc deficient rat does not have lymphopenia. Thymocytes from zinc deficient mice and rats have elevated levels of p56lck, a signalling protein with a zinc clasp structure, but this does not appear to affect thymocyte maturation. However, post-thymic T-cell maturation appears to be altered based on the lower proportion of splenic late thymic emigrants in zinc deficient rats. Fewer new T-cells in the periphery could adversely affect the T-cell repertoire and contribute to immunodeficiency in zinc deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zinc in Health and Disease)
Open AccessReview The Impact of Ramadan Observance upon Athletic Performance
Nutrients 2012, 4(6), 491-505; doi:10.3390/nu4060491
Received: 10 April 2012 / Revised: 18 May 2012 / Accepted: 30 May 2012 / Published: 7 June 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ramadan observance requires a total abstention from food and drink from sunrise to sunset for a period of one month. Such intermittent fasting has only minor effects upon the overall nutrition and physiological responses of the general sedentary population. Larger meals are [...] Read more.
Ramadan observance requires a total abstention from food and drink from sunrise to sunset for a period of one month. Such intermittent fasting has only minor effects upon the overall nutrition and physiological responses of the general sedentary population. Larger meals are consumed at night and in the early morning. Body mass usually remains unchanged, the total energy intake remains roughly constant, and there is little alteration in the relative consumption of protein, fats and carbohydrates. However, Ramadan observance may be of greater consequence for the training and performance of the competitive athlete, particularly when the festival is celebrated in the hotter part of the year and daylight hours are long, as is the case for the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London, England. The normal sleeping time then tends to be shortened, and blood sugar and tissue hydration decrease progressively throughout the hours of daylight. Some limitation of anaerobic effort, endurance performance and muscle strength might be anticipated from the decrease in muscle glycogen and body fluid reserves, and a reduced blood glucose may cause a depressed mood state, an increased perception of effort, and poorer team work. This review considers empirical data on the extent of such changes, and their likely effect upon anaerobic, aerobic and muscular performance, suggesting potential nutritional and behavioral tactics for minimizing such effects in the Muslim competitor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Nutrition)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Nutrients Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
nutrients@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Nutrients
Back to Top